Journal of the American Dietetic Association
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Dec 15;: 22176945
Associations have been reported between suboptimal maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy and childhood asthma. This pilot study conducted in 2008/2009 investigated the feasibility and acceptability of a food-based randomized controlled trial in pregnant women to optimize dietary vitamin E intake to 15 mg/day. A food-based intervention using "food exchanges" to individually optimize dietary vitamin E intake to 15 mg/day was developed and included in an advice booklet. Forty-three pregnant women with a personal/partner history of asthma were recruited at 12 weeks gestation and randomized to food-based intervention or a control group until 20 weeks gestation. A registered dietitian assessed the vitamin E intake of 22 women and provided tailored advice on food-based exchanges to optimize their intake to 15 mg/day. The 21 control women were not given dietary advice. The food-based intervention was completed by 19 women and increased mean vitamin E intake: food diary data, 7.13 mg/day (95% confidence interval: 5.63 to 18.6) to 17.4 mg/day (95% confidence interval: 14.4 to 20.5)(P<0.001). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of a food-exchange-based intervention to optimize dietary vitamin E intake during pregnancy. Additional work is required to determine whether this intervention, if sustained for the rest of pregnancy, reduces the likelihood of childhood asthma. The methodology used in the design of this novel food-based intervention could be transferred to other nutrients.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Dec 13;: 22172218
Meals in Our Household: Reliability and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Child Mealtime Behaviors and Family Mealtime Environments.
Mealtimes in families with young children are increasingly of interest to nutrition and public health researchers, yet assessment tools are limited. Meals in Our Household is a new parent-report questionnaire that measures six domains: 1) structure of family meals, 2) problematic child mealtime behaviors, 3) use of food as reward, 4) parental concern about child diet, 5) spousal stress related to child's mealtime behavior, and 6) influence of child's food preferences on what other family members eat. Reliability and initial face, construct, and discriminant validity of the questionnaire were evaluated between January 2007 and December 2009 in two cross-sectional studies comprising a total of 305 parents of 3- to 11-year-old children (including 53 children with autism spectrum disorders). Internal consistencies (Cronbach's α) for the six domains averaged .77 across both studies. Test-retest reliability, assessed among a subsample of 44 parents who repeated the questionnaire after between 10 and 30 days, was excellent (Spearman correlations for the domain scores between two administrations ranged from 0.80 to 0.95). Initial construct validity of the instrument was supported by observation of hypothesized inter-relationships between domain scores that were of the same direction and similar magnitude in both studies. Consistent with discriminant validity, children with autism spectrum disorders had statistically significantly (P<0.05) higher domain scores for problematic child mealtime behaviors, use of food as reward, parental concern about child diet, and spousal stress, as compared to typically developing children. Meals in Our Household may be a useful tool for researchers studying family mealtime environments and children's mealtime behaviors.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov 28;: 22130181
Validation of a Dietary Vitamin D Questionnaire Using Multiple Diet Records and the Block 98 Health Habits and History Questionnaire in Healthy Postmenopausal Women in Northern California.
Vitamin D deficiency is common in older women and can negatively impact bone status. A simple method by which clinicians and researchers can evaluate a patient's vitamin D dietary intake could help identify individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency. This study was done to validate a short dietary vitamin D questionnaire. Postmenopausal women (n=122), with a mean age of 63.9±7.8 years, completed a Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire (BVDQ), the Block Health History and Habits Questionnaire 1998 (BHHHQ98), a 3-day food record, and an evaluation of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, and Bland-Altman analyses to compare the performance of the BVDQ to the BHHHQ98 and to the diet record. As assessed by the BVDQ, vitamin D intake averaged 178.7±112.3 IU per day, correlating well with the Block HHHQ98 (r=0.51, P<0.001) and the 3-day food record (r=0.43, P<0.001). Compared with the food record, both the BVDQ and the BHHHQ98 overestimated dietary vitamin D intake by less than 100 IU/day. The two questionnaires performed nearly identically at all levels of vitamin D intake. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to vitamin D intake as measured by either the BVDQ or the BHHHQ98, but did correlate weakly with vitamin D intake from the 3-day diet record (r=0.20, P=0.04). The Brief Vitamin D Questionnaire correlated well with the longer and more intense dietary assessment methods, making it a simple and accurate instrument for assessing vitamin D intake.
American Dietetic Association's Knowledge Center Team, Chicago, IL, USA.
Nutrition professionals are obligated to follow ethical guidelines when conducting industry-funded research.
Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX, USA.
Although disclosure of all funding sources, including those from industry, is mandatory for publication, it is no longer adequate. Given the skepticism surrounding industry-funded research, we need guidelines for communication with funding organizations and publication venues, and we need to safeguard and preserve research and scientific integrity.
Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Lenny M W van Venrooij, Paul A M van Leeuwen, Wendy Hopmans, Mieke M M J Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Rien de Vos, Bas A J M De Mol
Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool than for the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, although still marginal. Further research to evaluate the modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, ie, the cardiac surgery-specific Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, is needed prior to implementing.
Health behaviors and weight status of childhood cancer survivors and their parents: similarities and opportunities for joint interventions.
Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for chronic health conditions that may be influenced by their cancer treatment and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Despite the possibility that interventions targeting the survivor-parent dyad may hold promise for this population, a clearer understanding of the role of family factors and the lifestyle behaviors of both survivors and parents is needed. A mailed cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 to assess weight status (body mass index), lifestyle behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity), and the quality of the parent-child relationship among 170 childhood cancer survivors who were treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center and 114 of their parents (80% mothers). Survivors were more physically active and consumed more fruits and vegetables than their parents. However, fewer than half of survivors or parents met national guidelines for diet and physical activity, and their weight status and fat intakes were moderately correlated (r=.30-.57; P<0.001). Multilevel models showed that, compared with survivors with better than average relationships, those with poorer than average relationships with their parents were significantly more likely to consume high-fat diets (P<0.05). Survivors and their parents may thus benefit from interventions that address common lifestyle behaviors, as well as issues in the family environment that may contribute to an unhealthy lifestyle.
Sensory evaluation ratings and moisture contents show that soy is acceptable as a partial replacement for all-purpose wheat flour in peanut butter graham crackers.
Department of Health and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460-8076, USA. email@example.com
Fortification can help individuals achieve adequate nutritional intake. Foods may be fortified with soy flour as a source of protein for individuals limiting their intake of animal products, either due to personal dietary preference or to reduce their intake of saturated fat, a known risk factor for heart disease. This study determined the feasibility of fortifying peanut butter graham crackers by substituting soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour at 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% weight/weight. Graham crackers fortified with soy flour were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified peanut butter graham crackers. Moisture contents of all graham crackers were similar. Consumers (n=102) evaluated each graham cracker using a hedonic scale and reported liking the color, smell, and texture of all products. However, unlike peanut butter graham crackers fortified with lower levels of soy, graham crackers fortified with 100% weight/weight soy flour had less than desirable flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Overall, this study shows that fortification of peanut butter graham crackers up to 75% weight/weight with soy flour for all-purpose wheat flour is acceptable.
How much of racial/ethnic disparities in dietary intakes, exercise, and weight status can be explained by nutrition- and health-related psychosocial factors and socioeconomic status among US adults?
Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Large disparities exist in obesity and other chronic diseases across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the United States. This study examined how much of racial/ethnic differences in diet, exercise, and weight status could be explained by nutrition- and health-related psychosocial factors (NHRPF) and SES among US adults. Nationally representative data of 4,356 US adults from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey were used. NHRPF were assessed using 24 questions and related index scores. Dietary intakes were assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. The US Department of Agriculture 2005 Healthy Eating Index was applied to evaluate diet quality. Body mass index was calculated based on self-reported weight and height. SES was assessed using education and household income. Americans with higher SES had better NHRPF and Healthy Eating Index scores. There were some small racial/ethnic differences in NHRPF, including making food choices and awareness of nutrition-related health risks. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models revealed some racial/ethnic differences in diet, exercise, and body mass index, but few of these disparities was explained by NHRPF, whereas SES explained some. The odds ratio of body mass index ≥25 for non-Hispanic blacks compared with whites decreased by 38% after SES was adjusted for. For exercise, we found a smaller change (9.5%) in the racial/ethnic differences when controlling for SES. In conclusion, NHRPF may explain very few, but SES may contribute some of the racial/ethnic disparities in diet, exercise, and weight status in the United States.
Associations between snacking and weight loss and nutrient intake among postmenopausal overweight to obese women in a dietary weight-loss intervention.
Angela Kong, Shirley A A Beresford, Catherine M Alfano, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Marian L Neuhouser, Donna B Johnson, Catherine Duggan, Ching-Yun Wang, Liren Xiao, Carolyn E Bain, Anne McTiernan
Cancer Education and Career Development Program, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.
Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were included in these analyses. Generalized linear models were used to test the associations between snacking and weight loss (percent) and nutrient intake at the 12-month time point. Participants were, on average, 58 years old and mainly non-Hispanic white (84%). Ninety-seven percent reported one or more snacks per day. Weight loss (percent) was significantly lower among mid-morning (10:30 am to 11:29 am) snackers (7.0%, 95% confidence interval: 4.3 to 9.7) compared to non-mid-morning snackers (11.4%, 95% confidence interval: 10.2 to 12.6; P=0.005). A higher proportion of mid-morning snackers reported more than one snack per day (95.7%), compared to afternoon (82.8%) and evening (80.6%) snackers, although differences were not statistically significant (P>0.005). Women who reported two or more snacks per day vs one or no snacks per day had higher fiber intake (P=0.027). Afternoon snackers had higher fruit and vegetable intake compared to non-afternoon-snackers (P=0.035). These results suggest that snack meals can be a source for additional fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods; however, snacking patterns might also reflect unhealthy eating habits and impede weight-loss progress. Future dietary weight-loss interventions should evaluate the effects of timing, frequency, and quality of snacks on weight loss.
Away-from-home family dinner sources and associations with weight status, body composition, and related biomarkers of chronic disease among adolescents and their parents.
Jayne A Fulkerson, Kian Farbakhsh, Leslie Lytle, Mary O Hearst, Donald R Dengel, Keryn E Pasch, Martha Y Kubik
School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. email@example.com
Information regarding associations between types of away-from-home family meal sources and obesity and other chronic diseases could help guide dietetics practitioners. The present study describes the purchase frequency of away-from-home food sources for family dinner (fast food, other restaurant purchases, home delivery, and takeout foods) and associations with weight status and percent body fat among adolescents (n=723) and parents (n=723) and related biomarkers of chronic disease among adolescents (n=367). A cross-sectional study design was used with baseline parent surveys and anthropometry/fasting blood samples from two community-based obesity studies (2006-2008) in Minnesota. Logistic regression and general linear modeling assessed associations between frequency of family dinner sources (weekly vs none in past week) and outcomes (parent and adolescent overweight/obesity and percent body fat; adolescent metabolic risk cluster z score, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fasting glucose, insulin, and systolic blood pressure. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for study allocation, baseline meal frequency, and demographic characteristics. The odds of overweight/obesity were considerably greater when families reported at least one away-from-home dinner purchase in the past week (odds ratio=1.2 to 2.6). Mean percent body fat, metabolic risk cluster z scores, and insulin levels were significantly greater with weekly purchases of family dinner from fast-food restaurants (P<0.05). Mean percent body fat, metabolic risk cluster z scores, and high-density lipoprotein levels were significantly higher for families who purchased weekly family dinner from takeout sources (P<0.05). Although frequent family dinners may be beneficial for adolescents, the source of dinners is likely as important in maintaining a healthy weight. Interventions should focus on encouragement of healthful family meals.
Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Adverse reactions to foods are classified according to the presence or absence of involvement of the immune system, which may or may not include the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of adverse food reactions, primarily in adults, and excluding celiac disease and lactose intolerance. Reported reactions to foods are often believed to be manifestations of a food allergy; however, IgE-mediated food allergy only affects 1% to 4% of adults, with seafood, tree nuts, peanuts, fruits, and vegetables being the most common triggers. Diagnosis is challenging and most commonly achieved through careful evaluation of clinical history followed by elimination and reintroduction or challenge with the suspected offending food. With acute-onset allergic reactions, estimation of food-specific IgE antibodies is frequently used to confirm or refute the diagnosis. Recent developments, such as single allergen assays, enhance the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, but the gold standard remains oral food challenge. Despite recent advances in the management of food allergy, including the promotion of oral tolerance, the mainstay of management is still the avoidance of food triggers. Dietary management can be compromised by nutritional inadequacy, accidental exposure, food labeling, and quality of life or adherence issues. It is essential that adults with confirmed food allergy receive optimal nutrition and dietetic support to enable them to manage their condition.
Energy balance in patients with pressure ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Servizio di Dietetica e Nutrizione Clinica, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. email@example.com
Medical nutrition therapy is reported to contribute to wound healing. However, effective intervention requires an accurate estimation of individual energy needs, which, in turn, relies on accurate methods of assessment. The primary aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to evaluate the resting energy expenditure (REE) of patients with pressure ulcers (PUs) compared to matched control groups and the potential estimation bias of REE predictive equations. The recommended daily energy requirements of patients with PUs were also assessed, along with their energy balance (daily energy requirement vs intake). All language, original, full-text research articles published between January 1, 1950, and July 31, 2010, were searched through electronic databases. Relevant studies were also identified by reviewing citations. Observational (case-control and case-series) studies providing data on measured REE were initially included. Data extracted were measured REE, predicted REE, and daily energy intake. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to controls (n=101), patients with PUs (n=92) presented higher measured REE (weighted mean 20.7±0.8 vs 23.7±2.2 kcal/kg/day; P<0.0001). In these patients, measured REE was also higher than predicted REE (calculated using the Harris-Benedict formula in all studies; 21.0±1.0 kcal/kg/day; P<0.0001), whereas energy intake (n=78; 21.7±3.1 kcal/kg/day) was significantly lower (P<0.0001) than total daily requirement, which was calculated as 29.4±2.7 kcal/kg/day. Patients with PUs are characterized by increased REE and reduced energy intake. In the estimation of REE using the Harris-Benedict formula, a correction factor (×1.1) should be considered to accurately assess energy needs. Moreover, an energy intake of 30 kcal/kg/day seems appropriate to cover the daily requirements of patients with PUs.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
This study sought to identify maternal styles of talking about child feeding from a semistructured interview and to evaluate associated maternal and child characteristics. Mothers of preschool-aged children (n=133) of diverse race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES)(45 lower SES black, 29 lower SES white, 32 lower SES Hispanic, 15 middle to upper SES white, and 12 middle to upper SES Asian) participated in a semistructured interview about feeding. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Themes were identified, and individual interviews were coded within these themes: authority (high/low), confidence (confident/conflicted/unopinionated), and investment (deep/mild/removed). Demographic characteristics were collected and a subset of children had measured weights and heights. Cluster analysis was used to identify narrative styles. Participant characteristics were compared across clusters using Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. Six narrative styles were identified: Easy-Going, Practical No-Nonsense, Disengaged, Effortful No-Nonsense, Indulgent Worry, and Conflicted Control. Cluster membership differed significantly based on maternal demographic group (P<0.001) and child weight status (P<0.05). More than half (60%) of children of mothers in the Conflicted Control cluster were obese. Maternal styles of talking about feeding are associated with maternal and child characteristics.
The Wellness Child Care Assessment Tool: a measure to assess the quality of written nutrition and physical activity policies.
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
BACKGROUND There is a growing interest in studying the influence of child-care center policies on the health of preschool-aged children. OBJECTIVE To develop a reliable and valid instrument to quantitatively evaluate the quality of written nutrition and physical activity policies at child-care centers. DESIGN Reliability and validation study. A 65-item measure was created to evaluate five areas of child-care center policies: nutrition education, nutrition standards for foods and beverages, promoting healthy eating in the child-care setting, physical activity, and communication and evaluation. The total scale and each subscale were scored on comprehensiveness and strength. SETTING Analyses were conducted on 94 independent policies from Connecticut child-care centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to measure inter-rater reliability, and Cronbach's α was used to estimate internal consistency. To test construct validity, t tests were used to assess differences in scores between Head Start and non-Head Start centers and between National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited and nonaccredited centers. RESULTS Inter-rater reliability was high for total comprehensiveness and strength scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.98 and 0.94, respectively) and subscale scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.84 to 0.99). Subscales were adequately internally reliable (Cronbach's α=.53 to .83). Comprehensiveness and strength scores were higher for Head Start centers than non-Head Start centers across most domains and higher for National Association for the Education of Young Children-accredited centers than nonaccredited centers across some but not all domains, providing evidence of construct validity. CONCLUSIONS This instrument provides a standardized method to analyze and compare the comprehensiveness and strength of written nutrition and physical activity policies in child-care centers.
Long-term dietary outcomes of the FRESH START intervention for breast and prostate cancer survivors.
Shannon M Christy, Catherine E Mosher, Richard Sloane, Denise C Snyder, David F Lobach, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Cancer survivors are at increased risk for secondary cancers and other diseases. Healthy dietary practices may improve cancer survivors' health and well-being. OBJECTIVE The durability of the effects of the FRESH START intervention, a program of sequentially tailored mailed materials, and standardized mailed materials (for controls) on cancer survivors' dietary outcomes was assessed over a 2-year period. Greater dietary gains were expected for FRESH START participants relative to controls. DESIGN Participants were randomized to receive tailored vs standardized 10-month mailed print interventions promoting diet and exercise behaviors. Data were collected at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-ups. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING Breast and prostate cancer survivors (n=543) were recruited from 39 states and two provinces within North America. A total of 489 participants completed the 2-year follow-up assessment (10% attrition). INTERVENTION Participants were randomly assigned to either a 10-month program of tailored mailed print materials promoting fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced total and saturated fat intake, and/or increased exercise or to a 10-month program of publicly available mailed materials on diet and exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Telephone surveys (supported with blood biomarkers) assessed dietary habits at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-ups. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED Paired-samples t tests were conducted to examine the durability of the intervention's effects on dietary outcomes within each study arm. Arm differences in follow-up outcomes were then tested with the general linear model, controlling for the baseline value of the outcomes. RESULTS Both arms reported decreased saturated fat intake, increased servings of fruits and vegetables, and better overall diet quality at year 2 relative to baseline. However, FRESH START participants reported better overall diet quality and lower total and saturated fat intake compared to controls at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that mailed material interventions, especially those that are tailored, can produce long-term dietary improvement among cancer survivors.
School of Allied Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4045, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that adequate vitamin D status in infancy plays a role in improving bone health and preventing disease, including type 1 diabetes, infections, and asthma. The objective of this study was to provide newborn hospitalized infants with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of 400 IU/day vitamin D-3 and measure the effect on serum 25(OH)D levels. DESIGN This trial was conducted August 2009 to June 2010. Infants were randomized to a control were measured from cord blood, every 7 days, and at discharge. Intact parathyroid hormone was measured at discharge. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING Fifty-two infants <32 weeks gestational age who received formula feedings during their neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Patient characteristics for each treatment group were summarized using descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables, and categorical variables were compared using the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to look at associations between continuous variables. RESULTS The mean cord blood level for all participants was 17.6±7.0 ng/mL. White infants had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels than non-white infants (P=0.0003). The mean 25(OH)D level at discharge of the supplemented group was 23.1±7.0 ng/mL (57.66±17.47 nmol/L), the mean 25(OH)D level of the unsupplemented group was 17.8±4.7 ng/mL (44.43±11.3 nmol/L),(P=0.007). Serum 25(OH)D showed a positive correlation with serum calcium in the first week of life (r=0.44, P=0.003) and negative correlation with parathyroid hormone levels at discharge (r=-0.35, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS In newborn hospitalized infants, vitamin D-3 supplementation of 400 IU/day increased mean 25(OH)D levels from 17 ng/mL at birth to 23.1 ng/mL at discharge. Lower 25(OH)D levels were correlated with hypocalcemia during the first week of life, and elevated parathyroid hormone levels at discharge.
Dietary intakes associated with successful weight loss and maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance trial.
Catherine M Champagne, Stephanie T Broyles, Laura D Moran, Katherine C Cash, Erma J Levy, Pao-Hwa Lin, Bryan C Batch, Lillian F Lien, Kristine L Funk, Arlene Dalcin, Catherine Loria, Valerie H Myers
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Dietary components effective in weight maintenance efforts have not been adequately identified. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of changes in dietary consumption on weight loss and maintenance during the Weight Loss Maintenance clinical trial. DESIGN Weight Loss Maintenance was a randomized controlled trial. Successful weight loss participants who completed Phase I of the trial and lost 4 kg were randomized to one of three maintenance intervention arms in Phase II and followed for an additional 30 months. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING The multicenter trial was conducted from 2003 through 2007. This substudy included 828 successful weight loss participants. METHODS The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess nutrient intake levels and food group servings. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, dietary fiber, fruit/vegetable, and dairy servings were utilized as predictor variables. The FFQ was collected on all participants at study entry (beginning of Phase I). Those randomized to Phase II completed the FFQ at three additional time points: randomization (beginning of Phase II), 12 months, and 30 months. INTERVENTION The main intervention focused on long-term maintenance of weight loss using the Dietary Approaches to Hypertension diet. This substudy examined if changes to specific dietary variables were associated with weight loss and maintenance. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED Linear regression models that adjusted for change in total energy examined the relationship between changes in dietary intake and weight for each time period. Site, age, race, sex, and a race-sex interaction were included as covariates. RESULTS Participants who substituted protein for fat lost, on average, 0.33 kg per 6 months during Phase I (P<0.0001) and 0.07 kg per 6 months during Phase II (P<0.0001) per 1% increase in protein. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with weight loss in Phases I and II: 0.29 kg per 6 months (P<0.0001) and 0.04 kg per 6 months (P=0.0062), respectively, per 1-serving increase. Substitution of carbohydrates for fat and protein for carbohydrates were associated with weight loss during both phases. Increasing dairy intake was associated with significant weight loss during Phase II (-0.17 kg per 6 months per 1-serving increase, P=0.0002), but not during Phase I. Dietary fiber revealed no significant findings. CONCLUSIONS Increasing fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy may help achieve weight loss and maintenance.