Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water extracts of the leaves, stem bark, and root of Diospyros mespiliformis were studied for their antimicrobial activities. The crude extracts showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against 9 Gram-positive bacteria, 8 Gram-negative bacteria, and 6 fungal strains. Of the four extracting solvents, chloroform produced extracts with the best antimicrobial activities, while the chloroform extract of the root exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity. Some tetracycline resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and gentamicin resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sensitive to some of the extracts tested. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of the following metabolites: anthraquinones, tannins, triterpene, saponins, steroids, and sugars and the absence of alkaloids. The antimicrobial activities observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from several species of this plant and their traditional uses.
In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori potential of methanol extract of Allium ascalonicum Linn.(Liliaceae) leaf: susceptibility and effect on urease activity.
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Clinical Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, P.O. Box 22346 U. I. Ibadan, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The crude methanol extract of the leaf of Allium ascalonicum was screened in vitro against fi ve strains of Helicobacter pylori (Hp)(ATCC 24376, UCH 97001, UCH 97009, UCH 98026 and UCH 99039) for antibacterial activity by the agar diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with de fi brinated horse blood. All the strains were inhibited by the extract to varying degrees. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract against all the tested strains ranged from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/mL. The effects of increasing concentrations of the extract on the urease activity of three of the Helicobacter pylori strains were investigated further. The results showed that increasing the concentration of the extract decreased the urease activity of all the strains tested. Phytochemical screening of the plant showed that it contains alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. The anti-Hp activity observed is discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses. The result of this work suggests that Allium ascalonicum has some therapeutic potential against Helicobacter pylori infection, which could be explored for patients with gastroduodenal disorders.
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Antibacterial activity of diospyrin, isodiospyrin and bisisodiospyrin from the root of Diospyros piscatoria (Gurke)(Ebenaceae).
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Two dimeric naphthoquinones, diospyrin and isodiospyrin, isolated from the root of Diospyros piscatoria (Gurke), a common ingredient in several folk medicines, have been shown to have a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diospyrin against Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 12344 and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 33400 ranged from 1.56 to 50 microg/mL. While those against Salmonella choleraesuis serotype typhi (S. typhi), ATCC 6539 and Mycobacterium chelonae ATCC 19977 were between 25 and 100 microg/mL. Isodiospyrin was more active than its racemic isomer diospyrin. The MICs against Gram-positive bacteria ranged from 0.78 to 50 microg/mL. While those against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15443 and S. typhi ranged from 50 to 100 microg/mL. The MIC for M. chelonae was between 6.25 and 25 microg/mL. MICs were found to increase with the concentration of cells used for the inoculum. The MICs for Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 increased up to the highest concentration of cells tested. The same phenomenon was observed on M. chelonae, but with better effect in the latter. The kinetics of bacteria studies against both B. subtilis and M. chelonae increases with increasing concentration of isodiospyrin tested. Two tetrameric forms of plumbagin were isolated. The naphthoquinone bisisodiospyrin, gave MIC values between 300 and 400 micro g/mL. The second, as yet unidentified tetramer, was not active at 500 micro g/mL.
J Chemother. 2006 Feb ;18 (1):112-4 16572904
Virus Research Laboratory, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Employing neutralization tests, eight Nigerian strains of West Nile virus were investigated to determine antigenic relationships among them. One virus strain differed so significantly from the others and was later found to be a strain of Usutu virus. The other seven strains were differentiated into two serological intratypic groups dependent on their cross reactions with two strains which served as prototypes for each group. It was found that for epidemiological studies, screening of sera and sero-diagnosis, strain 7019 which had a broad spectrum of reactivity with other strains was a most suitable strain for detecting and evaluating antibodies to West Nile virus.
Essential oil composition of Piper guineense and its antimicrobial activity. Another chemotype from Nigeria.
Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, Lagos State, Nigeria.
The analysis of the essential oil of Piper guineense from Nigeria presents a new chemotype of constituents different from earlier reports with the absence of the usual myristicin. Ishwarane, a common constituent of Aristolochia indica and Bixa orellana, was also isolated from the essential oil of the fruit. The essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 655 strain at 5 mg/mL on which standard antibiotic drugs were ineffective.
Evaluation of valuation of toxicity profile of an alkaloidal fraction of the stem bark of Picralima nitida (fam. Apocynacaes).
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Clinical Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
Dermal and acute toxicity evaluation of the basic alkaloidal fraction of the stem bark of Picralima nitida, which has been shown to have pronounced activity against causative organisms of dermatomycosis in man, was carried out in animals. Acute intraperitoneal toxicity tests showed a dose-dependent toxicity. There was inflammation and necrosis of liver hepatocytes accompanied by reduction in neutrophilic count and a corresponding increase in lymphocytic count. There was no sign of reddening or irritation when applied into the eye conjunctiva. Dermal tests also showed that the fraction caused no sensitization, inflammation or death in the animal models used.
Institute for Tuberculosis Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Extracts obtained from three Nigerian Sterculiaceae plants: Cola accuminata, C. nitida and C. milleni were screened for anti-mycobacterium properties using a slow growing Mycobacterium bovis ATCC 35738 (designated BCG Mexican and known to have some virulence in mouse and guinea pig) at 1000 microg/ml using the radiometric (BACTEC) method. The extracts were also tested against six fast growing ATCC strains of M. vaccae using the broth microdilution method. The methanol extracts from both leaves, stem bark and root bark of Cola accuminata and from the leaves and stem bark of C. nitida and C. milleni were not active at the highest concentration of 1000 microg/ml. Only the methanol extract of root bark for both C. nitida and C. milleni were found to be potent against both M. bovis and strains of M. vaccae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of C. nitida against M. bovis is 125 microg/ml while the MIC of C. milleni against M. bovis is 62.5 microg/ml after at least 6 days of inhibition with growth index (GI) units lesser than or equal to the change in GI units inoculated with a 1/100 of the BACTEC inoculum for a control vial. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. milleni against the six ATCC strain of M. vaccae ranged from 62.5 microg/ml to 250 microg/ml while for C. nitida ranged from 500 microg/ml to above 1000microg/ml. Evidently, C. milleni has the highest inhibitory activity against both M. bovis and strains of M. vaccae used. Rifampicin, the positive control used has strong activity against M. bovis at the tested concentration of 5 microg and 10 microg/ml and 4 to 8 microg/ml against the six strains of M. vaccae.
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the fruit essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica from Nigeria.
Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, PMB 1087 Apapa, Lagos, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The fruits essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica showed activity against four microorganisms and cytotoxicity to carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cell line) at 5 mg/ml concentration.
Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, P.O. Box 21242 Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Diosquinone , a naphthoquinone epoxide previously isolated from the root bark of Diospyros mespiliformis (Hostch) and D. tricolor [Ebenaceae] is been assessed for cytotoxicity activity against ten cancer cell lines by standard NIH method. The ethno-pharmacological claim of this plant and the previously observed good antibacterial activity of this compound among the others isolated from this plant suggest its probable cytotoxicity activity. Diosquinone was observed to be very active against most of the cancer cell lines. It shows very good activity against all the cell lines tested with ED50 value ranging between 0.18 microg/ml. against Human Glioblastoma (U373) to 4.5 microg/ml. against Hormone dependent human prostrate cancer( LNCaP).
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Quercetin-7,4'-disulphate (1) quercetin (2) quercetin-3',4'-disulphate (3) quercetin-3,4'-diacetate (4) rutin (5) and quercetrin (6) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction (ESM) of the crude methanolic leaf extract of Alchornea laxiflora. Purification of these compounds was carried out by column chromatography utilising sephadex LH 20 and various mixtures of water, methanol, ethanol and toluene as eluents. Structural elucidation was by UV, IR,(1)HNMR and (13)CNMR spectroscopy as well as by FAB-MS. Antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds was detected in Gram-positive, Gram-negative and fungal organisms.
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In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia.
School of Pharmacy, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, P. O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia.
THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy.
Identification and evaluation of counter-irritant potential of crude extract of Malva parviflora L. by WHO recommended methods.
College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
Plenty of medicinal plants are available in Pakistan and are in human use as herbal medicines from ancient time. Present work is based on the evaluation of the use of Malva parviflora in skin irritation problems. For this purpose, powdered plant material (The aerial part and roots separately) was extracted by using successive solvent extraction method using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol. Resulting three crude fractions were subjected to counter-irritant investigations on rabbit's ear. Petroleum ether fraction exhibited prominent counter-irritant potential. Five compounds named, as MP-1, MP-2, MP-3, MP-4 and MP-5 were isolated from petroleum ether extract by column and thin layer chromatography. These compounds were subjected to UV spectrophotometer for detection of absorption of light, then FTIR for specific functional group identification and counter-irritant potentials was evaluated on rabbit's ear skin. The MP-1 and MP-2 exhibited excellent counter-irritant activity in different dilutions than others. However, dilution 100 μg/ml showed maximum activity.
María G Martínez Ruiz, Melissa Richard-Greenblatt, Zaida N Juárez, Yossef Av-Gay, Horacio Bach, Luis R Hernández
Departamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Santa Catarina Mártir s/n, 72820 Cholula, PUE, Mexico.
The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist) G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae). Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using latex from few Euphorbian plants and their antimicrobial potential.
School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The synthesis of well-dispersed and ultrafine metal nanoparticles has great interest due to their distinctive physicochemical properties and biomedical applications. This study is the first report of one-step solvent-free synthesis of AgNPs using Euphorbiaceae plant latex. Among evaluated eight latex-producing plants, four (Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, and Euphorbia milii) showed high potential to produce physicochemically distinct, small-sized and bactericidal AgNPs. Phytochemical screening showed presence of rich amount of biochemicals in these plants. J. gossypifolia showed uniformly dispersed comparatively small-sized AgNPs. Dose-dependent growth inhibition of bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, and Micrococcus luteus was observed for J. gossypifolia latex-synthesized AgNPs with minimum inhibitory concentration values 30, 40, 70, 60, and 60 ppm, respectively, after 24 h. Possible mode of action of AgNPs against pathogens was confirmed by analyzing enzymes and cell leakage.
Department of Pharmacognosy, KLE University College of Pharmacy, Belgaum, India.
Ayurvedic system of medicine is well known for treating renal problems. A vast number of medicinal plants mentioned in Ayurvedic system of medicine are known to possess diuretic properties. Present study reports the preliminary phytochemical investigation of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of Cyclea peltata and their diuretic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence of phytosterols and alkaloids as major phytoconstituents in petroleum ether extract. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, diterpenes and saponins. Pharmacological investigation revealed that ethanolic extract of C. peltata leaves possessed significant diuretic activity in a given dose of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (Diuretic action 1.7 and 2.6, respectively). Where as petroleum ether extract has shown moderate diuresis at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight (Diuretic action 1.1). The present study justifies the use of C. peltata in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as a diuretic drug.
Centre for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Department of Botany, Nesamony Memorial Christian College, Marthandam, Tamil Nadu, India.
OBJECTIVE To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of, Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. METHODS The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. RESULTS The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)(24 mm), Escherichia coli (E. coli)(16 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa)(13 mm). The chlorofrom extracts of E. scaber showed the highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus (B. cereus)(12 mm), The leaves ethanolic extracts of E. scaber demonstrated the highest zone of inhibition against three pathogens viz., Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)(18 mm), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis)(17 mm), Salmonella Typhi (S. typhi)(14 mm) and Enterobacter sp.(11 mm) While the benzene extracts of H. colorata demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against the pathogen Acinetobacter sp.(14 mm) and S. aureus (12 mm). CONCLUSIONS It is hoped that this study would direct to the establishment of some compounds that could be used to invent new and more potent antimicrobial drugs of natural origin.
Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc root extracts on behavioral and radiology changes in arthritic rats.
Faculty of Pharmacy, KLE University, J. N. Medical College Campus, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol root extracts of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc (Family: Zingiberaceae) on behavioral and radiology aspects of Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced monoarthritis in left ankle joint of rats using open-field test. Traditionally, Curcuma zedoaria root has been used as anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic drug. Behavioral aspects include latency time to explore, ambulatory, rearing, grooming, urination, and defecation. Animals were divided into ten groups each of six rats, all the animals were subjected to open-field test before the induction of arthritis at 0 day and thereafter 3, 7, 14 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of postinoculation FCA injection. The rat was placed in an open field and observed all behavioral aspects for 5 minutes and radiography analysis was made on day 42. Selected doses were 10 mg/kg.i.p. Indomethacin 200 mg/kg.p.o. marketed herbal drug Rumalaya forte and 200 and 400 mg/kg.p.o. of each extracts, respectively. The results showed significant decrease in ambulation and rearing; however, increase in latency time to explore and grooming, urination, and defecation in control group, but in contrast, drug-treated groups showed significant recovery in all behavioral aspects except methanol groups. On the basis of radiography examination, control and methanol groups showed highest swelling compared with normal group; however, all drug-treated groups showed significant reduced swelling. Treatments with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts recovery were observed in behavioral and radiological aspects in arthritic rats.
Department of Biotechnology, North Orissa University, Baripada, Orissa, India.
Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD) Centre, S. G. Highway, Thaltej, Ahmedabad - 380 054, India.
Physalis minima is an important medicinal plant of Indian System of Medicine. This plant is reported for its diuretic, laxative and antiinflammatory activities. However, the plant is not well scrutinized for its antimicrobial potential. The major chemical constituents reported from the plant are phenolics and alkaloids, which suggest that the plant may turn out to be a potent antiinfective agent. The aim of the study was to find out the antibacterial potential of mature berries of P. minima using streak plate, well diffusion, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and bioautographic methods against a battery of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. Results of the study showed that methanol and chloroform extracts of P. minima exhibited potent inhibitory activity against all the bacterial strains tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration found out was 100 μg in both the extracts. Bioautography assay showed polar compounds present in the crude extract are responsible for the antimicrobial action.
Acta Pol Pharm. ;68 (5):687-92 21928713
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).
Department of Pharmacology, Gajara Raja Medical College, Gwalior,(M.P.), India. email@example.com
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents.