Clin Cardiol. 2012 Nov 28;: 23192967
Statement on Matching Language to the Type of Evidence Used in Describing Outcomes Data: Editors of the HEART Group Journals.
75 Francis Street Boston, Massachusetts 02115. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Nov 14;: 23161530
The Clinical Value of Echocardiography and Acoustic Cardiography to Monitor Patients Undergoing Anthracycline Chemotherapy.
Stefan Toggweiler, Yvonne Odermatt, Andreas Brauchlin, Thilo Zander, Andrea Müller, Michel Zuber, Ralph Winterhalder, Paul Erne
Department of Cardiology, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: Investigate the usefulness of echocardiography and acoustic cardiography to monitor patients exposed to anthracycline chemotherapy. HYPOTHESIS: Serial echocardiographies to monitor systolic function may not be neccessary in all patients undergoing anthracycline chemotherapy. METHODS: In a prospective study, consecutive patients undergoing anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were evaluated with echocardiography and acoustic cardiography at baseline, after completion of chemotherapy, and after a median follow-up of 3.8 years. Systolic dysfunction was defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients (83% female) with a mean age of 55 ± 14 years underwent chemotherapy for breast cancer (73%), malignant lymphoma (23%), and sarcoma (4%). None of the patients had systolic dysfunction at baseline. Patients were treated with doxorubicin 276 ± 74 mg/m(2) or epirubicin 317 ± 55 mg/m(2). After chemotherapy, 170 (91%) had normal systolic function, 8 (4%) developed systolic dysfunction, and 9 (5%) had died. Of those 8 patients with systolic dysfunction, 4 (50%) improved to normal systolic function, 1 (13%) remained unchanged, and 3 (37%) died. Patients with normal systolic function after chemotherapy had a mortality rate of 3.5%, and 1.8% developed late systolic dysfunction. Acoustic cardiography-derived percent electromechanical activation time >12.4% had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 84% to identify patients with systolic dysfunction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with systolic dysfunction early after anthracycline treatment had worse outcome. Acoustic cardiography was able to identify these patients with a high sensitivity and specificity. Based on the findings of this study, we propose a simple algorithm to monitor patients undergoing anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Nov 14;: 23151891
Response to Independent Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Noncalcified Coronary Plaque Demonstrated by Noninvasive Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography.
Department of Internal Medicine Saint Joseph Hospital Chicago.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Nov 6;: 23132769
Tomokazu Iguchi, Takao Hasegawa, Satoshi Nishimura, Shinji Nakata, Toru Kataoka, Shoichi Ehara, Akihisa Hanatani, Kenei Shimada, Minoru Yoshiyama
Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND: Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is useful in the evaluation of coronary lesion ischemia. However, the impact of lesion length on FFR has not been adequately assessed. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that lesion length would influence functional significance in intermediate coronary lesions. METHODS: FFR measurements were assessed in 136 patients (163 lesions) with stable angina who had >40% stenotic coronary lesion by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). One hundred sixty-three lesions were classified as intermediate (40%-70% stenosis; n=107; group I) or significant (≥70%; n=56; group S) by QCA. We assessed the relationships between lesion length, coronary stenosis, and FFR in these 163 lesions. RESULTS: Regression analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the percentage of diameter stenosis (%DS) and FFR in group S (r =-0.83, P < 0.0001). In group I, no significant correlation was found between %DS and FFR (r =-0.06, P = 0.55), whereas lesion length was significantly inversely correlated with FFR (r =-0.79, P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the best cutoff value for predicting an FFR value <0.80 was a lesion length >16.1 mm in group I (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 94%). CONCLUSIONS: These study findings suggest that lesion length has a physiologically significant impact on intermediate-grade coronary lesions. Clin. Cardiol. 2011 DOI: 10.1002/clc.22076 The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Oct 25;: 23109041
The Safety and Efficacy of Enhanced External Counterpulsation as a Treatment for Angina in Patients With Aortic Stenosis.
Division of Cardiology, Einstein Institute for Heart and Vascular Health, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Moss Rehab, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Comorbid aortic stenosis (AS) has been considered a precaution when applying enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) to individuals with angina due to concerns about treatment-related hemodynamic changes. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to determine whether EECP safely reduces symptoms of myocardial ischemia and improves hemodynamics in individuals with AS. METHODS: Forty-three patients with AS (average age, 73 years; 86% male) and 43 comparison patients without AS were chosen from a database of 1327 EECP patients. Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Functional Angina Classification, diastolic augmentation ratio, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and on completion of the course of EECP. RESULTS: Thirty-five of the 43 patients with AS (81%, 95% CI: 66.6% to 91.6%) and 38 of the 43 without AS (88%, 95% CI: 74.9% to 96.1%) improved in angina class (P < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the percentages in patients with and without AS (P = 0.54). CCS angina class outcome was not associated with AS severity (P = 0.55). The percentage of patients with diastolic augmentation ratio ≥1.0 was 16.3% in both groups at baseline and improved to 39.5% in AS patients and 37.2% in non-AS patients after EECP (both P = 0.002). The average decreases in systolic blood pressure in subjects with AS (-15 mm Hg, 95% CI: 11 to 20, P < 0.0001) and without AS (-18 mm Hg, 95% CI: 14 to 22, P < 0.0001) were similar (P = 0.31). No major adverse cardiac events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Angina patients with AS who undergo EECP had clinically important symptomatic and hemodynamic improvements comparable to their non-AS counterparts. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22073 The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Oct 18;: 23081693
Department of Cardiology, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli, Turkey. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective option in the treatment of patients with heart failure (HF) and wide QRS. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiography has been shown to predict cardiac events in several patient populations. However, the relationship between the number of leads with fQRS and response to CRT has not been investigated. HYPOTHESIS: The number of leads with fQRS may predict response to CRT. METHODS: One hundred five patients with HF undergoing CRT were prospectively studied. The presence of fQRS was assessed using standardized criteria. Echocardiographic response to CRT was defined by a ≥15% reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (71%) had CRT response after 6 months of follow-up. In multivariate analysis, significant associates of response to CRT were evaluated adjusting for gender, etiology of cardiomyopathy, QRS width, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, and the number of leads with fQRS. The number of leads with fQRS was the only predictor of response to CRT (odds ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.77, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The more leads with fQRS predicts nonresponse to CRT and may help in the selection of CRT candidates. Clin. Cardiol. 2011 DOI: 10.1002/clc.22061 The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Oct 1;: 23027701
Prediction of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With Persistent Renal Dysfunction and Adverse Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Using the Mehran Risk Score.
Jin Wi, Young-Guk Ko, Dong-Ho Shin, Jung-Sun Kim, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Donghoon Choi, Jong-Won Ha, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been generally considered to be transient and associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether Mehran risk score could predict CIN with persistent renal dysfunction and long-term clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 1041 AMI patients. The primary end point was defined as major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) including death, reinfarction, target vessel revascularization, heart failure requiring hospital admission, and stroke. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to risk scores: low (≤ 5, n = 596), moderate (6-10, n = 265), high (11-15, n = 111), and very high (≥16, n = 69). RESULTS: Among the 148 patients (14.2%) who developed CIN, persistent renal dysfunction was observed in 68 patients. Presence in high- or very high-risk groups was the most important independent risk factor of CIN with persistent renal dysfunction (odds ratio: 3.35, 95 confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-5.92, P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients in higher-risk groups experienced significantly more MACCE and mortality 2 years after PCI. Using multivariate analysis, significant increase in the hazard ratio (HR) for MACCE was noted in moderate-(HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.97-2.03, P = 0.075), high-(HR 1.96, 95% CI: 1.22-3.15, P = 0.006), and very high-risk (HR 2.40, 95% CI: 1.36-4.21, p = 0.002) groups, compared with the low-risk group. The very high-risk group had approximately 6-fold increase in mortality over the low-risk group (HR: 6.22, 95% CI: 2.77-13.95, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Mehran risk score predicted CIN with persistent renal dysfunction and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. Drs. Jin Wi and Young-Guk Ko contributed equally to the preparation of the article. This study was supported partly by grants from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Republic of Korea (No. A085012, A102064, and A110879); the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (No.A08 5136); Yonsei University (6-2009-0008); Korea Institute of Medicine; and the Cardiovascular Research Center, Seoul, Korea. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Sep 28;: 23023302
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Worsen Renal Function and Dyspnea on Ticagrelor: A Potential Ticagrelor-Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Interaction?
Wegmans Pharmacy, Ithaca, New York. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ticagrelor is a new antiplatelet agent that was pitted against clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Because ticagrelor is the first oral, reversible, twice-daily agent, sufficient information on drug interactions is not available. Our objective was to ascertain the safety of ticagrelor with other common medications. The US Food and Drug Administration Complete Response Review indicates that renal adverse events (AEs) and renal function AEs were higher in ticagrelor-treated patients who were concomitantly treated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)>50% of study days compared to ticagrelor-treated patients who did not receive ARBs >50% of study days. Clopidogrel-treated patients showed a trend for an increase in adverse renal events with ARB use. However, this was not as pronounced as that observed with ticagrelor. Dyspnea was also significantly increased in patients on concomitant ticagrelor-ARB compared to ticagrelor without concomitant ARB and clopidogrel (21.4% vs 14.6% vs 9.9%, respectively) as well as angioedema (0.15% vs 0.09%). Furthermore, in patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<30 mL/min, the risk of major bleeding, death, and renal failure was increased in patients on ticagrelor compared to patients on clopidogrel. In patients on ticagrelor, ARBs significantly increased the frequency of renal related AEs, renal function AEs, and dyspnea. Moreover, in patients with a baseline eGFR <30 mL/min, the risk of major bleeding, death, and renal failure was increased in patients on ticagrelor compared to patients on clopidogrel. Dr. Serebruany is listed as an inventor for the US patent application: TREATING CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, HEART FAILURE, PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE AND STROKE WITH CYCLOPENTYL-TRIAZOLO-PYRIMIDINE OR DERIVATIVE THEREOF (USN 61/253,829) assigned to HeartDrug™ Research, and received funding for research studies with clopidogrel, and consultant fees from both clopidogrel and ticagrelor manufacturers.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Sep 13;: 22976788
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Aug 21;: 22911264
Jerusalem Institute of Aging Research, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Heart Institute, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND: People over the age of 85 years have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. HYPOTHESIS: There is an association between renal function and cardiac structure and function in subjects 85 years of age. METHODS: Subjects born in the years 1920 and 1921 were recruited from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study. Echocardiography was performed at the subject's home with assessment of cardiac structure and function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed by the Cockroft-Gault formula, with abnormal GFR defined as ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). RESULTS: There were 310 subjects who were enrolled. When GFR was examined as a continuous variable, linear regression showed a small although statistically significant relationship between GFR and left atrial volume (r = 0.15, P < 0.014), left ventricular mass index (r = 0.12, P < 0.04), and ejection fraction (r = 0.19, P < 0.03) but not with indices of diastolic function (r = 0.02, P < 0.72). However, using the accepted clinical cutoff of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), there were no significant differences between subjects with normal and abnormal GFR in indices of cardiac structure. Ejection fraction (57.0 ± 10.4% vs 54.4 ± 10.3%; P = 0.08) and indices of diastolic function (E/e' 12.4 ± 5.0 vs 12.3 ± 4.6; P = 0.89) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: A weak and clinically insignificant association was found between GFR as a continuous variable and indices of cardiac function. However, using the clinically accepted cutoff, no association between abnormal GFR and cardiac structure or function was observed. David Leibowitz, MD, and Yoram Maaravi, MD, contributed equally to this report. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Aug 9;: 22886783
C-Reactive Protein Level and the Incidence of Eligibility for Statin Therapy: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Devin M Mann, Daichi Shimbo, Mary Cushman, Susan Lakoski, Philip Greenland, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D Michos, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Paul Muntner
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Given the results of the Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial, statin initiation may be considered for individuals with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, if followed prospectively, many individuals with elevated CRP may become statin eligible, limiting the impact of elevated CRP as a treatment indication. This analysis estimates the proportion of people with elevated CRP that become statin eligible over time. HYPOTHESIS: Most people with elevated CRP become statin eligible over a short period of time. METHODS: We followed 2153 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130 mg/dL at baseline to determine the proportion who become eligible for statins over 4.5 years. The proportion eligible for statin therapy, defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) 2004 updated guidelines, was calculated at baseline and during follow-up stratified by baseline CRP level (≥2 mg/L). RESULTS: At baseline, 47% of the 2153 participants had elevated CRP. Among participants with elevated CRP, 29% met NCEP criteria for statins, compared with 28% without elevated CRP at baseline. By 1.5 years later, 26% and 22%(P = 0.09) of those with and without elevated CRP at baseline reached NCEP low-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria and/or had started statins, respectively. These increased to 42% and 39%(P = 0.24) at 3 years and 59% and 52%(P = 0.01) at 4.5 years following baseline. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of those with elevated CRP did not achieve NCEP-based statin eligibility over 4.5 years of follow-up. These findings suggest that many patients with elevated CRP may not receive the benefits of statins if CRP is not incorporated into the NCEP screening strategy. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was supported by contracts NO1-HC-95159 through NO1-HC-95165 and NO1-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. This research was also supported by grant 1K23DK081665, a Patient-Oriented Mentored Scientist Award through the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (to DMM). The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Aug 9;: 22886700
Characteristics of Responders to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The Impact of Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Volume.
Mi Young Park, Robert K Altman, Mary Orencole, Prabhat Kumar, Kimberly A Parks, Kevin E Heist, Jagmeet P Singh, Michael H Picard
Heart Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
BACKGROUND: One-third of patients who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are classified as nonresponders. Characteristics of responders to CRT have been studied in multiple clinical trials. HYPOTHESIS: Independent predictors of CRT response may be identified by studying a series of patients in routine clinical practice. METHOD: One hundred twenty-five patients were examined retrospectively from a multidisciplinary CRT clinic program. Echocardiographic CRT response was defined as a decrease in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume of ≥15% and/or absolute increase of 5% in LV ejection fraction at the 6-month visit. RESULTS: There were 81 responders and 44 nonresponders. By univariate analyses, female sex, nonischemic cardiomyopathy etiology, baseline QRS duration, the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) index predicted CRT response. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that only QRS duration, LBBB, and LVEDV index were independent predictors (QRS width, odds ratio [OR]: 1.027, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004-1.050, P = 0.023; LBBB, OR: 3.568, 95% CI: 1.284-9.910, P = 0.015; LVEDV index, OR: 0.970, 95% CI: 0.953-0.987, P = 0.001). Although female sex and nonischemic etiology were associated with an improved CRT response on univariate analyses, after adjusting for LV volumes they were not independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS: QRS width, LBBB, and LVEDV index are independent predictors for echocardiographic CRT response. Previously reported differences in CRT response for sex and cardiomyopathy etiology are associated with differences in baseline LV volumes in our clinical practice. Dr. Heist has received research grants (modest) from Biotronik, Boston Scientific, and St. Jude Medical; honoraria (modest) from Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, Sorin, and St. Jude Medical; and consultant/advisory board positions (modest) from Boston Scientific, Sorin and St. Jude Medical. Dr. Singh has received research grants (significant) from Biotronik, Boston Scientific, Medtronic, and St. Jude Medical; and consultant/advisory board positions (modest) from Biosense Webster, Biotronik, Boston Scientific, CardioInsight, Medtronic, Sorin, St. Jude Medical, and Thoratec Inc. The statistical analysis was conducted with support from Harvard Catalyst. The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health Award UL1 RR 025758, and financial contributions from Harvard University and its affiliated academic healthcare centers). The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Aug 9;: 22886635
Chief Medical Resident, Internal Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University Detroit Receiving Hospital Detroit, Michigan.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 27;: 22847393
Relationship Between Endothelial Functions and Acetylsalicylic Acid Resistance in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Patients.
Tayfun Sahin, Umut Celikyurt, Bilal Geyik, Gökhan Oner, Teoman Kilic, Ulas Bildirici, Guliz Kozdag, Dilek Ural
Department of Cardiology, Medical Faculty of Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effects and dose dependency of aspirin on endothelial functions and prevalence of aspirin resistance in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients without previous drug therapy and development of cardiac complications. HYPOTHESIS: Acetylsalicyclic acid improves endothelial function. METHODS: Fifty-eight hypertensive patients and 61 healthy subjects in the control group were included in the study. Endothelial functions of the patient and control groups were evaluated with brachial artery examination. Patient and control groups were divided into 2 groups. A total of 100 mg and 300 mg of aspirin were given to the separate groups for 1 week. After 1 week, endothelial functions were reevaluated and aspirin resistance examined with a platelet function analyzer (PFA-100; Dade Behring, Marbourg, Germany). RESULTS: Baseline flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) change percent in hypertensive patients was 9.8%, and it was significantly lower than in the control group (12%)(P < 0.001). Frequency of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) resistance was 20% and 26% in control and hypertensive patient groups, respectively (P = not significant). ASA resistance was 28% and 24% in 100 mg and 300 mg in hypertensive patients, respectively (P = not significant). FMD change percent increased both in the control and hypertensive groups after ASA treatment from 12.4% to 13.3% and 9.8 % to 11.9 %, respectively. FMD percentage change was significantly increased in hypertensive patients irrespective of ASA resistance (P = 0.02, for ASA resistance [+]; P < 0.012, for ASA resistance [-]). CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial functions were impaired more in hypertensive patients compared to the control group. Endothelial functions were improved with all ASA doses in hypertensive patients irrespective of ASA resistance. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 30;: 22847365
Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100032, China; the Department of Rheumatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.
BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical features of cardiac involvement in polymyositis (PM) or dermatomyositis (DM). HYPOTHESIS: More attention will be focused on the heart in PM/DM as we would have wished, which contribute to improve the prognosis. METHODS: All articles published in English were retrieved by searching MEDLINE via PubMed (1975-2011). After selecting eligible articles according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, a systemic review was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 26 articles were included in this study, which included 1530 patients. The incidence of cardiac involvement was 9% to 72%. Heart failure was the most frequent (32% to 77%) clinical symptom. Among the abnormal electrocardiogram and ultrasonic cardiogram, the incidence of conduction abnormalities, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and hyperkinetic left ventricular contraction were 25% to 38.5%, 42%, and 6% to 12%, respectively. The pathologic findings revealed myocardial inflammation, degenerative changes and necrosis similar to that in skeletal muscles. Cardiac manifestations of some patients improved after glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant treatment. Thirty-seven patients (46.3%) died as a direct result of heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Heart abnormalities are frequent in patients with PM/DM, most of which were subclinical. The efficacy of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants is uncertain. Cardiac involvement is a common cause of death. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22026 The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 23;: 22825844
Current Statin Usage for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Multicenter Survey in Korea.
Mi-Jeong Kim, Doo Soo Jeon, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Soo-Joong Kim, Kiyuk Chang, Hyo-Soo Kim, Seung-Jea Tahk
Cardiovascular Center, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
Background: Although high-dose statin therapy has been reported to improve outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), patterns of statin usage for such patients have not been reported in real-world clinical practice. Hypothesis: Some clinical factors would affect the pattern of statin usage in patients with ACS. Methods: In the multicenter prospective registry, 3362 patients with ACS who underwent PCI were analyzed. High-dose statin treatment was defined as atorvastatin ≥40 mg or rosuvastatin ≥20 mg per day. The patterns of statin usage were investigated for 30 days after the index PCI. Results: High-dose statins were administered prior to PCI to 13.7% and 19.6% of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) and ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively (P < 0.001). After PCI, 476 (14.2%) patients were maintained on high-dose statins, and 550 (16.4%) patients received no statins. Independent factors associated with high-dose statin usage after PCI were STEMI (odds ratio [OR]: 1.704, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.321-2.197, P < 0.001), high total cholesterol level (OR: 1.445, 95% CI: 1.136-1.837, P = 0.003), and current smoker (OR: 1.556, 95% CI: 1.206-2.008, P < 0.011). The absence of hypercholesterolemia was an independent factor determining the nonuse of statins (OR: 0.229, 95% CI: 0.148-0.353, P < 0.001). Conclusions: In real-world clinical practice, high-dose statin treatment is being underused despite extensive evidence for patients with ACS undergoing PCI, particularly in UA/NSTEMI. Efforts are needed to ensure that clinical practice complies with evidence-based guidelines. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22038 This work was supported financially by Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Korea Ltd., which had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis, manuscript writing, or decision to proceed with publication. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 18;: 22811404
Professor, Associate Chair and Research Director, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
As major prescribers of oral anticoagulants, cardiologists must be familiar with strategies to manage bleeding, the principal complication associated with all anticoagulants, and to reverse anticoagulant effects in acute-care settings. The purpose of this manuscript is to review currently available information regarding dabigatran and rivaroxaban, the 2 novel oral anticoagulants approved to date in the United States. Further, we suggest reasonable interventions for the clinician faced with a patient who suffers a major bleeding event while receiving one of these agents. Data sources were peer-reviewed publications, US Food and Drug Administration documents in the public domain, and approved US prescribing information for dabigatran (Pradaxa) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto). Strategies for management of bleeding and reversal of anticoagulant effects from warfarin include vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, and prothrombin complex concentrates. For rivaroxaban and dabigatran, appropriate therapies include support and observation, which are likely to be effective for the majority of patients because of the short half-lives of these agents. In severe life-threatening hemorrhage, clotting-factor substitutes may be appropriate in certain situations. Validated protocols specific to each agent remain to be developed. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22037 Editorial support for this paper was provided by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. W.F.P. has received research grants (>$10 000) from Abbott, Alere, Baxter, Brahms, Novartis, and The Medicines Company. He has been a consultant (<$10 000) for Abbott, Alere, Eli Lilly, and The Medicines Company; served on the speaker's bureau (<$10 000) for Abbott and Alere; and has ownership interest (<$10 000) in Comprehensive Research Associates LLC, Vital Sensors, and Emergencies in Medicine LLC. M.M.G and R.M.M. are full-time employees of Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 16;: 22806427
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Program, and TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This study was funded in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (T32 HL094301-01A1 and T32 HL007604-27). Dr. Bhatt discloses the following relationships - Advisory Board: Medscape Cardiology; Board of Directors: Boston VA Research Institute, Society of Chest Pain Centers; Chair: American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines Science Subcommittee; Honoraria: American College of Cardiology (Editor, Clinical Trials, Cardiosource), Duke Clinical Research Institute (clinical trial steering committees), Slack Publications (Chief Medical Editor, Cardiology Today Intervention), WebMD (CME steering committees); Research Grants: Amarin, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Ethicon, Medtronic, Sanofi Aventis, The Medicines Company; Unfunded Research: FlowCo, PLx Pharma, Takeda. Drs. Murthy and Desai have received consulting fees from Novo Nordisk. The authors have no other funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 17;: 22806413
Prediction of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Operations for Rheumatic Aortic Valve Disease.
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China.
Background: We sought to develop and validate a logistic model and a simple score system for prediction of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing operations for rheumatic aortic valve disease. Hypothesis: The simple score model we established based on the logistic model was efficient and practical. Methods: A total of 669 rheumatic patients (mean age 51 ± 9 years), who underwent routine coronary angiography (CAG) before aortic valve surgery between 1998 and 2010, were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (≤5%) patients, from which an additive model was derived. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare discrimination, and precision was quantified by the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Significant coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in 1 or more major epicardial vessels determined by means of coronary angiography. Results: Eighty-eight (13.2%) patients had significant coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of CAD include age, angina, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. A total of 325 patients were designated as low risk according to the bootstrap logistic regression and additive models. Of these patients, only 4 (1.2%) had single-vessel disease, and none had high-risk CAD (ie, left main trunk, proximal left anterior descending, or multivessel disease). The bootstrap logistic regression and additive models show good discrimination, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.948 and 0.942, respectively. Conclusions: Our logistic regression model can reliably estimate the prevalence of significant CAD in rheumatic patients undergoing aortic valve operation, while the additive simple score system could reliably identify the low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography might be safely avoided. Clin. Cardiol. 2012 doi: 10.1002/clc.22033 The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. Dr. Guan-xin Zhang and Dr. Bai-ling Li have contributed equally to the work. Dr. Lin-han is co-corresponding author (email@example.com).
Clin Cardiol. 2012 Jul 6;: 22778046
Aldosterone Receptor Antagonists in Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of the Recent Literature and Insight Into Potential Future Indications.
Division of Clinical Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, New York. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of aldosterone receptor antagonists (spironolactone and eplerenone) as a useful pharmacologic intervention specifically in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and IV heart failure, in patients with an ejection fraction <40% after myocardial infarction, and most recently in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure. However, aldosterone receptor antagonists may be beneficial in a broader patient population. Aldosterone receptor antagonists can potentially serve as an antiarrhythmic pharmacologic agent for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, an anti-ischemic medication in coronary artery disease through prevention of myocardial fibrosis and vascular damage, and as an agent in people with asymptomatic and mild heart failure (NYHA classes I and II) and diastolic heart failure. However, many clinicians remain reluctant to prescribe this highly efficacious pharmacologic therapy for a variety of reasons, including concerns about polypharmacy and hyperkalemia. Recent observational analysis demonstrates that less than one-third of eligible patients hospitalized with heart failure actually received aldosterone antagonist therapy. This article will review the current and potential future uses of aldosterone receptor antagonists across the entire spectrum of cardiovascular disease. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.