Uterine Rupture :: mortality
Kathryn E Fitzpatrick, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Zarko Alfirevic, Patsy Spark, Peter Brocklehurst, Marian Knight
National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
BACKGROUND Recent reports of the risk of morbidity due to uterine rupture are thought to have contributed in some countries to a decrease in the number of women attempting a vaginal birth after caesarean section. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of true uterine rupture in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors and outcomes, on the basis of intended mode of delivery. METHODS AND FINDINGS A UK national case-control study was undertaken between April 2009 and April 2010. The participants comprised 159 women with uterine rupture and 448 control women with a previous caesarean delivery. The estimated incidence of uterine rupture was 0.2 per 1,000 maternities overall; 2.1 and 0.3 per 1,000 maternities in women with a previous caesarean delivery planning vaginal or elective caesarean delivery, respectively. Amongst women with a previous caesarean delivery, odds of rupture were also increased in women who had ≥ two previous caesarean deliveries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.16-7.85) and <12 months since their last caesarean delivery (aOR 3.12, 95% CI 1.62-6.02). A higher risk of rupture with labour induction and oxytocin use was apparent (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 1.00-15.33). Two women with uterine rupture died (case fatality 1.3%, 95% CI 0.2-4.5%). There were 18 perinatal deaths associated with uterine rupture among 145 infants (perinatal mortality 124 per 1,000 total births, 95% CI 75-189). CONCLUSIONS Although uterine rupture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, even amongst women with a previous caesarean section planning a vaginal delivery, it is a rare occurrence. For women with a previous caesarean section, risk of uterine rupture increases with number of previous caesarean deliveries, a short interval since the last caesarean section, and labour induction and/or augmentation. These factors should be considered when counselling and managing the labour of women with a previous caesarean section.
Most cited papers:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033.
This study was undertaken to determine the incidence and associations of uterine rupture and dehiscence with an attempted vaginal birth after cesarean section. The charts from 137 patients who had uterine scar separation after a previous cesarean section from 1983 to 1989 were examined. Approximately 9.3% of the 119,395 women who were delivered in that interval had a prior cesarean section. Of those, 68.8% underwent a trial of labor with a 79.2% success rate. The uterine rupture rate in this latter group was 0.8%, while an additional 0.7% had a bloodless dehiscence. Bleeding and pain were unlikely findings with a uterine scar separation (3.4% and 7.6%, respectively). The most common manifestation of a scar separation was a prolonged fetal heart rate deceleration leading to operative intervention (70.3%). We conclude that, although the incidence of uterine rupture was low, the event is most often seen as an acute emergency. Prevention should be directed toward timely diagnosis and prompt management of labor dystocias. Staff and facilities for safe management of a uterine scar separation are a requisite for the conduct of a vaginal birth after previous cesarean section.
In-hospital maternal mortality in the United States: time trends and relation to method of delivery.
To study time trends in maternal mortality in the United States and to attempt to compare the risk of cesarean with vaginal delivery, information from the Professional Activities Study of the Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities for 3 years-1970, 1974, and 1978-was reviewed. For all deliveries, mortality per 100,000 deliveries declined from 25.7 in 1970 to 14.3 in 1978. For vaginal deliveries, mortality per 100,000 deliveries declined from 20.4 to 9.8. For cesarean deliveries, mortality per 100,000 births decreased more than for vaginal deliveries, from 113.8 to 40.9. Mortality for deliveries with no mention of complications, lacerations, or uterine rupture declined significantly from 1970 to 1978. Mortality for deliveries complicated by dystocia or malpresentation declined significantly from 1970 to 1974, but failed to decline thereafter. Mortality for deliveries complicated by a previous cesarean or by antepartum hemorrhage did not decline significantly from 1970 to 1978. For all complications with a sufficient number of vaginal and cesarean deliveries, except deliveries complicated by malpresentation or antepartum hemorrhage, mortality was at least twice as high in cesarean as in vaginal deliveries. Based on a comparison of mortality after a previous cesarean with mortality for all vaginal deliveries with no complication, the authors conclude that cesarean delivery is probably neither less than 2 nor more than 4 times more hazardous than vaginal delivery.
LAC + USC Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To examine risk factors and maternal and neonatal outcomes in ten cases of intrapartum rupture of the unscarred uterus. METHODS: Uterine ruptures in women without previous cesarean deliveries were identified from an ongoing log for a 12-year period beginning January 1, 1983. Detailed information was obtained by review of hospital records. RESULTS: From January 1, 1983, through December 31, 1994, we identified 13 uterine ruptures in women without previous cesarean deliveries. Three resulted from motor vehicle accidents and were excluded from analysis. Ten occurred during labor and are the subjects of our report. The incidence of intrapartum rupture of an unscarred uterus was 1 in 16,849 deliveries. Associated factors included oxytocin use (four cases), prostaglandin use (three cases), use of vacuum or forceps (three cases), grand multiparity (two cases), and malpresentation (two cases). Intervention was prompted by fetal heart rate decelerations in seven cases and by severe hemorrhage in three. Uterine rupture was associated with acute abdominal pain in six cases, maternal tachycardia in five, and severe hypotension in two. Neonatal outcomes were normal in nine cases. There were no maternal or perinatal deaths. CONCLUSION: Intrapartum rupture of the unscarred uterus is a rare obstetric emergency. Maternal and perinatal outcomes are optimized by awareness of risk factors, recognition of clinical signs and symptoms, and prompt surgical intervention.
Factors predisposing to perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section: retrospective cohort study.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 2QQ. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE To determine the factors associated with an increased risk of perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section. DESIGN Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING Data from the linked Scottish Morbidity Record and Stillbirth and Infant Death Survey of births in Scotland, 1985-98. PARTICIPANTS All women with one previous caesarean delivery who gave birth to a singleton infant at term by a means other than planned repeat caesarean section (n = 35 854). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES All intrapartum uterine rupture and uterine rupture resulting in perinatal death (that is, death of the fetus or neonate). RESULTS The overall proportion of vaginal births was 74.2% and of uterine rupture was 0.35%. The risk of intrapartum uterine rupture was higher among women who had not previously given birth vaginally (adjusted odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.9, P < 0.001) and those whose labour was induced with prostaglandin (2.9, 2.0 to 4.3, P < 0.001). Both factors were also associated with an increased risk of perinatal death due to uterine rupture. Delivery in a hospital with < 3000 births a year did not increase the overall risk of uterine rupture (1.1, 0.8 to 1.5, P = 0.67). However, the risk of perinatal death due to uterine rupture was significantly higher in hospitals with < 3000 births a year (one per 1300 births) than in hospitals with >or= 3000 births a year (one per 4700; 3.4, 1.0 to 14.3, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION Women who have not previously given birth vaginally and those whose labour is induced with prostaglandin are at increased risk of uterine rupture when attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section. The risk of consequent death of the infant is higher in units with lower annual numbers of births.
Maternal mortality--a twelve-year survey at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (U.I.T.H.) Ilorin, Nigeria.
This paper concerns an analysis of maternal death at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (U.I.T.H.) Ilorin over a 12-year period (1972-1983). There were 138,577 births and 624 deaths making a maternal mortality rate of 4.50 per 1000 births. Hemorrhage, ruptured uterus and obstructed labor were the major direct obstetric causes of death. The most important indirect causes were cerebrospinal meningitis, pulmonary infections and fulminating hepatitis. The main avoidable factors were ineffective and cumbersome blood transfusion services; poor management of the third stage of labor; large number of unbooked patients and poor delivery room structure encouraging sepsis. Suggestions are made for a more integrated type of maternity services in our hospital, health education programs for the public and particularly the expectant women and availability of an effective blood bank service within the maternity hospital premises for prompt treatment of patients requiring emergency blood transfusion. The analysis underlines the great problem of maternal mortality in the developing world.
Twenty-three cases of major rupture of the pregnant uterus in which the life of the mother and/or fetus were endangered are presented. Fourteen cases (61.3%) resulted from rupture of a previous cesarean section scar. Rupture of an intact pregnant uterus in nine cases (38.7%) was related to oxytocic drug administration, obstetric manipulation, labor disorders, or external trauma. These most devastating cases were associated with grande multiparity. Rupture of the intact uterus was characterized by increased blood loss and need for transfusion. When compared with rupture of the scarred uterus, however, operating times and mortality rates were similar. Fetal mortality was 35%(eight of 23) and there were no maternal deaths.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
OBJECTIVE To review the incidence, associated factors, methods of diagnosis, and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with uterine rupture in one Canadian province. METHODS Using a perinatal database, all cases of uterine rupture in the province of Nova Scotia for the 10-year period 1988-1997 were identified and the maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity reviewed in detail. RESULTS Over the 10 years, there were 114,933 deliveries with 39 cases of uterine rupture: 18 complete and 21 incomplete (dehiscence). Thirty-six women had a previous cesarean delivery: 33 low transverse, two classic, one low vertical. Of the 114,933 deliveries, 11,585 (10%) were in women with a previous cesarean delivery. Uterine rupture in those undergoing a trial for vaginal delivery (4516) was complete rupture in 2.4 per 1000 and dehiscence in 2.4 per 1000. There were no maternal deaths, and maternal morbidity was low in patients with dehiscence. In comparison, 44% of those with complete uterine rupture received blood transfusion (odds ratio 7.60, 95% confidence interval 1.14, 82.14, P =.025). Two perinatal deaths were attributable to complete uterine rupture, one after previous cesarean delivery. Compared with dehiscence, infants born after uterine rupture had significantly lower 5-minute Apgar scores (P <.001) and asphyxia, needing ventilation for more than 1 minute (P <.01). CONCLUSION In 92% of cases, uterine rupture was associated with previous cesarean delivery. Uterine dehiscence was associated with minimal maternal and perinatal morbidity. In contrast, complete uterine rupture was associated with significantly more maternal blood transfusion and neonatal asphyxia.