Bursa of Fabricius :: anatomy & histology
Poult Sci. 2012 Feb ;91 (2):393-401 22252353
Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.
Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Malaysia.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density. Experimental treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of prebiotic (with or without prebiotic), 2 levels of dietary CP [NRC-recommended or low CP level (85% of NRC-recommended level)], and 2 levels of stocking density (10 birds/m(2) as the normal density or 16 birds/m(2) as the high density), for a total of 8 treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates (cages). Birds were reared in 3-tiered battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural tropical conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all treatment groups. Starter and finisher diets in mash form were fed from 1 to 21 d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. Supplementation with a prebiotic had no significant effect on performance, immunity, and stress indicators (blood glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio). Protein level significantly influenced broiler performance but did not affect immunity or stress indicators (except for cholesterol level). The normal stocking density resulted in better FCR and also higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease compared with the high stocking density. However, density had no significant effect on blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, corticosterone, and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. Significant interactions between protein level and stocking density were observed for BW gain and final BW. The results indicated that, under the conditions of this experiment, dietary addition of a prebiotic had no significant effect on the performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers.
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Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7608, USA.
In the present study, the amnion of turkey and chicken embryos were injected 3 d prior to hatch with different levels of vitamin E (VE). In Experiments 1 and 2, turkey embryos received 10, 20, and 30 IU of VE. In Experiment 3, broiler embryos received 10 IU VE. In all three experiments, sham-injected control embryos (0 IU VE) received 300 microL of saline. In Experiments 1 and 2 (turkey embryos), 20 and 30 IU of VE reduced (P < or = 0.05) percentage hatchability below that of controls. At hatch, poults exhibited a dose related increase (P < 0.05) in plasma VE levels. Mean BW gain up to 35 d and relative bursa of Fabricius and spleen weights were not different among treatment groups. When challenged at 7 d posthatch, total (P < 0.05) and IgM (P < 0.08) anti-SRBC antibodies were higher in 10 IU VE poults than in controls. Immunoglobulin G levels did not differ among the treatment groups. Poults in the 10 IU VE group had higher (P < 0.002) numbers of Sephadex-elicited inflammatory exudate cells, as well as a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages (P < 0.0001). Additionally, the numbers of SRBC per phagocytic macrophage were greater (P < 0.001), than in control poults at 4 wk of age. In Experiment 3, chick embryos exposed to 10 IU VE, exhibited no differences in hatchability, BW gain, or bursal and splenic weights from the sham-exposed group. However, total and IgM antibody responses against SRBC were greater (P < 0.01) in the 10 IU VE group at 7 d postinjection. A secondary SRBC challenge given at 14 d after primary injection resulted in higher total (P < 0.07) and IgG (P < 0.04) antibody responses in the 10 IU VE chicks than in the controls. Similarly, broiler chicks (10 IU VE) had more Sephadex-elicited abdominal exudate cells (P < 0.07), and greater macrophage phagocytic potential (P < 0.0001). In ovo VE exposure (10 IU) also increased nitrite production (P < 0.04) by chick macrophages. The results from this study demonstrated an enhanced antibody and macrophage response and suggest that in ovo exposure with VE may improve posthatch poult and broiler quality.
In a four-week-old chicken .1 ml carbon solution was deposited on the vent. The carbon was sucked into the lumen of the bursa and absorbed by the follicular epithelium which appeared as black dots on the surface of the folds. The number of black dots on the surface of a fold represents the number of follicles per fold. The average number of follicles per fold was 820. Since the number of folds per bursa ranges between 10--15, we were able to calculate 8000--12000 follicles per bursa. The volumetric mathematical analysis of the follicles and folds confirmed our calculated number of follicles. On a stereomicrograph from a randomly selected area of a fold surface, a trapezoid was outlined and measured. The surface analysis of the black dots within a trapezoid area revealed that about 10% of the bursal surface was covered by follicular epithelium which is immunologically oriented.
Hypophysectomy in growing chicks was followed by reduced body and skeletal (shank-toe length) growth. In addition decreases were observed in tibia length and weight (although the proximal growth plate often contained more cartilage and was less uniform in its thickness), the plasma concentrations of immunoreactive-Somatomedin C (IR-SmC) and free fatty acids and weight for the heart, liver, pectoralis, thymus, and bursa Fabricus. The effect of triiodothyronine (T3) and purified chicken growth hormone (GH) on body and other growth was examined in hypophysectomized chicks. Body and skeletal growth (as estimated by respectively the increases in body weight and shank toe length in 24 days) were increased by the administration of T3 (either as injections or in the diet). T3 also increased tibia weight and length and returned the proximal growth plate thickness to that found in intact controls. Similarly T3 administration was followed by increases in the weights of the heart, liver, thymus, and bursa Fabricus. However plasma concentrations of IR-SmC were unaffected by T3 treatment. Chicken GH at a dose of 100 micrograms/kg stimulated aspects of growth somewhat with injections of chicken GH being followed by a slight increase in tibia length and a substantial increase in thymus weight. Chicken GH also increased plasma concentrations of IR-SmC and free fatty acids. Combination T3 and chicken GH treatment did not cause greater growth than observed with T3 alone. An exception to this being the greater weight of the bursa Fabricus in the chicks receiving T3 and GH than T3 alone. Intact male chicks which received injections of chicken GH (10 micrograms) between 1 and 14 day old had slightly greater body weight at 31, 38 and 44 days old relative to vehicle injected chicks.
Gut-associated lymphoepithelial tissue: bidirectional transport of tracer by specialized epithelial cells associated with lymphoid follicles.
This study was conducted to determine if ascorbic acid (AA) 1) increases resistance to high environmental temperature in young chickens and 2) alters heat-induced changes in several physiological responses. Groups of male chicks received either a standard ration containing 1,000 mg/kg (ppm) of AA or the ration without AA. Chicks were brooded for 3 wk and then maintained at 22 +/- 0.8 degrees C. At 4 wk of age, both AA-supplemented and control chicks were exposed to 30 min of heating (43 +/- 0.1 degrees C and 40 +/- 2% rh) on each of 3 consecutive h in an environmentally controlled chamber. Chicks were challenged with sheep erythrocytes (1 ml, 10(5) cells, iv) 12 h postheating. Heating reduced plasma potassium, body weight gain, relative bursa and spleen weights, and anti-sheep erythrocyte levels. Heating increased cloacal temperature, plasma protein, corticosteroid levels, and mortality. AA ameliorated many of these stress-related responses.
Follicle-associated epithelium and medullary epithelial tissue of the bursa of fabricius are two different compartments.
Clemson University, Poultry Science Department, South Carolina 29634-0379.
The bursae of Fabricius from the chicken and turkey were studied by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. The study focused on the relationship of follicle-associated epithelium to the medulla. The follicle-associated epithelium was supported by 3 to 5 layers of stratified epithelial cells which were a continuation of the corticomedullary epithelial cells. The follicle-associated epithelium consisted of M cells and scattered secretory dendritic cells. The network of the reticular epithelial cells of the medulla was filled with secretory dendritic cells, B cells, and a few T cells and macrophages. The cellular content of the follicle-associated epithelium and the medulla suggested that they were different cellular compartments. Communication between the follicle associated epithelium and medullary epithelial compartment occurred through the supporting cells of the follicle-associated epithelium. When the supporting layers of the follicle-associated epithelium infolded into the medulla, they formed lamellated epithelial bodies similar to the thymic Hassall bodies. The lamellated bodies enclosed secretory dendritic cells but not lymphocytes. The infolding of supporting cells varied from follicle to follicle. The asynchronization of infolding contributed to heterogeneity of follicle composition. Follicle heterogeneity was demonstrated by differences in reactivity with a battery of monoclonal antibodies.