Insecticides :: chemical synthesis
Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrethroid insecticide-derivatives as a chemical inducer for Bdnf mRNA expression in neurons.
Yuji Matsuya, Daisuke Ihara, Mamoru Fukuchi, Daisuke Honma, Kiyoshi Itoh, Akiko Tabuchi, Hideo Nemoto, Masaaki Tsuda
Department of Organochemical Design and Synthesis, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a fundamental role in neuronal synaptic plasticity. A decrease of plasticity in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative or psychiatric disorders. Pyrethroid insecticides, which affect sodium channels in neurons, are widely used to control insect pests in agriculture and in the home. We previously found that deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, increased Bdnf mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons. However, the cyano group at the α-position of type II pyrethroids is likely susceptible to hydrolytic degradation and, its degraded product, hydrogen cyanide, could generate a cellular toxicity in the human body. To determine if the cyano group is required for the Bdnf exon IV-IX (Bdnf eIV-IX) mRNA expression induced by type II pyrethroids, for this study we synthesized a series of derivatives, in which the cyano group at the α-position was replaced with an ethynyl group. Then we added various substituents at the terminal position of the ethynyl group, and biologically evaluated the effects of these derivatives on Bdnf eIV-IX mRNA expression. These ethynyl derivatives induced the Bdnf eIV-IX mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner, at varying levels but lower levels than that evoked by DM. The mechanisms for the Bdnf induction and the morphological changes of neurons were the same whether the cyano or ethynyl group was included in the compounds.
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From March 1974 through July 1975, 76 (56%) of 133 persons who had worked at a pesticide plant that produced Kepone, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, contracted a previously unrecognized clinical illness characterized by nervousness, tremor, weight loss, opsoclonus, pleuritic and joint pain, and oligospermia. Illness incidence rates for production workers (64%) were significantly higher than for nonproduction personnel (16%). The mean blood Kepone level for workers with illness was 2.53 ppm and for those without disease 0.60 ppm (p less than 0.001). Blood Kepone levels in current workers (mean, 3.12 ppm) were higher than those in former employees (1.22 ppm). Blood Kepone levels for workers in nearby businesses and for residents of a community within 1.6 km of the plant ranged from undetectable to 32.5 ppb. Illness attributable to Kepone was found in two wives of Kepone workers; there was no apparent association between frequency of symptoms and proximity to the plant in the survey of the community population.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Neurotoxins have served as invaluable agents for identification, purification, and functional characterization of voltage-gated ion channels. Multiple classes of these toxins, which target voltage- gated Na+ channels via high-affinity binding to distinct but allosterically coupled sites, have been identified. The toxins are chemically diverse, including guanidinium heterocycles, a variety of structurally unrelated alkaloids, and multiple families of nonhomologous polypeptides having either related or distinct functions. This review describes the biochemistry and pharmacology of these agents, and summarizes the structure-function relationships underlying their interaction with molecular targets. In addition, we explore recent advances in the use of these toxins as molecular scaffolding agents, drugs, and insecticides.
P Maienfisch, M Angst, F Brandl, W Fischer, D Hofer, H Kayser, W Kobel, A Rindlisbacher, R Senn, A Steinemann, H Widmer
Syngenta Crop Protection, Research and Technology, WRO-1060.1.14, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. email@example.com
Thiamethoxam is the first commercial neonicotinoid insecticide from the thianicotinyl subclass. It was discovered in the course of our optimisation program on neonicotinoids started in 1985. Novel variations of the nitroimino-heterocycle of imidacloprid led to 4-nitroimino-1,3,5-oxadiazinanes exhibiting high insecticidal activity. Among these, thiamethoxam (CGA 293433) was identified as the best compound and selected for worldwide development. The compound can be synthesised in only a few steps and high yield from easily accessible starting materials. Thiamethoxam acts by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It exhibits exceptional systemic characteristics and provides excellent control of a broad range of commercially important pests, such as aphids, jassids, whiteflies, thrips, rice hoppers, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles and wireworms, as well as some lepidopteran species. In addition, a strong preventative effect on some virus transmissions has been demonstrated. Thiamethoxam is developed both for foliar/soil applications and as a seed treatment for use in most agricultural crops all over the world. Low use rates, flexible application methods, excellent efficacy, long-lasting residual activity and favourable safety profile make this new insecticide well-suited for modern integrated pest management programmes in many cropping systems.
Chronic illness as a result of low-level exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: a review of the debate.
Disease Control and Vector Biology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in public health and agriculture throughout the world and generally considered to be the safest class of insecticides available. In contrast to this belief stands a recent debate in Germany, around possible chronic effects of exposure to low levels of pyrethroid residues, particularly in the household. The debate is reviewed with a view to its potential implications on the use of synthetic pyrethroids on insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control. Media coverage, rather than conclusive evidence from carefully planned scientific investigations, seems the underlying factor in the debate. However, chronic effects can presently not be excluded with certainty, as relevant toxicological data do not exist in the open scientific literature. Properly designed neuro-behavioural studies on groups with long-term exposure to low doses of synthetic pyrethroids should be conducted. This will require establishment of a working definition of "case" and "exposure". Meanwhile pyrethroids should continue to be used for public health interventions that contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality reduction, such as ITNs for malaria control.
S F McCann, G D Annis, R Shapiro, D W Piotrowski, G P Lahm, J K Long, K C Lee, M M Hughes, B J Myers, S M Griswold, B M Reeves, R W March, P L Sharpe, P Lowder, W E Barnette, K D Wing
DuPont Crop Protection Products, Stine-Haskell Research Center, PO Box 30, Newark, DE 19714, USA. email@example.com
The evolution of the insecticidal pyrazoline moiety that was originally discovered in 1972 has led to the discovery of a new crop insecticide, indoxacarb, which is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type sodium-channel blocker. Both monocyclic and fused-tricyclic pyrazolines and pyridazines, as well as structurally related semicarbazones were examined prior to the discovery of analogous tricyclic oxadiazines which had similarly high activity as well as favorable environmental dissipation rates and low toxicity to non-target organisms. The eventual leading candidate, DPX-JW062, was originally obtained as a racemic molecule, but a chiral synthesis was developed which produces material that is 50% ee in the insecticidal (+)-S-enantiomer (DPX-MP062, indoxacarb).
P Maienfisch, H Huerlimann, A Rindlisbacher, L Gsell, H Dettwiler, J Haettenschwiler, E Sieger, M Walti
Novartis Crop Protection AG, Research Department, WRO-1060.1.14, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Neonicotinoids represent a novel and distinct chemical class of insecticides with remarkable chemical and biological properties. In 1985, a research programme was started in this field, in which novel nitroimino heterocycles were designed, prepared and assayed for insecticidal activity. The methodology for the synthesis of 2-nitroimino-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines, 4-nitroimino-1,3,5-oxadiazinanes and 4-nitroimino-1,3,5-thiadiazinanes is outlined. Bioassays demonstrated that 3-(6-chloropyridin-3-ylmethyl)-4-nitroimino-1,3,5-oxadiazinane exhibited better insecticidal activity than the corresponding 2-nitroimino-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine and 4-nitroimino-1,3,5-thiadiazinane. In most tests, this compound was equally or only slightly less active than imidacloprid. A series of structural modifications on this lead structure revealed that replacement of the 6-chloro-3-pyridyl group by a 2-chloro-5-thiazolyl moiety resulted in a strong increase of activity against chewing insects, whereas the introduction of a methyl group as pharmacophore substituent increased activity against sucking pests. The combination of these two favourable modifications led to thiamethoxam (CGA 293 343). Thiamethoxam is the first commercially available second-generation neonicotinoid and belongs to the thianicotinyl sub-class. It is marketed under the trademarks Actara for foliar and soil treatment and Cruiser for seed treatment. The compound has broad-spectrum insecticidal activity and offers excellent control of a wide variety of commercially important pests in many crops. Low use rates, flexible application methods, excellent efficacy and the favourable safety profile make this new insecticide well-suited for modern integrated pest management programmes in many cropping systems.
Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
A convergent, highly stereoselective total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include the transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic pentaene 11 and the transannular Morita-Baylis-Hillman cyclization of 12 that generates tetracycle 26. The total synthesis of (-)-spinosyn A was completed by a sequence involving the highly beta-selective glycosidation reaction of 13 and glycosyl imidate 30.
Novel and potent 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl ligands for the alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, 114 Wellman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3112, USA.
1-[(6-Chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-2-imidazolidine (1), the N-desnitro metabolite of the major insecticide imidacloprid, is known to have similar potency to that of (-)-nicotine as an inhibitor of [3H](-)-nicotine binding at the rat recombinant alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR); IC50 values in the present study are 3.8 nM for (-)-nicotine, 6.0 nM for 1, and 155 nM for imidacloprid. Synthesis of new analogues of 1, modified only in the heterocyclic moiety (five-, six-, or seven-membered rings with NH, S, O, and CH2 substituents), gave compounds varying from 4-fold higher potency (2-iminothiazole analogue 10) to >6000-fold less active than (-)-nicotine. Other potent N-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl] compounds are those in which the heterocyclic imine is replaced with pyrrolidine (19)(IC50 9 nM) or trimethylammonium (22)(IC50 18 nM). A novel conversion of (-)-nicotine to its 6-chloro analogue increased the potency 2-fold. These 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl compounds are of interest as novel nAChR probes and potential metabolites of candidate insecticides.