Renin :: antagonists & inhibitors
Clin Lab. 2012 ;58 (3-4):291-8 22582503
Renin inhibitors inhibited the activity of recombinant human renin but not activity in healthy human plasma.
Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohon, Ehime, Japan.
BACKGROUND Activity of renin substrate cleavage (renin-like activity) was measured in vitro in plasma samples obtained from healthy human volunteers. METHODS Renin-like activity was determined using FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) human renin substrate. Recombinant human renin and human plasma showed dose-dependent cleavage activity of FRET human renin substrate. RESULTS Activity of recombinant human renin was completely inhibited by either a peptidergic or a non-peptidergic renin inhibitor. However, renin-like activity in human plasma was not inhibited by these renin inhibitors. In a mixture of recombinant renin and human plasma, renin inhibitors inhibited only that part of the activity caused by recombinant renin, while the activity in plasma still remained. Human plasma did not show cleavage activity of rat FRET renin substrate. Native human prorenin showed cleavage activity of human renin substrate. This activety was also completely inhibited by renin inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation with anti-renin or anti-prorenin antibodies did not reduce the activity in human plasma. Renin-like activity in human plasma was abolished by degeneration of protein when sample was heated to 95 degrees C. Activity of both recombinant renin and human plasma was significantly inhibited by a protease inhibitor cocktail. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the activity of renin substrate cleavage in human plasma is not mainly caused by the renin or prorenin molecule, but probably by other proteases.
Most cited papers:
Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs (n = 5) to determine the effects of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor on renal function and renin release. Intrarenal infusion of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)(0.3 microgram X kg-1 X min-1) resulted in a transient increase in renal blood flow (126 +/- 8 to 148 +/- 11 ml/min). The duration of this transient vasodilation was 3.1 +/- 0.4 min. Continued infusion was followed by a slight decrease in renal blood flow (126 +/- 8 to 117 +/- 8 ml/min) and an increase in glomerular filtration rate (23.1 +/- 3.5 to 30.7 +/- 1.9 ml/min), with filtration fraction thus being increased (0.19 +/- 0.04 to 0.27 +/- 0.03). These hemodynamic alterations were associated with increases in fractional sodium excretion (0.6 +/- 0.2 to 5.8 +/- 0.8%), fractional potassium excretion (30.8 +/- 9.4 to 56.3 +/- 7.4%), fractional lithium excretion (32.2 +/- 7.1 to 60.3 +/- 5.7%), and fractional phosphate excretion (8.7 +/- 3.5 to 41.6 +/- 11.7%). Intrarenal infusion of synthetic ANF markedly suppressed renin secretion rate (295.5 +/- 84.6 to 17.2 +/- 10.6 ng/min) despite a slight reduction in arterial pressure (123 +/- 9 to 118 +/- 9 mmHg). Our studies demonstrate that synthetic ANF results in a marked natriuretic response that is in part mediated by an increase in glomerular filtration rate. The increase in fractional lithium and phosphate excretion suggests that this factor may also have an action on proximal tubule reabsorption. Further, these studies demonstrate that synthetic ANF markedly inhibits renin secretion.
Molecular and Cellular Vascular Research Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.
The renin-angiotensin system has traditionally been viewed as an endocrine system. Recent data demonstrate that renin and angiotensinogen genes and their products are expressed at many local tissue sites. The concept that multiple tissues synthesize angiotensin has changed our understanding of the physiology of the renin-angiotensin system. These potential autocrine-paracrine systems may be important in the regulation of local tissue functions in addition to the circulating endocrine system. The activity of the tissue system under different conditions can influence the pharmacologic response to inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. For example, evidence suggests that tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may be the primary site of action of ACE inhibitors. Consequently, the duration of action of an ACE inhibitor may be more dependent on the duration of tissue ACE inhibition than on the drug's serum half-life. The differential effects of these pharmacologic inhibitors on the tissue renin-angiotensin systems may form the basis of differentiation between the various ACE inhibitors.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, CT.
An improved protocol for crystallographic refinement by simulated annealing is presented. It consists of slow cooling starting at high temperatures. Tests of refinements of aspartate aminotransferase and procin pepsin show that the slow-cooling protocol produces lower R factors and better geometry than other protocols previously published. The influence of the temperature-control method, weighting, cooling rate and duration of the heating stage on the success of the slow-cooling protocol is studied. Analysis of the time course of the potential-energy fluctuations indicates no global changes in the state of order of the system. Fluctuations of the potential energy are interpreted as localized conformational changes during the course of the refinement.
Pathways for angiotensin II generation in intact human tissue: evidence from comparative pharmacological interruption of the renin system.
From the Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA.
Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that alternative pathways to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) exists for angiotensin II (Ang II) generation in the heart, large arteries, and the kidney. In vitro studies in intact tissues, homogenates, or membrane isolates from the heart and large arteries have repeatedly demonstrated such pathways, but the issue remains unresolved because the approaches used have not made it possible to extrapolate from the in vitro to the in vivo situation. For our in vivo model, we studied young and healthy human volunteers, for the most part white and male; when these subjects achieved balance on a low salt diet to activate the renin system, the response of renal perfusion to pharmacological interruption of the renin system was studied. With this approach, we studied the renal vasodilator response to 3 ACE inhibitors, 2 renin inhibitors, and 2 Ang II antagonists at the top of their respective dose-response relationships. When these studies were initiated, our premise was that a kinin-dependent mechanism contributed to the renal hemodynamic response to ACE inhibition; therefore, the renal vasodilator response to ACE inhibition would exceed the alternatives. To our surprise, both renin inhibitors and both Ang II antagonists that were studied induced a renal vasodilator response of 140 to 150 mL/min/1.73 m2, approximately 50% larger than the maximal renal hemodynamic response to ACE inhibition, which was 90 to 100 mL/min/1.73 m2. In light of the data from in vitro systems, our findings indicate that in the intact human kidney, virtually all Ang II generation is renin-dependent but at least 40% of Ang I is converted to Ang II by pathways other than ACE, presumably a chymase, although other enzyme pathways exist. Preliminary data indicate that the non-ACE pathway may be substantially larger in disease states such as diabetes mellitus. One implication of the studies is that at the tissue level, Ang II antagonists have much greater potential for blocking the renin-angiotensin system than does ACE inhibition-with implications for therapeutics.
Extracts of mammalian atria, but not ventricles, induce marked diuresis, natriuresis, and reduction in blood pressure when infused systemically in rats and dogs. These extracts also inhibit aldosterone biosynthesis and renal renin release. Natriuretic peptides, 21 amino acids and longer, have been isolated from atria of rodents and man, and share a nearly homologous amino acid sequence at the carboxyterminus. Natriuretic activity resides in a 17-amino acid ring formed by a disulfide bridge, and the C-terminal Phe-Arg appears necessary for full biological potency. The deoxyribonucleic acid-encoding atrial natriuretic peptides have been cloned and the gene structure elucidated. Reduction of the diuretic and natriuretic responses to an acute volume load by right atrial appendectomy first suggested a role for atrial peptides in the physiological response to plasma volume expansion. Subsequently, release of peptides with natriuretic and spasmolytic properties from isolated heart preparations in response to right atrial distension was demonstrated by bioassay and radioimmunoassay. The presence of these peptides in normal rat and human plasma in concentrations of 20-100 pM, and the findings of increased levels in response to acute and chronic plasma volume expansion, rapid atrial tachyarrhythmias, systemic hypertension, congestive heart failure, and renal insufficiency imply that they play an important role in body fluid homeostasis. The mechanisms by which atrial peptides increase renal salt and water excretion are as yet unclear. Renal vascular effects have been consistently demonstrated, and limited evidence for direct actions on tubule ion transport has also been reported recently. In vitro, these peptides cause precontracted vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle to relax, mediated by a direct action on smooth muscle cells. Specific receptors for these peptides have been characterized in crude membranes prepared from whole kidney homogenates and adrenal glomerulosa cells, in intact glomeruli and cultured glomerular mesangial cells, and in intact bovine aortic smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Natriuretic peptides stimulate cyclic guanosine monophosphate accumulation in target tissues, and augment particulate guanylate cyclase activity in membrane fractions, suggesting that cyclic guanosine monophosphate is the second messenger mediating their cellular action.
Angiotensin II suppression in humans by the orally active renin inhibitor Aliskiren (SPP100): comparison with enalapril.
Division of Hypertension and Vascular Medicine, University Hospital Lausanne, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Renin is the main determinant of angiotensin (Ang) II levels. It, therefore, always appeared desirable to reduce Ang II levels by direct inhibition of renin. So far, specific renin inhibitors lacked potency and/or oral availability. We tested the new orally active nonpeptidic renin inhibitor SPP100 (Aliskiren, an octanamide with a 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] in the low nanomolar range) in 18 healthy volunteers on a constant 100 mmol/d sodium diet using a double-blind, 3-way crossover protocol. In 3 periods of 8 days, separated by wash-outs of 6 days, each volunteer received 2 dosage levels of Aliskiren (low before high; 40 and 80 or 160 and 640 mg/d) and randomized placebo or 20 mg enalapril. Aliskiren was well tolerated. Not surprisingly, blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged in these normotensive subjects. There was a dose-dependent decrease in plasma renin activity, Ang I, and Ang II following single doses of Aliskiren starting with 40 mg. Inhibition was still marked and significant after repeated dosing with maximal decreases in Ang II levels by 89% and 75% on Days 1 and 8, respectively, when the highest dose of Aliskiren was compared with placebo. At the same time, mean plasma active renin was increased 16- and 34-fold at the highest dose of Aliskiren. Plasma drug levels of Aliskiren were dose-dependent with maximal concentrations reached between 3 to 6 hours after administration; steady state was reached between 5 and 8 days after multiple dosing. Less than 1% of dose was excreted in the urine. Plasma and urinary aldosterone levels were decreased after doses of Aliskiren > or =80 mg and after enalapril. Aliskiren at 160 and 640 mg enhanced natriuresis on Day 1 by +45% and +62%, respectively, compared with placebo (100%, ie, 87+/-11 mmol/24h) and enalapril (+54%); kaliuresis remained unchanged. In conclusion, the renin inhibitor Aliskiren dose-dependently decreases Ang II levels in humans following oral administration. The effect is long-lasting and, at a dose of 160 mg, is equivalent to that of 20 mg enalapril. Aliskiren has the potential to become the first orally active renin inhibitor that provides a true alternative to ACE-inhibitors and Ang II receptor antagonists in therapy for hypertension and other cardiovascular and renal diseases.
Jeanette M Wood, Jürgen Maibaum, Joseph Rahuel, Markus G Grütter, Nissim-Claude Cohen, Vittorio Rasetti, Heinrich Rüger, Richard Göschke, Stefan Stutz, Walter Fuhrer, Walter Schilling, Pascal Rigollier, Yasuchika Yamaguchi, Frederic Cumin, Hans-Peter Baum, Christian R Schnell, Peter Herold, Robert Mah, Chris Jensen, Eoin O'Brien, Alice Stanton, Martin P Bedigian
Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Klybeckstrasse 220, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, the leading causes of death in the Western world. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have proven to be successful treatments for hypertension. As renin specifically catalyses the rate-limiting step of the RAS, it represents the optimal target for RAS inhibition. Several peptide-like renin inhibitors have been synthesized previously, but poor pharmacokinetic properties meant that these compounds were not clinically useful. We employed a combination of molecular modelling and crystallographic structure analysis to design renin inhibitors lacking the extended peptide-like backbone of earlier inhibitors, for improved pharmacokinetic properties. This led to the discovery of aliskiren, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human renin in vitro, and in vivo; once-daily oral doses of aliskiren inhibit renin and lower blood pressure in sodium-depleted marmosets and hypertensive human patients. Aliskiren represents the first in a novel class of renin inhibitors with the potential for treatment of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases.