Isocitrate Dehydrogenase :: antagonists & inhibitors
Chao Lu, Patrick S Ward, Gurpreet S Kapoor, Dan Rohle, Sevin Turcan, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Christopher R Edwards, Raya Khanin, Maria E Figueroa, Ari Melnick, Kathryn E Wellen, Donald M O'Rourke, Shelley L Berger, Timothy A Chan, Ross L Levine, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Craig B Thompson
Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.
Most cited papers:
Inactivation of isocitrate dehydrogenase by phosphorylation is mediated by the negative charge of the phosphate.
The control of isocitrate dehydrogenase through phosphorylation is necessary for growth of Escherichia coli on acetate as the sole carbon source. To understand the mechanism by which phosphorylation inactivates isocitrate dehydrogenase, the sequence of icd, the isocitrate dehydrogenase structural gene, was determined and this information was used to construct mutants at the site of phosphorylation. Introduction of a negatively charged aspartate for the serine that is phosphorylated completely inactivates isocitrate dehydrogenase. Substitution of the serine with other amino acids results in a partially active enzyme in which both maximal velocity and interaction with substrates has been altered. Neither threonine nor tyrosine, when substituted for the serine at the phosphorylation site, is detectably phosphorylated by isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase.
Cardiac mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase is inactivated through 4-hydroxynonenal adduct formation: an event that precedes hypertrophy development.
Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada.
Mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is crucial for cardiomyocyte energy and redox status, but much remains to be learned about its role and regulation. We obtained data in spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts that indicated a partial inactivation of this enzyme before hypertrophy development. We tested the hypothesis that cardiac mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase is a target for modification by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehyde that reacts readily with protein sulfhydryl and amino groups. This hypothesis is supported by the following in vitro and in vivo evidence. In isolated rat heart mitochondria, enzyme inactivation occurred within a few minutes upon incubation with 4-hydroxynonenal and was paralleled by 4-hydroxynonenal/NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase adduct formation. Enzyme inactivation was prevented by the addition of its substrate isocitrate or a thiol, cysteine or glutathione, suggesting that 4-hydroxynonenal binds to a cysteine residue near the substrate's binding site. Using an immunoprecipitation approach, we demonstrated the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal/NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase adducts in the heart and their increased level (210%) in 7-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with control Wistar Kyoto rats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase is a target for inactivation by 4-hydroxynonenal binding. Furthermore, the pathophysiological significance of our finding is supported by in vivo evidence. Taken altogether, our results have implications that extend beyond mitochondrial NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase. Indeed, they emphasize the implication of post-translational modifications of mitochondrial metabolic enzymes by 4-hydroxynonenal in the early oxidative stress-related pathophysiological events linked to cardiac hypertrophy development.
Purification and properties of diphosphopyridine nuleotide-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase of mammalian liver.
Phosphorylation inactivates Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase by preventing isocitrate binding.
Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720.
Equilibrium binding studies demonstrate that purified Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase binds isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, NADP, and NADPH at 1:1 ratios of substrate to enzyme monomer. The phosphorylated enzyme, which is completely inactive, is unable to bind isocitrate but retains the ability to bind NADP and NADPH. Replacement of serine 113, which is the site of phosphorylation, by aspartate results in an inactive enzyme that is unable to bind isocitrate. Replacement of the same serine with other amino acids (lysine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, and alanine) produces active enzymes that bind both substrates. Hence, the negative charge of an aspartate or a phosphorylated serine at site 113 inactivates the enzyme by preventing the binding of isocitrate.
Reversal by ribo- and deoxyribonucleosides of dehydroepiandrosterone-induced inhibition of enzyme altered foci in the liver of rats subjected to the initiation--selection process of experimental carcinogenesis.
R Garcea, L Daino, S Frassetto, P Cozzolino, M E Ruggiu, M G Vannini, R Pascale, L Lenzerini, M M Simile, M Puddu
Istituto di Patologia generale dell'Università di Sassari, Italy.
The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the activity of NADPH-producing enzymes and the development of enzyme-altered foci has been investigated in the liver of female Wistar rats subjected to an initiating treatment (a necrogenic dose of diethylnitrosamine) followed, 15 days later, by a selection treatment [a 15-day feeding of a diet containing 0.03% 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), with a partial hepatectomy at the midpoint of this feeding]. At the end of the selection treatment all rat groups received, for 15 days, a basal diet containing, when indicated, 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) and/or 0.6% DHEA. The effect of DHEA on the activity of NADPH-producing enzymes was also studied in normal rats fed, for 15 days, a diet containing 0.6% DHEA and in their pair-fed controls. DHEA caused a 43-58% inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and, respectively, 338-420% and 21-24% increases in malic enzyme (ME) and isocitric dehydrogenase activities in all rat groups. This was coupled with a great fall in the production of ribulose-5-phosphate, while no change in NADP+/NADPH ratio occurred. Hepatocytes, isolated from DHEA-treated rats, exhibited a very low activity of hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), which was not stimulated by methylene blue, an exogenous oxidizing agent that markedly stimulated HMS activity in control hepatocytes. DHEA caused a great fall in the percentage of liver occupied by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci, in the rats subjected to the initiation-selection treatments. PB enhanced the development of these foci, an effect which was completely overcome by DHEA. In addition, focal cells no longer expressed a G6PD activity higher than that of surrounding liver in DHEA-treated rats, but exhibited a high histochemical reaction for ME. DHEA also caused a great fall in labelling index of GGT-positive foci. Starting at the end of 2-AAF feeding, a mixture of ribonucleosides (RNs) of adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil and of deoxyribonucleosides (DRNs) of adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine were injected i.p. every 8 h for 12 days to the rats subjected to the initiation-selection treatments plus PB. Rats were killed 3 days after the end of RN and DRN treatments. These treatments completely overcome the DHEA effect on the development of GGT-positive foci and DNA synthesis by the focal cells, without affecting G6PD activity of both whole liver and putative preneoplastic foci. Experiments with labeled nucleosides revealed that RNs and DRNs produced derivatives that were incorporated into liver DNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Regulation of the TCA and glyoxylate cycles in Brevibacterium flavum. I. Ingibition of isocitrate lyase and isocitrate dehydrogenase by organic acids related to the TCA and glyoxylate cycles.
Effect of modification of a methionyl residue on the kinetic and molecular properties of isocitrate dehydrogenase.