Based upon assumptions of Gestalt Therapy, an objective, reliable scoring system for analyzing a specific aspect of verbal behavior, avoidant verbalization, was developed. Verbal samples were elicited from 30 female college students who previously had been rank ordered on the Neuroticism scale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The expectation that psychologically stressful questions would result in a significantly greater number of avoidant verbalizations was confirmed. Contrary to another expectation, no significant correlation between neuroticism as measured by the MPI and total number of avoidant verbalizations uttered by the Ss was found. Results were interpreted on the basis of the Gestalt Therapy theory of personality.
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A language programme to increase the verbal production of a child dually diagnosed with Down syndrome and autism.
Division of Developmental Disabilities, The Kelly O'Leary Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229, USA. Kimberly.Kroeger-Geoppinger@cchmc.org
BACKGROUND The incidence of children dually diagnosed with Down syndrome and autism is estimated to be as high as 11%. There is a paucity of research investigating linguistic treatment interventions for such children. This single-subject experiment examined a programme designed to increase the language production and verbal behaviour of a 9-year-old dually diagnosed boy who had been receiving a 15-h/week home-based applied behaviour analysis (ABA) programme. METHODS Training principles were derived from previously empirically validated research in discrete trail learning and natural environment teaching, as well as modified incidental teaching procedures. The crux of the language programme involved withholding reinforcement until a spoken request was made. RESULTS Language production noticeably increased for each target area after the introduction of the language programme and was maintained at a 9-month follow-up session. CONCLUSIONS A combined treatment approach incorporating direct instruction, natural environment teaching and incidental teaching can be effective in increasing and maintaining responsive and spontaneous speech in a child with Down syndrome diagnosed with autism. Replication studies are needed with such multiple dually diagnosed children to further evaluate the effectiveness and generalizability of this combined language programme.
Validity of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-IV: its use in young adults with mental retardation.
Department of Psychology, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207-6511, USA.
The validity of the Stanford Binet-IV (SB-IV) was assessed. This test and the WAIS-R and WRAT-R were administered to 42 adults previously classified with mild to moderate mental retardation. Validity coefficients between scores on the SB-IV and the other two measures were significant. The mean IQ on the SB-IV (mean Test Composite = 43.26) was significantly lower than that on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised--WAIS-R (mean Full-Scale IQ = 57.91). With regard to the internal validity of the SB-IV, the intersubtest relationships of each of the four Area scores correlated significantly with the Test Composite (range =.66 to .91). Verbal Reasoning earned the highest correlation (.91). Results support the SB-IV's concurrent, criterion-related, and internal validity for use with young adults who have mental retardation.
Reliability, criterion-related validity and qualitative comments of the Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale with a young adult population with intellectual disability.
Department of Psychology, Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207-6511, USA.
The test-retest reliability and concurrent, criterion-related validity of the Fourth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB-IV) were examined in a young adult population with intellectual disability. Forty adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability (mean age = 20.8 years; SD = 1.8 years) were administered the SB-IV and retested approximately 5 weeks later (mean = 33.4 days, SD = 1.2). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale: Interview Edition (VABS) was completed by a reliable informant within one week of the SB-IV testing. The test-retest reliability coefficients for the four SB-IV area and composite scores were all significant (P < 0.00). Individual subtest correlations tended to be lower but consistent across the two administrations. Moderate correlations were observed between the VABS composite and SB-IV composite scores. The present results provide support for the temporal reliability of the SB-IV and its concurrent, criterion-related validity in an exceptional sample.
Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH 45207-6511, USA.
Twenty-five psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were assessed on three separate occasions (approximately 2 weeks apart) using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Children's Attributional Styles Questionnaire Revised (KASTAN) within 1 week of hospitalization. Attending clinicians also rated each subject concurrently on the Anxiety and Depression factors of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C). Results indicated only modest agreement between self-report measures and clinician ratings over time. Clinician ratings on both BPRS-C factors changed significantly over time, while, of the self-report measures, only the R-CMAS evidenced significant change. Results were discussed in terms of the construct of "negative affectivity," method variance in assessment, and clinical implications.
Wright State University.
The differential criterion-related validity of the MMPI and MMPI-2 and their stability over a 4-month period of time were examined in a university population by correlating the clinical scales with their counterpart SCL-90-R factors. Fair to moderate correlations were found on all eight paired MMPI scales and SCL-90-R factors, while only two of eight MMPI-2/SCL-90-R pairings were found to be correlated significantly. Further analyses, however, found no significant differences between these MMPI/SCL-90-R and MMPI-2/SCL-90-R correlations. Adequate stability was found between MMPI-2 and SCL-90-R pairs over 4 months, except for the MMPI-2 D scale with the SCL-90-R Depression factor. Several issues related to the equivalency between the MMPI and the MMPI-2 were discussed.
Previous explanations of the Ames oscillatory effect are evaluated by means of a functional-evolutionary theory of perception. Use of stored interpretations, static elements, and other explanatory ideas are rejected in favor of adaptive response to ambiguity as the essential factor for the effect. It is emphasized that Ss report perception of rotation, oscillation, reversal, and flapping, which are all correlates of horizontal contraction and expansion of the retinal image, when viewing rotating objects. The provision of all possible correlates of the transforming array is described as supportive of a functional-evolutionary approach, and Gibson's theory of perception.
The effects of rational and irrational self-verbalizations on performance efficiency and levels of anxiety.
Investigated the effects of rational vs. irrational belief systems (as measured by the Ellis Irrational Values Scale) and rational vs. irrational self-verbalizations on levels of anxiety and persistence on a performance task. Ss (N = 40) were instructed to assemble a virtually insolvable task call Soma. The variables of interest were how long each S would persist on this task and how much anxiety (as measured by the A-State portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was aroused in working on this task. Following a baseline trial trying to solve Soma, Ss were assigned to either a rational or irrational self-talk condition and were led to believe that such self-talk would help in a second attempt to solve Soma. In line with cognitive models of psychology, it was found that rational self-talk Ss showed a significant decrease in levels of state anxiety compared to irrational self-talk Ss in attempting to solve Soma in the second trial. Contrary to cognitive models of psychology, scores obtained from the EIVS and the A-Trait portion of the STAI were not found to be related to persistence.
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Validation of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R: correlations between self-reports and college peer ratings.
Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com
The NEO-PI-R has been one of the standard tools for measuring the Five Factor Model. Validity tests of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R have previously been limited to factor analyses and to testing the inventory's congruent validity using Hogan's Personality Inventory and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the validity of the NEO-PI-R. 53 pairs of volunteer college students who were peers (77 women, 29 men; M age = 27.3 yr., SD = 7) from the Department of Psychology at Stockholm University rated themselves both on the NEO-PI-R and on single statements taken from the NEO-PI-R Summary feedback sheet as well as rating their respective peers on a short version of the NEO-PI-R and on single statements taken from the NEO-PI-R Summary feedback sheet. The pattern of correlations indicated some support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R.
Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
We describe the HEXACO-60, a short personality inventory that assesses the 6 dimensions of the HEXACO model of personality structure. We selected the 10 items of each of the 6 scales from the longer HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (Ashton & Lee, 2008; Lee & Ashton, 2004, 2006), with the aim of representing the broad range of content that defines each dimension. In self-report data from samples of college students and community adults, the scales showed reasonably high levels of internal consistency reliability and rather low interscale correlations. Correlations of the HEXACO-60 scales with measures of the Big Five factors were consistent with theoretical expectations, and convergent correlations between self-reports and observer reports on the HEXACO-60 scales were high, averaging above .50. We recommend the HEXACO-60 for use in personality assessment contexts in which administration time is limited.
Department of Psychology, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022, USA. email@example.com
Three components of body image - drive for thinness (DT), drive for muscularity (DM), and drive for leanness (DL)- were assessed in 232 college students. A new measure of DL was developed. Data suggested that the new scale yielded valid and reliable scores. The relationships of gender, gender norm endorsement, and self-objectification to DT, DM, and DL were examined. The surveillance subscale of the OBC Scale was related to DL, DT, and DM in men and to DL and DT in women. Gender norm endorsement, specifically romantic relationships, moderated the relationship of surveillance to DT in women. Gender norm endorsement was directly related to DM and DT in men. DLS appeared to measure a distinct component of body image. Feminine gender role was only related to DT while masculine gender role was related to DL, DT, and DM, raising important questions about the gender differences in body image.
Complexities of measuring perfectionism: three popular perfectionism measures and their relations with eating disturbances and health behaviors in a female college student sample.
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study investigated the relationships between three popular measures of perfectionism [the Eating Disorders Inventory - Perfectionism scale (EDI-P), the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)] and measures of eating disturbances and health behaviors, in a sample of 248 female college students. Results indicated that the adaptiveness or maladaptiveness of certain perfectionism dimensions should still be questioned. Also, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (from the MPS) were consistently found to be the most important predictors of both eating disturbances and health behaviors. Surprisingly, scores on the EDI-P were not found to be significant predictors of eating disturbances when FMPS and MPS scores were included in regression analyses. Implications of the present findings are discussed.
Male and female college students answered standard questions about the women's liberation movement on three occasions. A set of target words was embedded in the questions, with one set used in Sessions 1 and 3, and a synonymous, but different set used in Session 2. The relative frequencies of usage of a given target word were directly related to whether the questions for that session contained the word. The results supported the hypothesis of echoics as proposed in Skinner's theory of verbal behavior.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Myers-Briggs type inventory extraversion is associated with clinical evaluation ratings that students earn during their (obstetrics/gynecology) junior medical student clerkship. STUDY DESIGN The Myers-Briggs type inventory was administered to medical students during their obstetrics/gynec clerkship. Bivariate correlations between clinical evaluations, National Board of Medical Examiners subject scores, and data from the Myers-Briggs type inventory extraversion scale were analyzed. RESULTS Pearson product-moment correlation between clinical and National Board of Medical Examiners subject scores was not significant (r =.25; P =.05). The National Board of Medical Examiners did not show significant correlations with the Myers-Briggs type inventory extraversion data. The clinical evaluations showed a significant correlation (r =.35; P =.005) with Myers-Briggs type inventory extraversion. CONCLUSION Results show that Myers-Briggs type inventory extraversion is correlated positively with clinical evaluations. The National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and clinical evaluations were not correlated significantly. Findings question whether clinical evaluation data should be included in the obstetrics/gynecology medical student evaluation process.
Psychol Rep. 2005 Feb ;96 (1):183-9 15825924
Department of Psychology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652, USA.
98 male and female college students ranging in age from 17 to 22 years (M= 19.2, SD= 1.1) were administered a questionnaire that contained Altemeyer's 20-item Right-Wing Authoritarianism Scale (RWA), questions about the legitimacy of the 2000 presidential election, Mayton's Physical Nonviolence Subscale, and a scale designed to measure attitudes toward Operation Iraqi Freedom. RWA scores, perceptions of the legitimacy of the 2000 presidential election, and scores on the Physical Nonviolence subscale were independent predictors of attitudes toward Operation Iraqi Freedom. In addition, those who had higher RWA scores were more likely to perceive the 2000 presidential election as legitimate. There was no significant correlation between RWA scores and attitudes toward physical nonviolence.
Psychol Rep. 2002 Apr ;90 (2):659-64 12061610
University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls 50614-0241, USA.
This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and the existence of role models among a sample of 36 female college students. Participants completed a questionnaire which included demographic questions, the Self-esteem Inventory, and questions concerning use of childhood and contemporary role models. Independent t-test results indicated that participants who reported having current role models had higher self-esteem scores than participants who did not, suggesting that role models may contribute to higher self-esteem in college-age women. No significant differences in self-esteem were by sex of the role model.
Department of Psychology, Thurston House, Virginia Commonwealth University, 808 West Franklin Street, POB 842018, Richmond, VA 23284-2018, USA.
In a study of alienation among urban university students, 85 men and 136 women completed the Gould Manifest Alienation Measure and the 44-item Big Five Inventory. Multivariate analysis of variance disclosed that the 77 college students high on Alienation, irrespective of sex, scored higher on the Neuroticism scale and lower on the Conscientiousness and Openness scales of the Big Five Inventory. None of the interactions between sex and scores on the Big Five Inventory was significant. Results suggest that college students scoring high on alienation can survive in a supportive university environment, although they appear to experience increased anxiety and tension and have a relatively constricted awareness of their environments. Students scoring high on alienation may also be more tolerant of deviant behavior given their perceived irrelevance of social norms.
Overall self-confidence, self-confidence in mathematics, and sex-role stereotyping in relation to salivary free testosterone in university women.
San Francisco State University, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigated in 40 young university women the possible relationships between levels of testosterone and specific measures of overall self-confidence and self-confidence in approaching mathematics. Correlations of -.43 and -.49 with each measure of self-confidence, respectively, and level of testosterone were found in the portion of the sample displaying normal ovulatory function. There was no correlation (r=.02) between the measures of mathematics and overall self-confidence. 19 women did not display normal ovulatory function. The only significant result for the full sample was a significant correlation of -.73 between scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory Masculinity and overall self-confidence. The reasons for the high anovulatory percentage are not clear, nor are the associations which anovulation might have with either hormonal levels or the personality characteristics in question.