Dental Caries :: classification
Effect of consuming different dairy products on calcium, phosphorus and pH levels of human dental plaque: a comparative study.
Dept. of Public Health Dentistry, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Uttar Pradesh, India. email@example.com
AIM To determine the calcium, phosphorus and pH levels of human dental plaque after consuming different dairy products. METHODS 68 students (34 with caries and 34 caries-free) aged 17-20 years from a private dental college, Moradabad city, who agreed to refrain from oral hygiene procedures for 48 hours were selected for the study. Calcium and phosphorus levels of harvested dental plaque were measured using an electrolyte analyser while plaque pH was measured using a digital pH meter after consuming different dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt) and compared with the control (paraffin) group. RESULTS Cheese and yogurt groups showed a statistically significant rise in mean plaque concentrations of calcium and phosphorus, whereas milk and control groups showed the least rise in plaque concentrations for both caries-active and caries-free subjects. Plaque pH showed a stronger correlation with plaque calcium and phosphorus concentrations in both caries-active and caries-free subjects. CONCLUSION Cheese and yogurt without any added sugar (sucrose) are non-cariogenic and to some extent cariostatic as they increase calcium and phosphorus concentration in dental plaque. Dairy products without added sugar can be recommended as after meal desserts, especially to school children, which would help to reduce the incidence of dental caries.
Most cited papers:
Dept of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Epidemiological and intervention studies have suggested that infections are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections have appeared as cardiovascular risk factors in cross-sectional and in follow-up studies, and the association has been independent of the "classic" coronary risk factors. This case-control study aimed at detailed assessment of the dental pathology found in various CHD categories (including elderly patients). Altogether, 85 patients with proven coronary heart disease and 53 random controls, matched for sex, age, geographic area, and socio-economic status, were compared with regard to dental status, assessed blindly with four separate scores, and to the "classic" coronary risk factors (seven of the controls had CHD, and they were not included in the analyses). The dental indices were higher among CHD patients than in the controls, but, contrary to previous studies, the differences were not significant (between the CHD patients and their matched controls or among the different CHD categories). This result could not be explained by potential confounding factors. The participants in the present study were older and had more often undergone recent dental treatment in comparison with subjects in our earlier studies. Age correlated with the severity of dental infections only in the random controls but not in the coronary patients who, although young, already had high dental scores. We believe that the higher age of the participants in the present study is the most likely reason for the results. Other possible explanations include an age-related selection bias among older CHD patients, and the fact that those participating in studies like this may have better general health and thus also less severe dental infections. Thus, the role of dental infections as a coronary risk factor varies according to the characteristics of the population studied.
Detection, diagnosing, monitoring and logical treatment of occlusal caries in relation to lesion activity and severity: an in vivo examination with histological validation.
Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. KIM.EKSTRAND@ODONT.KU.DK
The aims of the present study were to investigate the ability of 3 experienced clinicians to detect occlusal carious lesions, assess their depth, diagnose their activity and define a logical management for each lesion. The material consisted of 35 third molars scheduled for extraction or surgical removal making it possible to validate the accuracy of the clinical recordings histologically. Examinations were carried out at baseline and after 4 months in order to monitor lesion progression. At the first visit a radiograph was taken; the number of filled surfaces was counted and the oral hygiene assessed generally and by disclosing occlusal plaque of the tooth under examination. After cleaning the occlusal surface caries was recorded in a selected investigation site using a visual ranked caries scoring system, as well as an electrical conductance recording (ECM). Apart from counting fillings and taking new radiographs the same procedure was performed at the second visit, which then was followed by extraction of the tooth. After sectioning the tooth lesion depth was recorded, and lesion activity, based on acid production, was assessed using methyl red dye. Lesion activity was also judged by means of polarized light microscopic examinations of the sections. Results showed strong relationships between the visual, ECM and radiographic assessments and both lesion depth and lesion activity. In contrast, all other parameters were poorly related to lesion activity. Changes in visual assessments and in conductance readings from first to second examination were poorly associated with lesion activity. In conclusion, clinicians are able to detect lesions, predict activity and severity and define a logical management of occlusal caries on the basis of a single examination.
Since 1935, various mechanisms have been suggested for the formation of subsurface lesions and, in particular, the surface layer covering enamel lesions. The relatively intact mineral-rich and porous surface layer is most likely caused by kinetic events. The suggested mineral-rich outer layer in sound enamel, the organic matrix, the pellicle, or a non-uniform ion distribution have all been shown to be non-essential for surface layer formation; they may, however, influence the rate of surface layer formation. Models based on outer surface protection by adsorbed agents, the dissolution-precipitation mechanism, and combinations of these two models, as well as models based on porosity or solubility gradients, are discussed in this paper together with their advantages and disadvantages. Most models have not explained some important recent experimental observations on initial in vivo caries lesion formation: e.g., initial enamel lesions formed in vivo do not have a surface layer initially but develop this mineral-rich layer later on; and the fact that the F- level in the solid sound enamel is not determining the subsurface lesion formation. Furthermore, the observations that in vitro fluoride ions in the liquid at very low levels (approximately equal to 0.02 ppm) determine surface layer formation are difficult to explain. A new kinetic model for subsurface lesion formation is described, in which inhibitors such as F- or proteins play an important role. The model predicts that if lesions depth and demineralization period are denoted by df and t, lesion progress can be described by: dfp = alpha t + c, where alpha and c are constants with 1 less than or equal to p less than or equal to 3, depending on the lesion formation conditions. If lesion progress is entirely diffusion-controlled, p = 3, corresponding to low inhibitor concentrations; if the inhibitor content is so high that the progress is controlled by processes at the crystallite surface, p = 1. A kinetic mechanism for surface layer formation in vivo is proposed, based on the assumption that F- is a main inhibitor in the plaque-covered acidic in vivo situation. The inhibiting fluoride, adsorbed onto the crystallite surfaces at OH- vacancies, originates from the so-called fluoride in the liquid phase (FL) between the enamel crystallites. Under acidic conditions (plaque), we have, due to an influx of fluoride from the saliva or plaque as FL, an aqueous phase in the enamel supersaturated with respect to the mineral for a small distance (x*) only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Radiographic detection of approximal caries: a comparison of dental films and digital imaging systems.
Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVES To compare the diagnostic accuracy for the detection of approximal caries of two dental X-ray films, two CCD-based digital systems and two storage phosphor (SP) digital systems. METHODS Fifty-six surfaces in 56 extracted unrestored premolars were radiographed under standardised conditions using two E-speed dental film, Ektaspeed Plus (Eastman Kodak Co, Rochester, NY, USA) and Dentus M2 Comfort (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium), two CCD systems, Sidexis (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany) and Visualix (Gendex, Milan, Italy) and two SP systems, Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and DenOptix (Gendex, Milano, Italy). The images were assessed by eight observers (four radiologists and four general practitioners). True caries depth was determined by histological examination. True caries depth was subtracted from the values given by the observers and an analysis of variance was performed. The null hypothesis was rejected when P < 0.05. RESULTS No significant differences were found in diagnostic accuracy with the two dental films and the Sidexis and Digora systems. The depth of the lesion significantly affected observer performance. Caries depth was underestimated. Radiologists performed significantly better than general practitioners whatever the recording system. CONCLUSION The diagnostic accuracy of digital systems is comparable with that of dental films. The ability of dentists to recognise caries correctly is the main factor contributing to variation in radiographic diagnosis and not the imaging modality.
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
During the 20th century, dental caries was usually diagnosed using tactile-visual criteria that detected the presence of cavitation rather than measured the disease process as a continuum that starts from the appearance of microporosity, as a result of demineralization, to the occurrence of cavitation. With increasing understanding of the dental caries process and the role of primary and secondary prevention in arresting it, sensitive and specific diagnostic systems are needed that could enable dentists to detect signs of early demineralization and possible progression of precavitated carious lesions before the occurrence of cavitation. In this review of the literature, published validity studies of diagnosis of precavitated lesions were reviewed. Overall, the current clinical diagnostic systems have low sensitivity and moderate specificity. Good reliability of diagnosing precavitated carious lesions could be obtained for diagnosing pits and fissures but for smooth tooth surfaces the reliability is poor. As our diagnostic capability of precavitated lesions improves, there is a need for a significant change in dental education, dental insurance, and dental practice to reward dentists for promoting oral health and preserving tooth structure. In this paper, a new model for classifying carious lesions based upon the type of intervention strategies is proposed to assist in this new approach of caries management.
The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.
Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences, and Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1978, USA. email@example.com
This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity.
Teresa A Marshall, Steven M Levy, Barbara Broffitt, John J Warren, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Trudy L Burns, Phyllis J Stumbo
Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE Dental caries is a common, chronic disease of childhood. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns, specifically decreased milk intakes and increased 100% juice and soda pop intakes, on dental caries in young children is unknown. We describe associations among caries experience and intakes of dairy foods, sugared beverages, and nutrients and overall diet quality in young children. METHODS Subjects (n = 642) are members of the Iowa Fluoride Study, a cohort followed from birth. Food and nutrient intakes were obtained from 3-day diet records analyzed at 1 (n = 636), 2 (n = 525), 3 (n = 441), 4 (n = 410), and 5 (n = 417) years and cumulatively for 1 through 5 (n = 396) years of age. Diet quality was defined by nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) and calculated as the ratio of nutrient intake to Recommended Dietary Allowance/Adequate Intake. Caries were identified during dental examinations by 2 trained and calibrated dentists at 4 to 7 years of age. Examinations were visual, but a dental explorer was used to confirm questionable findings. Caries experience was assessed at both the tooth and the surface levels. Data were analyzed using SAS. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare food intakes, nutrient intakes, and NARs of subjects with and without caries experience. Logistic and Tobit regression analyses were used to identify associations among diet variables and caries experience and to develop models to predict caries experience. Not all relationships between food intakes and NARs and caries experience were linear; therefore, categorical variables were used to develop models to predict caries experience. Food and beverage intakes were categorized as none, low, and high intakes, and NARs were categorized as inadequate, low adequate, and high adequate. RESULTS Subjects with caries had lower median intakes of milk at 2 and 3 years of age than subjects without caries. Subjects with caries had higher median intakes of regular (sugared) soda pop at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years and for 1 through 5 years; regular beverages from powder at 1, 4, and 5 years and for 1 through 5 years; and total sugared beverages at 4 and 5 years than subjects without caries. Logistic regression models were developed for exposure variables at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years and for 1 through 5 years to predict any caries experience at 4 to 7 years of age. Age at dental examination was retained in models at all ages. Children with 0 intake (vs low and high intakes) of regular beverages from powder at 1 year, regular soda pop at 2 and 3 years, and sugar-free beverages from powder at 5 years had a decreased risk of caries experience. High intakes of regular beverages from powder at 4 and 5 years and for 1 through 5 years and regular soda pop at 5 years and for 1 through 5 years were associated with significantly increased odds of caries experience relative to subjects with none or low intakes. Low (vs none or high) intakes of 100% juice at 5 years were associated with decreased caries experience. In general, inadequate intakes (vs low adequate or high adequate intakes) of nutrients (eg, riboflavin, copper, vitamin D, vitamin B(12)) were associated with increased caries experience and low adequate intakes (vs inadequate or high adequate intakes) of nutrients (eg, vitamin B(12), vitamin C) were associated with decreased caries experience. An exception was vitamin E; either low or high adequate intakes were associated with increased caries experience at various ages. Multivariable Tobit regression models were developed for 1- through 5-year exposure variables to predict the number of tooth surfaces with caries experience at 4 to 7 years of age. Age at dental examination showed a significant positive association and fluoride exposure showed a significant negative association with the number of tooth surfaces with caries experience in the final model. Low intakes of nonmilk dairy foods (vs high intakes; all subjects had some nonmilk dairy intakes) and high adequate intakes of vitamin C (vs inadequate and low adequate intakes) were associated with fewer tooth surfaces having caries experience. High intakes of regular soda pop (vs none and low intakes) were associated with more tooth surfaces having caries experience. CONCLUSIONS Results of our study suggest that contemporary changes in beverage patterns, particularly the increase in soda pop consumption, have the potential to increase dental caries rates in children. Consumption of regular soda pop, regular powdered beverages, and, to a lesser extent, 100% juice was associated with increased caries risk. Milk had a neutral association with caries. Associations between different types of sugared beverages and caries experience were not equivalent, which could be attributable to the different sugar compositions of the beverages or different roles in the diet. Our data support contemporary dietary guidelines for children: consume 2 or more servings of dairy foods daily, limit intake of 100% juice to 4 to 6 oz daily, and restrict other sugared beverages to occasional use. Pediatricians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and dietitians are in a position to support pediatric dentists in providing preventive guidance to parents of young children.
School of Dental Medicine, Department of Dental Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pa 15261, USA. PAM7@pitt.edu
OBJECTIVE The Oral Health Science Institute at the University of Pittsburgh has completed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 406 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 268 control subjects without diabetes that assessed the associations between oral health and diabetes. This report describes the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia), the prevalence of hyposalivation in this population, and the possible interrelationships between salivary dysfunction and diabetic complications. STUDY DESIGN The subjects with diabetes were participants in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study who were enrolled in an oral health substudy. Control subjects were spouses or best friends of participants or persons recruited from the community through advertisements in local newspapers. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia measures and quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates. RESULTS Subjects with diabetes reported symptoms of dry mouth more frequently than did control subjects. Salivary flow rates were also impaired in the subjects with diabetes. Regression models of potential predictor variables were created for the 3 self-reported xerostomia measures and 4 salivary flow rate variables. Of the medical diabetic complications studied (ie, retinopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, and peripheral vascular disease), only neuropathy was found to be associated with xerostomia and decreased salivary flow measures. A report of dry-mouth symptoms was associated with current use of cigarettes, dysgeusia (report of a bad taste), and more frequent snacking behavior. Xerogenic medications and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with decreased salivary flow. Resting salivary flow rates less than 0.01 mL/min were associated with a slightly higher prevalence of dental caries. Subjects who reported higher levels of alcohol consumption were less likely to have lower rates of stimulated salivary flow. CONCLUSIONS Subjects with type 1 diabetes who had developed neuropathy more often reported symptoms of dry mouth as well as symptoms of decreased salivary flow rates. Because of the importance of saliva in the maintenance and the preservation of oral health, management of oral diseases in diabetic patients should include a comprehensive evaluation of salivary function.
Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences, and Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA. email@example.com
The objective of this review is to describe and discuss the content validity of a sample of caries detection criteria reported in the literature between January 1, 1966, and May 1, 2000. Using filters to locate randomized or controlled clinical trials on dental caries, fluorides, sealants, and "restorative" care, I identified a total of 171 documents from MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration's Oral Health Group (CC-OHG) special register. These articles met the following inclusion criteria:(1) Data had been collected from samples of patients or populations; and (2) dental caries was assessed clinically, and criteria were either published or described in the paper. From the selected articles, evidence tables were prepared describing each caries detection criterion. Analysis of the content validity of the criteria systems was based on evaluation of the disease process, exclusion of non-caries lesions, subjectivity, use of explorers, and drying of teeth prior to examination. This review included 29 unique criteria systems. Of those, 13 originated from the UK, 3 from the USA, 4 from Denmark, and others from the World Health Organization (WHO), Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, Netherlands, and Canada. Thirteen of the criteria systems either measured active and inactive early and cavitated lesions or defined separate criteria for smooth and occlusal tooth surfaces. Nine systems measured early as well as cavitated stages of the caries process, and 7 measured cavitation only. Eleven of the criteria systems provided explicit descriptions of the disease process measured or information on how to exclude non-caries from caries lesions. The use of explorers and drying and cleaning of teeth varied widely among the criteria. The majority of the newly developed criteria systems originated from Europe. In conclusion, this review of the content validity of the 29 criteria systems found substantial variability in disease processes measured, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and examination conditions.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington 06030-1610, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to use tooth eruption sequence, and a tooth- and surface-specific caries analysis method to determine:(1) the temporal relationship between tooth eruption and caries onset;(2) the validity of pre-existing concepts of caries progression; and (3) the relationship of certain putative health behaviors with caries prevalence. METHODS A total of 2,428 Arizona children aged 6-36-months, who were recruited from WIC programs (a federal program for low-income children at nutritional risk), health fairs and private day care centers, received visual dental caries examinations. Additionally, an oral health behavior survey was administered to the parents of the 1,529 children recruited from the WIC programs. RESULTS Dental caries was detected soon after tooth eruption, and by 34-36 months of age 25% of this population had caries. Maxillary anterior caries developed as early as 10-12 months of age. Fissure caries of the molars, either by itself or with maxillary anterior caries, was seen as early as 13-15 months of age. Posterior proximal caries was seen as early at 19-21 months, and only was present in conjunction with the other patterns. Over 40% of the 13-36-month-old children whose parents completed the survey still used a bottle. Night-time bottle use was associated with maxillary anterior caries in 24-36-month-old children, but no association was found in younger children or with posterior caries patterns. Survey responses also showed that fewer than 15% of these children reported having had a dental visit. CONCLUSIONS Dental caries was a significant health issue for these children under 3 years of age, and factors other than bottle feeding may play an important role in its etiology. Prevention of dental caries in children under age three will depend on a better understanding of the etiology as well as improved access to care.