Elliott Sports Medicine Clinic, Burlington, Ontario, Canada;
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E9 23199432
Departments of Neurological Surgery.
Object Heightened recognition of the prevalence and significance of head injury in sports and in combat veterans has brought increased attention to the physiological and behavioral consequences of concussion. Current clinical practice is in part dependent on patient self-report as the basis for medical decisions and treatment. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) shows promise in the assessment of the pathophysiological derangements in concussion. The authors have developed a novel MEG-based neuroimaging strategy to provide objective, noninvasive, diagnostic information in neurological disorders. In the current study the authors demonstrate a novel task protocol and then assess MEG virtual recordings obtained during task performance as a diagnostic tool for concussion. Methods Ten individuals (5 control volunteers and 5 patients with a history of concussion) were enrolled in this pilot study. All participants underwent an MEG evaluation during performance of a language/spatial task. Each individual produced 960 responses to 320 sentence stimuli; 0.3 sec of MEG data from each word presentation and each response were analyzed: the data from each participant were classified using a rule constructed from the data obtained from the other 9 participants. Results Analysis of response times showed significant differences (p < 10(-4)) between concussed and normal groups, demonstrating the sensitivity of the task. The MEG measures enabled the correct classification of 8 of 10 individuals as concussed versus nonconcussed (p = 0.055). Analysis of single-trial data classified 70% of trials correctly (p < 10(-10)). Concussed patients showed increased activation in the occipitoparietal and temporal regions during evaluation. Conclusions These pilot findings are the first evidence of the utility of MEG virtual recording in diagnosing concussion. With further refinements, MEG virtual recordings may represent a noninvasive test to diagnose concussion and monitor its resolution.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E8 23199431
Montreal Sacred Heart Hospital Research Centre, Montreal;
In this review the authors discuss persistent and cumulative alterations in both cognitive and motor function after sports concussions detected with some of the newest, most sophisticated brain investigation techniques. Ranging from subclinical neurophysiological alterations in young concussed athletes to quantifiable cognitive and motor function declines in former athletes in late adulthood with concussions sustained decades earlier, this review is also intended to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of sports concussion.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E6 23199429
Scott L Zuckerman, Andrew Kuhn, Michael C Dewan, Peter J Morone, Jonathan A Forbes, Gary S Solomon, Allen K Sills
Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee; and.
Object Sports-related concussions (SRCs) represent a significant and growing public health concern. The vast majority of SRCs produce mild symptoms that resolve within 1-2 weeks and are not associated with imaging-documented changes. On occasion, however, structural brain injury occurs, and neurosurgical management and intervention is appropriate. Methods A literature review was performed to address the epidemiology of SRC with a targeted focus on structural brain injury in the last half decade. MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched to identify all studies pertaining to structural head injury in sports-related head injuries. Results The literature review yielded a variety of case reports, several small series, and no prospective cohort studies. Conclusions The authors conclude that reliable incidence and prevalence data related to structural brain injuries in SRC cannot be offered at present. A prospective registry collecting incidence, management, and follow-up data after structural brain injuries in the setting of SRC would be of great benefit to the neurosurgical community.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E5 23199428
An overview of the basic science of concussion and subconcussion: where we are and where we are going.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; and.
There has been a growing interest in the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion. Repetitive concussion and subconcussion have been linked to a spectrum of neurological sequelae, including postconcussion syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia pugilistica. A more common risk than chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the season-ending or career-ending effects of concussion or its mismanagement. To effectively prevent and treat the sequelae of concussion, it will be important to understand the basic processes involved. Reviewed in this paper are the forces behind the primary phase of injury in mild TBI, as well as the immediate and delayed cellular events responsible for the secondary phase of injury leading to neuronal dysfunction and possible cell death. Advanced neuroimaging sequences have recently been developed that have the potential to increase the sensitivity of standard MRI to detect both structural and functional abnormalities associated with concussion, and have provided further insight into the potential underlying pathophysiology. Also discussed are the potential long-term effects of repetitive mild TBI, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Much of the data regarding this syndrome is limited to postmortem analyses, and at present there is no animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy described in the literature. As this arena of TBI research continues to evolve, it will be imperative to appropriately model concussive and even subconcussive injuries in an attempt to understand, prevent, and treat the associated chronic neurodegenerative sequelae.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E4 23199427
A prospective study of physician-observed concussion during a varsity university hockey season: metabolic changes in ice hockey players. Part 4 of 4.
Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal and CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada;
Object Despite negative neuroimaging findings using traditional neuroimaging methods such as MRI and CT, sports-related concussions have been shown to cause neurometabolic changes in both the acute and subacute phases of head injury. However, no prospective clinical study has used an independent physician-observer design in the monitoring of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive head impacts on neurometabolic concentrations in a prospective study of two Canadian Interuniversity Sports (CIS) ice hockey teams using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Methods Forty-five ice hockey players (25 men and 20 women) participated in this study. All participants underwent pre- and postseason MRI, including spectroscopy imaging, using a 3-T MRI machine. The linear combination model was used to quantify the following ratios: glutamate/creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr), myoinositol/Cr, and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr. Individuals sustaining a medically diagnosed concussion were sent for MRI at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after injury. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between athletes who were diagnosed with a concussion and athletes who were not clinically diagnosed as sustaining a concussion. Although no statistically significant longitudinal metabolic changes were observed among athletes who were diagnosed with a concussion, the results demonstrated a predictable pattern of initial impairment, followed by a gradual return to ratios that were similar to, but lower than, baseline ratios. No significant pre- to postseason changes were demonstrated among men who were not observed to sustain a concussion. However, a substantively significant decrease in the NAA/Cr ratio was noted among the female hockey players (t((13))= 2.58, p = 0.02, η(2)= 0.34). Conclusions A key finding in this study, from the standpoint of future research design, is the demonstration of substantively significant metabolic changes among the players who were not diagnosed with a concussion. In addition, it may explain why there are few statistically significant differences demonstrated between players who were diagnosed with a concussion and players who were not diagnosed with a concussion (that is, the potency of the independent variable was diminished by the fact that the group of players not diagnosed with a concussion might be better described as a subgroup of the players who may have sustained a concussion but were not observed and diagnosed with a concussion). This result suggests that definitions of concussion may need to be revisited within sports with high levels of repetitive subconcussive head impacts. Future analysis of these data will examine the relationships between the modes of MRI (diffusion tensor imaging, MRS, and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging) used in this study, along with other more sensitive evaluative techniques. This type of intermodal comparison may improve the identification of concussions that were previously dependent on the unreliable self-reporting of recognized concussion symptomatology by the athlete or on poorly validated neuropsychological tests.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E2 23199425
A prospective study of physician-observed concussion during a varsity university ice hockey season: incidence and neuropsychological changes. Part 2 of 4.
Paul S Echlin, Elaine N Skopelja, Rachel Worsley, Shiroy B Dadachanji, D Rob Lloyd-Smith, Jack A Taunton, Lorie A Forwell, Andrew M Johnson
Elliott Sports Medicine Clinic, Burlington, Ontario, Canada;
Object The primary objective of this study was to measure the incidence of concussion according to a relative number of athlete exposures among 25 male and 20 female varsity ice hockey players. The secondary objective was to present neuropsychological test results between preseason and postseason play and at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. Methods Every player underwent baseline assessments using the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2), Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT), and MRI. Each regular season and postseason game was observed by 2 independent observers (a physician and a nonphysician observer). Players with a diagnosed concussion were removed from the game, examined in the team physician's office using the SCAT2 and ImPACT, and sent to undergo MRI. Results Eleven concussions occurred during the 55 physician-observed games (20%). The incidence of concussion, expressed as number of concussions per 1000 athlete exposures, was 10.70 for men and women combined in regular season play, 11.76 for men and women combined across both the regular season and playoff season, 7.50 for men and 14.93 for women in regular season play, and 8.47 for men across both the regular season and playoff season. One male player experienced repeat concussions. No concussions were reported during practice sessions, and 1 concussion was observed and diagnosed in an exhibition game. Neuropsychological testing suggested no statistically significant preseason/postseason differences between athletes who sustained a physician-diagnosed concussion and athletes who did not sustain a physician-diagnosed concussion on either the ImPACT or SCAT2. The athletes who sustained a physician-diagnosed concussion demonstrated few reliable changes postinjury. Conclusions Although the incidence of game-related concussions per 1000 athlete exposures in this study was half the highest rate reported in the authors' previous research, it was 3 times higher than the incidence reported by other authors within the literature concerning men's collegiate ice hockey and 5 times higher than the highest rate previously reported for woman's collegiate ice hockey. Interestingly, the present results suggest a substantively higher incidence of concussion among women (14.93) than men (7.50). The reproducible and significantly higher incidence of concussion among both men and woman ice hockey players, when compared with nonphysician-observed games, suggests a significant underestimation of sports concussion in the scientific literature.
University of California, San Diego, VA San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California.
Comparative analysis of state-level concussion legislation and review of current practices in concussion.
Department of Neurological Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey.
Object Forty-two states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation based on the Lystedt law of Washington state, enacted in 2009 to protect young athletes who have sustained a concussion. The aim of this study was to note the several similarities and differences among the various laws. Methods Concussion legislation was compared for 50 states and the District of Columbia. Evaluation parameters of this study included stipulations of concussion education, criteria for removal from play, requirements for evaluation and return to play after concussion, and individuals required to assess young athletes. Other parameters that were not consistent across states were also noted. Results Forty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed concussion legislation, and an additional 4 states have pending legislation. All states with existing legislation support concussion education for coaches; however, only 48% require coaches to undergo formal education. Athletes must be educated on concussion in 86% of states and parents in 88.7%. Suspicion of concussion is a criterion for removal from play in 75% of states; signs and symptoms of concussion are criteria for removal from play in 16% of states. The individuals allowed to evaluate and clear an athlete for return to play differ greatly among states. Conclusions Injury prevention legislation holds historical precedent, and given the increasing attention to long-term sequelae of repeated head trauma and concussion, concussion legislation has been rapidly passed in 43 states and the District of Columbia. Although the exact stipulations of these laws vary among states, the overall theme is to increase recognition of concussion in young athletes and ensure that they are appropriately cleared for return to play after concussion.
Association between biomechanical parameters and concussion in helmeted collisions in American football: a review of the literature.
Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center;
Object The authors' goal was to better define the relationship between biomechanical parameters of a helmeted collision and the likelihood of concussion. Methods The English-language literature was reviewed in search of scholarly articles describing the rotational and translational accelerations observed during all monitored impact conditions that resulted in concussion at all levels of American football. Results High school players who suffer concussion experience an average of 93.9g of translational acceleration (TA) and 6505.2 rad/s(2) of rotational acceleration (RA). College athletes experience an average of 118.4g of TA and 5311.6 rad/s(2) of RA. While approximately 3% of collisions are associated with TAs greater than the mean TA associated with concussion, only about 0.02% of collisions actually result in a concussion. Associated variables that determine whether a player who experiences a severe collision also experiences a concussion remain hypothetical at present. Conclusions The ability to reliably predict the incidence of concussion based purely on biomechanical data remains elusive. This study provides novel, important information that helps to quantify the relative insignificance of biomechanical parameters in prediction of concussion risk. Further research will be necessary to better define other factors that predispose to concussion.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Dec ;33 (6):E1 23199421
Editorial: A prospective study of physician-observed concussion during a varsity university ice hockey season. Part 1 of 4.
Elliott Sports Medicine Clinic, Family Medicine, Burlington, Ontario, Canada.
Division of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla;
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E8 23116103
Infection following operations on the central nervous system: deconstructing the myth of the sterile field.
Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Neurosurgical patients are at a high risk for infectious sequelae following operations. For neurosurgery in particular, the risk of surgical site infection has a unique implication given the proximity of the CSF and the CNS. Patient factors contribute to some degree; for example, cancer and trauma are often associated with impaired nutritional status, known risk factors for infection. Additionally, care-based factors for infection must also be considered, such as the length of surgery, the administration of steroids, and tissue devascularization (such as a craniotomy bone flap). When postoperative infection does occur, attention is commonly focused on potential lapses in surgical "sterility." Evidence suggests that the surgical field is not free of microorganisms. The authors propose a paradigm shift in the nomenclature of the surgical field from "sterile" to "clean." Continued efforts aimed at optimizing immune capacity and host defenses to combat potential infection are warranted.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E7 23116102
Application of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation to the neurosurgical scenario: method and preliminary data.
Paolo Ferroli, Dario Caldiroli, Francesco Acerbi, Maurizio Scholtze, Alfonso Piro, Marco Schiariti, Eleonora F Orena, Melina Castiglione, Morgan Broggi, Alessandro Perin, Francesco Dimeco
Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Milano; and.
Object Incident reporting systems are universally recognized as important tools for quality improvement in all complex adaptive systems, including the operating room. Nevertheless, introducing a safety culture among neurosurgeons is a slow process, and few studies are available in the literature regarding the implementation of an incident reporting system within a neurosurgical department. The authors describe the institution of an aviation model of incident reporting and investigation in neurosurgery, focusing on the method they have used and presenting some preliminary results. Methods In 2010, the Inpatient Safety On-Board project was developed through cooperation between a team of human factor and safety specialists with aviation backgrounds (DgSky team) and the general manager of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta. In 2011, after specific training in safety culture, the authors implemented an aviation-derived prototype of incident reporting within the Department of Neurosurgery. They then developed an experimental protocol to track, analyze, and categorize any near misses that happened in the operating room. This project officially started in January 2012, when a dedicated team of assessors was established. All members of the neurosurgical department were asked to report near misses on a voluntary, confidential, and protected form (Patient Incident Reporting System form, Besta Safety Management Programme). Reports were entered into an online database and analyzed by a dedicated team of assessors with the help of a facilitator, and an aviation-derived root cause analysis was performed. Results Since January 2012, 14 near misses were analyzed and classified. The near-miss contributing factors were mainly related to human factors (9 of 14 cases), technology (1 of 14 cases), organizational factors (3 of 14 cases), or procedural factors (1 of 14 cases). Conclusions Implementing an incident reporting system is quite demanding; the process should involve all of the people who work within the environment under study. Persistence and strong commitment are required to enact the culture change essential in shifting from a paradigm of infallible operators to the philosophy of errare humanum est. For this paradigm shift to be successful, contributions from aviation and human factor experts are critical.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E5 23116100
University of California, Los Angeles, surgical time-out process: evolution, challenges, and future perspective.
Departments of Neurosurgery and.
Since the development of the WHO Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative and Surgical Safety Checklist, numerous hospitals across the globe have adopted the use of a surgical checklist. The UCLA Health System developed its first extended Surgical Safety Checklist in 2008. Authors of the present paper describe how the time-out checklist used before skin incision was implemented and how it progressed to its current form. Compliance with the most recent version of the checklist has been closely monitored via documentation and observance audits. In addition, the surgical team's appreciation of the current time-out has been assessed. Cultural, practice, and human resource challenges are discussed, as are potential future avenues for innovations in the emerging field of the surgical checklist in neurosurgery.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E4 23116099
Departments of Neurological Surgery.
Morbidity and mortality due to preventable medical errors are a disastrous reality in medicine. Debriefing, a process that allows individuals to discuss team performance in a constructive, supportive environment, has been linked to improved performance in various medical and surgical fields, including improvements in specific procedures, teamwork and communication, and error identification. However, the neurosurgical literature on this topic is limited. The authors review the debriefing literature in the field of medicine, with a specific emphasis on the operating room, and they report their own institutional experience with a debriefing module, from invention to pilot implementation, at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The authors share the challenges and lessons learned from their quality improvement project. The field of neurosurgery would undoubtedly benefit from embracing debriefing, as its potential has been established in other medical specialties and can serve as a valuable role in immediately learning from mistakes. The authors hope that their colleagues can learn from this experience and improve their own.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E3 23116098
Creating a culture of safety within operative neurosurgery: the design and implementation of a perioperative safety video.
Catherine Y Lau, S Ryan Greysen, Rita I Mistry, Seunggu J Han, Praveen V Mummaneni, Mitchel S Berger
Department of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine; and.
Object Surgical and medical errors result from failures in communication and handoffs as well as lack of standardization in clinical protocols and safety practices. Checklists, simulation training, and teamwork training have been shown to decrease adverse patient events and increase the safety culture of surgical teams. The goal of this project was to simplify and standardize perioperative patient safety practices and team communication processes within operative neurosurgery through the creation of an educational safety video targeted at a neurosurgical provider audience. Methods A multidisciplinary group consisting of neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, neuromonitoring specialists, quality champions, and a professional video production company met over several months in an iterative process to 1) determine the overall objectives of the video, 2) decide on the content and format of the video, 3) modify the proposed content and format based on stakeholder feedback, and 4) record the video and complete final revisions during postproduction. Results The video was launched within the authors' institution in July 2012 in conjunction with ongoing research projects to study the effects of the video on 1) multidisciplinary providers' knowledge of perioperative safety practices, 2) provider safety attitudes and safety culture in the operating room, and 3) provider behavior in performing predetermined elements of the preoperative timeout and postoperative debrief. Conclusions The neurosurgical perioperative safety video can serve as a national model for how quality champions can drive changes in safety culture and provider behavior among multidisciplinary perioperative patient care teams. Ongoing research is being performed to assess the impact of the video on provider knowledge, behavior, and safety attitudes and culture.
Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Nov ;33 (5):E2 23116097
Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine;
Morbidity due to avoidable medical errors is a crippling reality intrinsic to health care. In particular, iatrogenic surgical errors lead to significant morbidity, decreased quality of life, and attendant costs. In recent decades there has been an increased focus on health care quality improvement, with a concomitant focus on mitigating avoidable medical errors. The most notable tool developed to this end is the surgical checklist. Checklists have been implemented in various operating rooms internationally, with overwhelmingly positive results. Comparatively, the field of neurosurgery has only minimally addressed the utility of checklists as a health care improvement measure. Literature on the use of checklists in this field has been sparse. Considering the widespread efficacy of this tool in other fields, the authors seek to raise neurosurgical awareness regarding checklists by reviewing the current literature.
Judith M Wong, Jaykar R Panchmatia, John E Ziewacz, Angela M Bader, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws, Atul A Gawande
Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health;
Object Neurosurgery is a high-risk specialty currently undertaking the pursuit of systematic approaches to measuring and improving outcomes. As part of a project to devise evidence-based safety interventions for specialty surgery, the authors sought to review current evidence in cranial tumor resection concerning the frequency of adverse events in practice, their patterns, and current methods of reducing the occurrence of these events. This review represents part of a series of papers written to consolidate information about these events and preventive measures as part of an ongoing effort to ascertain the utility of devising system-wide policies and safety tools to improve neurosurgical practice. Methods The authors performed a PubMed search using search terms "intracranial neoplasm,""cerebral tumor,""cerebral meningioma,""glioma," and "complications" or "adverse events." Only papers that specifically discussed the relevant complication rates were included. Papers were chosen to maximize the range of rates of occurrence for the reported adverse events. Results Review of the tumor neurosurgery literature showed that documented overall complication rates ranged from 9% to 40%, with overall mortality rates of 1.5%-16%. There was a wide range of types of adverse events overall. Deep venous thromboembolism (DVT) was the most common adverse event, with a reported incidence of 3%-26%. The presence of new or worsened neurological deficit was the second most common adverse event found in this review, with reported rates ranging from 0% for the series of meningioma cases with the lowest reported rate to 20% as the highest reported rate for treatment of eloquent glioma. Benign tumor recurrence was found to be a commonly reported adverse event following surgery for intracranial neoplasms. Rates varied depending on tumor type, tumor location, patient demographics, surgical technique, the surgeon's level of experience, degree of specialization, and changes in technology, but these effects remain unmeasured. The incidence on our review ranged from 2% for convexity meningiomas to 36% for basal meningiomas. Other relatively common complications were dural closure-related complications (1%-24%), postoperative peritumoral edema (2%-10%), early postoperative seizure (1%-12%), medical complications (6%-7%), wound infection (0%-4%), surgery-related hematoma (1%-2%), and wrong-site surgery. Strategies to minimize risk of these events were evaluated. Prophylactic techniques for DVT have been widely demonstrated and confirmed, but adherence remains unstudied. The use of image guidance, intraoperative functional mapping, and real-time intraoperative MRI guidance can allow surgeons to maximize resection while preserving neurological function. Whether the extent of resection significantly correlates with improved overall outcomes remains controversial. Discussion A significant proportion of adverse events in intracranial neoplasm surgery may be avoidable by use of practices to encourage use of standardized protocols for DVT, seizure, and infection prophylaxis; intraoperative navigation among other steps; improved teamwork and communication; and concentrated volume and specialization. Systematic efforts to bundle such strategies may significantly improve patient outcomes.
Judith M Wong, John E Ziewacz, Allen L Ho, Jaykar R Panchmatia, Albert H Kim, Angela M Bader, B Gregory Thompson, Rose Du, Atul A Gawande
Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health;
Object As part of a project to devise evidence-based safety interventions for specialty surgery, we sought to review current evidence concerning the frequency of adverse events in open cerebrovascular neurosurgery and the state of knowledge regarding methods for their reduction. This review represents part of a series of papers written to consolidate information about these events and preventive measures as part of an ongoing effort to ascertain the utility of devising system-wide policies and safety tools to improve neurosurgical practice. Methods The authors performed a PubMed search using search terms "cerebral aneurysm","cerebral arteriovenous malformation","intracerebral hemorrhage","intracranial hemorrhage","subarachnoid hemorrhage", and "complications" or "adverse events." Only papers that specifically discussed the relevant complication rates were included. Papers were chosen to be included to maximize the range of rates of occurrence for the reported adverse events. Results The review revealed hemorrhage-related hyperglycemia (incidence rates ranging from 27% to 71%) and cerebral salt-wasting syndromes (34%-57%) to be the most common perioperative adverse events related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Next in terms of frequency was new cerebral infarction associated with SAH, with a rate estimated at 40%. Many techniques are advocated for use during surgery to minimize risk of this development, including intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, but are not universally used due to surgeon preference and variable availability of appropriate staffing and equipment. The comparative effectiveness of using or omitting monitoring technologies has not been evaluated. The incidence of perioperative seizure related to vascular neurosurgery is unknown, but reported seizure rates from observational studies range from 4% to 42%. There are no standard guidelines for the use of seizure prophylaxis in these patients, and there remains a need for prospective studies to support such guidelines. Intraoperative rupture occurs at a rate of 7% to 35% and depends on aneurysm location and morphology, history of rupture, surgical technique, and surgeon experience. Preventive strategies include temporary vascular clipping. Technical adverse events directly involving application of the aneurysm clip include incomplete aneurysm obliteration and parent vessel occlusion. The rates of these events range from 5% to 18% for incomplete obliteration and 3% to 12% for major vessel occlusion. Intraoperative angiography is widely used to confirm clip placement; adjuncts include indocyanine green video angiography and microvascular Doppler ultrasonography. Use of these technologies varies by institution. Discussion A significant proportion of these complications may be avoidable through development and testing of standardized protocols to incorporate monitoring technologies and specific technical practices, teamwork and communication, and concentrated volume and specialization. Collaborative monitoring and evaluation of such protocols are likely necessary for the advancement of open cerebrovascular neurosurgical quality.