Department of Pharmacology, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.
The retro-retinoid anhydroretinol (AR), a physiological metabolite of retinol (vitamin A), induces cell death in multiple in vitro systems. AR-induced cell death is blocked by retinol and its metabolite 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol. AR has been shown also to prevent mammary cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in rats. We report that AR kills cells by generating reactive oxygen species. Direct measurements show that the addition of AR to lymphoblastoid cells increases the intracellular oxidative stress in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the amount of induced oxidative stress directly correlates with the number of dying cells. The addition of retinol, 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol, or the antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), decreases AR-induced oxidative stress and proportionally reduces AR-induced cell death. In contrast, pretreatment with caspase inhibitors, known to inhibit apoptosis, has no effect on AR-induced cell death. This is the first demonstration of cellular reactive oxygen species production by a natural retinoid.
Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Vitamin A is essential for diverse aspects of life ranging from embryogenesis to the proper functioning of most adult organs. Its derivatives (retinoids) have potent biological activities such as regulating cell growth and differentiation. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the specific vitamin A carrier protein in the blood that binds to vitamin A with high affinity and delivers it to target organs. A large amount of evidence has accumulated over the past decades supporting the existence of a cell-surface receptor for RBP that mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. Using an unbiased strategy, this specific cell-surface RBP receptor has been identified as STRA6, a multitransmembrane domain protein with previously unknown function. STRA6 is not homologous to any protein of known function and represents a new type of cell-surface receptor. Consistent with the diverse functions of vitamin A, STRA6 is widely expressed in embryonic development and in adult organ systems. Mutations in human STRA6 are associated with severe pathological phenotypes in many organs such as the eye, brain, heart, and lung. STRA6 binds to RBP with high affinity and mediates vitamin A uptake into cells. This review summarizes the history of the RBP receptor research, its expression in the context of known functions of vitamin A in distinct human organs, structure/function analysis of this new type of membrane receptor, pertinent questions regarding its very existence, and its potential implication in treating human diseases.
Control of oxidative phosphorylation by vitamin A illuminates a fundamental role in mitochondrial energy homoeostasis.
Rebeca Acin-Perez, Beatrice Hoyos, Feng Zhao, Valerie Vinogradov, Donald A Fischman, Robert A Harris, Michael Leitges, Nuttaporn Wongsiriroj, William S Blaner, Giovanni Manfredi, Ulrich Hammerling
Department of Neurology and Neurobiology Weill-Cornell Medical School, New York, New York, USA.
The physiology of two metabolites of vitamin A is understood in substantial detail: retinaldehyde functions as the universal chromophore in the vertebrate and invertebrate eye; retinoic acid regulates a set of vertebrate transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptor superfamily. The third member of this retinoid triumvirate is retinol. While functioning as the precursor of retinaldehyde and retinoic acid, a growing body of evidence suggests a far more fundamental role for retinol in signal transduction. Here we show that retinol is essential for the metabolic fitness of mitochondria. When cells were deprived of retinol, respiration and ATP synthesis defaulted to basal levels. They recovered to significantly higher energy output as soon as retinol was restored to physiological concentration, without the need for metabolic conversion to other retinoids. Retinol emerged as an essential cofactor of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), without which this enzyme failed to be activated in mitochondria. Furthermore, retinol needed to physically bind PKCdelta, because mutation of the retinol binding site rendered PKCdelta unresponsive to Rol, while retaining responsiveness to phorbol ester. The PKCdelta/retinol complex signaled the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex for enhanced flux of pyruvate into the Krebs cycle. The baseline response was reduced in vitamin A-deficient lecithin:retinol acyl transferase-knockout mice, but this was corrected within 3 h by intraperitoneal injection of vitamin A; this suggests that vitamin A is physiologically important. These results illuminate a hitherto unsuspected role of vitamin A in mitochondrial bioenergetics of mammals, acting as a nutritional sensor. As such, retinol is of fundamental importance for energy homeostasis. The data provide a mechanistic explanation to the nearly 100-yr-old question of why vitamin A deficiency causes so many pathologies that are independent of retinoic acid action.
Vitamin A depletion causes oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and PARP-1-dependent energy deprivation.
Ulrich Hammerling, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, 1275 York Ave., New York, NY 10065, USA.
A significant unresolved question is how vitamin A deprivation causes, and why retinoic acid fails to reverse, immunodeficiency. When depleted of vitamin A, T cells undergo programmed cell death (PCD), which is enhanced by the natural competitor of retinol, anhydroretinol. PCD does not happen by apoptosis, despite the occurrence of shared early events, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, permeability transition pore opening, and cytochrome c release. It also lacks caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation, and endonuclease-mediated DNA degradation, hallmarks of apoptosis. PCD following vitamin A deprivation exhibits increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), drastic reductions in ATP and NAD(+) levels, and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. These latter steps are causative because neutralizing ROS, imposing hypoxic conditions, or inhibiting PARP-1 by genetic or pharmacologic approaches prevents energy depletion and PCD. The data highlight a novel regulatory role of vitamin A in mitochondrial energy homeostasis.
Vitamin A treatment induces apoptosis through an oxidant-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway.
Fábio Klamt, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Daniel Pens Gelain, Rodrigo Siqueira Dalmolin, Ramatis Birnfeld de Oliveira, Michele Bastiani, Fabiana Horn, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Even though retinoids are widely used as adjuvant in chemotherapeutic interventions to improve cancer cell death, their mechanism(s) of action involves multiple overlapping pathways that remain unclear. We have previously shown that vitamin A, the natural precursor of the retinoids, induces oxidative-dependent cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria, suggesting a putative mechanism for apoptosis activation. Using Sertoli cells in culture, we show that retinol causes mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, involving oxidative stress. Apoptosis was evaluated by nuclear morphology, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3/7 activity. Retinol induced oxidant- and time-dependent imbalance of several mitochondrial parameters, cytochrome c release and caspase-3/7 activation, leading cells to commit apoptosis. All parameters tested were attenuated or blocked by trolox co-administration, suggesting that retinol induces apoptosis through oxidative damage, which mitochondria plays a pivotal role.
Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors that function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) to regulate cell growth and survival. The success of RAR modulation in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) has stimulated considerable interest in the development of RAR and RXR modulators. This has been aided by recent advances in the understanding of the biological role of RARs and RXRs and in the design of selective receptor modulators that might overcome the limitations of current drugs. Here, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for therapeutic strategies based on RXR and RAR modulators, with a focus on cancer and metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Division, New Drug Discovery and Research, Ranbaxy Research Laboratories, Plot-20, Sector-18, Udyog Vihar, Industrial Area, Gurgaon, Haryana 122015, India.
Apoptosis is involved in a wide range of pathologic conditions, including neurodegenerative, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Therefore, the ability to understand and manipulate the cell death machinery is an obvious goal of medical research. Novel therapeutic approaches to modulate disease by regulating apoptosis are being tested in preclinical and clinical settings. Approaches include the traditional use of small molecules to target specific players in the apoptosis cascade. As our understanding of apoptosis increases, further opportunities will arise for tailor-made therapies that will result in improved clinic. From variety of compounds are discovered in this field and only few are found in the preclinical and clinical trials. The lack of specific potent nonpeptide apoptosis inducers and/or inhibitors has limited for a long time the clinical investigation of this target. But in the last few years the renewed interest of pharmaceutical companies has been giving a strong impulse to the research in this area. This review considers the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and their interaction in regulation of apoptosis. We also focus on recent developments of nonpeptide apoptosis modulators and their progress in drug lead discovery.
Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives. They are lipophilic molecules and easily penetrate the epidermis. Their biologically active forms can modulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Retinoic acid (tretinoin), its 13-cis isomer isotretinoin, as well as various synthetic retinoids are used for therapeutic purposes, whereas retinaldehyde, retinol, and retinyl esters, because of their controlled conversion to retinoic acid or their direct receptor-independent biologic action, can be used as cosmeceuticals. These natural retinoic acid precursors are thus expected to be helpful in (i) renewing epidermal cells,(ii) acting as UV filters,(iii) preventing oxidative stress,(iv) controlling cutaneous bacterial flora, and (v) improving skin aging and photoaging. Retinol and retinyl esters are not irritant, whereas demonstrating only a modest clinical efficiency. On the other hand, retinaldehyde, which is fairly well tolerated, seems to be the most efficient cosmeceutical retinoid; it has significant efficiency toward oxidative stress, cutaneous bacterial flora, epidermis renewing, and photoaging.
Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie, 514-8507, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Antioxidants are considered as the most promising chemopreventive agents against various human cancers. However, some antioxidants play paradoxical roles, acting as "double-edged sword." A primary property of effective and acceptable chemopreventive agents should be freedom from toxic effects in healthy population. Miscarriage of the intervention by beta-carotene made us realize the necessity for evaluation of safety before recommending use of antioxidant supplements for chemoprevention. We have evaluated the safety of antioxidants on the basis of reactivity with DNA. Our results revealed that phytic acid, luteolin, and retinoic acid did not cause DNA damage under the experimental condition. Furthermore, phytic acid inhibited the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, in cultured cells treated with a H(2)O(2)-generating system. Thus, it is expected that these chemopreventive agents can safely protect humans against cancer. On the other hand, some chemopreventive agents with prooxidant properties (alpha-tocopherol, quercetin, catechins, isothiocyanates, N-acetylcysteine) caused DNA damage via generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of metal ions and endogenous reductants under some circumstances. Furthermore, other chemopreventive agents (beta-carotene, genistein, daidzein, propyl gallate, curcumin) exerted prooxidant properties after metabolic activation. Therefore, further studies on safety should be required when antioxidants are used for cancer prevention.
Studies on the apoptotic activity of natural and synthetic retinoids: discovery of a new class of synthetic terphenyls that potently support cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in neuronal and HL-60 cells.
Daniele Simoni, Giuseppe Giannini, Marinella Roberti, Riccardo Rondanin, Riccardo Baruchello, Marcello Rossi, Giuseppina Grisolia, Francesco Paolo Invidiata, Stefania Aiello, Silvia Marino, Sabrina Cavallini, Anna Siniscalchi, Nicola Gebbia, Lucia Crosta, Stefania Grimaudo, Vincenzo Abbadessa, Antonietta Di Cristina, Manlio Tolomeo
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17-19, 44100 Ferrara, Italy. email@example.com
New terphenyl derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their effect on cell survival in serum-free cultures. These compounds protected HL60 cells from death and supported their growth with an activity higher than that of the natural 14-hydroxy-retro-retinol. Terphenyls 26 and 28 also possess antiapoptotic activity on neuronal cells, proving them as possible candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases.
National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sunlight is a human carcinogen. Many retinoid-containing cosmetics are used to protect damages caused by sunlight irradiation. Since retinol is thermally unstable and retinyl palmitate (RP) s relatively more stable, RP is also widely used as an ingredient in cosmetic formulations. In general, little is known about the photodecomposition of retinoids and the toxicity of retinoids and their photodecomposition products on the skin's responses to sunlight. This review focuses on the update information on photoreactions, phototoxicity, and photocarcinogenicity of the natural retinoids including retinol, retinal, retinoid acid (RA), retinyl acetate, and RP.
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Department of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Murine 3T3 cells arrest in a quiescent, nondividing state when transferred into medium containing little or no serum. Within the first day after transfer, fibroblasts can be activated to proliferate by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alone; cells starved longer than 1 day, however, are activated only by serum. We demonstrate that endogenous vitamin A (retinol) or retinol supplied by serum prevents cell death and that retinol, in combination with PDGF, can fully replace serum in activating cells starved longer than 1 day. The physiological retinol derivative 14-hydroxy-4, 14-retro-retinol, but not retinoic acid, can replace retinol in rescuing or activating 3T3 cells. Anhydroretinol, another physiological retinol metabolite that acts as a competitive antagonist of retinol, blocks cell activation by serum, indicating that retinol is a necessary component of serum. It previously has been proposed that activation of 3T3 cells requires two factors in serum, an activation factor shown to be PDGF and an unidentified survival factor. We report that retinol is the survival factor in serum.
Program in Immunology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Cornell University Medical College, New York 10021, USA.
Vitamin A serves as a prohormone from which three classes of active metabolites are derived: the aldehydes, the carboxylic acids, and the retro-retinoids. Although these three classes are united under the rubric of signal transduction, they act by different molecular mechanisms: the 11-cis-retinaldehydes combine with opsin to form the universal visual pigments and the retinoic acids form ligands for transcription factors, whereas the retro-retinoids, as shown here, intersect with signal transduction at a cytoplasmic or membrane site. The retro-retinoid, anhydroretinol (AR), has long been known to act as a growth inhibitor in lymphocytes, whereas 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol (14-HRR) is required for normal lymphocyte proliferation. A mutually reversible relationship exists between these two retro-retinoids as one can reverse the effects of the other when given in pharmacological doses. The common explanation for reversible inhibition is competition for a shared receptor. We now provide evidence that when AR is given to T cells unmitigated by 14-HRR, rapid cell death can occur. The circumstances are closely related to nonclassical forms of apoptosis: within 2 h of AR administration the T cells undergo widespread morphological changes, notably surface blebbing and ballooning and, inevitably, bursting. In contrast, nuclear changes are comparatively mild, as indicated by absence of chromatin condensation and overt DNA cleavage to discrete nucleosomal fragments, although DNA nicks are readily discernible by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay. What further distinguishes the AR-induced form of apoptosis from classical ones is a lack of requirements of messenger RNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that the events leading to cell death are primarily initiated and play themselves out in the cytoplasm. This view is further reinforced by the finding that herbimycin A can prevent the onset of programmed cell death. The importance of our findings is that they strongly suggest a second messenger role for vitamin A metabolites in the cytoplasmic realm that has not been seen previously. These findings are entirely compatible with a general notion that in a cell requiring multiple coordinated signals for survival, the provision of an unbalanced signal can initiate programmed cell death. Collectively, our data also challenge the paradigm that retinoids (outside vision) solely mediate their function via the steroid/ retinoic acid receptor family of nuclear transcription factors. Instead, a mode of action in the cytoplasmic realm akin to one attributed to other small lipophilic second messenger molecules, such as diacyl glycerol or ceramide, may apply to retro-retinoids.
Department of Immunology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021.
Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential cofactor for growth of B lymphocytes in culture and for activation of T lymphocytes by antigen receptor-mediated signals. 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol (14-HRR) a metabolite of retinol, has been implicated as the intracellular mediator of this effect. Anhydroretinol (AR) is a retinol derivative with retro structure produced in activated human B lymphocytes and the insect cell lines SF 21 and Schneider S2. AR reversibly inhibits retinol- and 14-HRR-dependent effects and blocks B lymphocyte proliferation as well as activation of resting T lymphocytes. The intracellular signaling pathway blocked by AR in T cell activation is distinct from the calcineurin/interleukin 2 pathway inhibitable by cyclosporine A or FK-506.
Department of Pharmacology, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Spermatozoa undergo a poorly understood activation process induced by bicarbonate and mediated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). It has been assumed that bicarbonate mediates its effects through changes in intracellular pH or membrane potential; however, we demonstrate here that bicarbonate directly stimulates mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) activity in vivo and in vitro in a pH-independent manner. sAC is most similar to adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, and bicarbonate regulation of cyclase activity is conserved in these early forms of life. sAC is also expressed in other bicarbonate-responsive tissues, which suggests that bicarbonate regulation of cAMP signaling plays a fundamental role in many biological systems.
Department of Pharmacology, Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Serum is required for the survival and growth of most animal cells. In serum-free medium, B lymphoblastoid cells and fibroblasts die after 2 days. We report that submicromolar concentrations of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Delta(8)-THC, cannabinol, or cannabidiol, but not WIN 55,212-2, prevented serum-deprived cell death. Delta(9)-THC also synergized with platelet-derived growth factor in activating resting NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. The cannabinoids' growth supportive effect did not correlate with their ability to bind to known cannabinoid receptors and showed no stereoselectivity, suggesting a nonreceptor-mediated pathway. Direct measurement of oxidative stress revealed that cannabinoids prevented serum-deprived cell death by antioxidation. The antioxidative property of cannabinoids was confirmed by their ability to antagonize oxidative stress and consequent cell death induced by the retinoid anhydroretinol. Therefore, cannabinoids act as antioxidants to modulate cell survival and growth of B lymphocytes and fibroblasts.
C C Achkar, F Derguini, B Blumberg, A Langston, A A Levin, J Speck, R M Evans, J Bolado Jr, K Nakanishi, J Buck
Department of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
All-trans-retinoic acid (at-RA) induces cell differentiation in a wide variety of cell types, including F9 embryonic teratocarcinoma cells, and can influence axial pattern formation during embryonic development. We now identify a novel retinoid synthetic pathway in differentiating F9 cells that results in the intracellular production of 4-oxoretinol (4-oxo-ROL) from retinol (vitamin A). Approximately 10-15% of the total retinol in the culture is metabolized to 4-hydroxyretinol and 4-oxo-ROL by the at-RA-treated, differentiating F9 cells over an 18-hr period, but no detectable metabolism of all-trans-retinol to at-RA or 9-cis-retinoic acid is observed in these cells. Remarkably, we show that 4-oxo-ROL can bind and activate transcription of the retinoic acid receptors whereas all-trans-retinol shows neither activity. Low doses of 4-oxo-ROL (e.g., 10(-9) or 10(-10 M) can activate the retinoic acid receptors even though, unlike at-RA, 4-oxo-ROL does not contain an acid moiety at the carbon 15 position. 4-oxo-ROL does not bind or transcriptionally activate the retinoid X receptors. Treatment of F9 cells with 4-oxo-ROL induces differentiation without conversion to the acid and 4-oxo-ROL is active in causing axial truncation when administered to Xenopus embryos at the blastula stage. Thus, 4-oxo-ROL is a natural, biologically active retinoid that is present in differentiated F9 cells. Our data suggest that 4-oxo-ROL may be a novel signaling molecule and regulator of cell differentiation.
B Blumberg, J Bolado Jr, F Derguini, A G Craig, T A Moreno, D Chakravarti, R A Heyman, J Buck, R M Evans
Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Retinoids are a large family of natural and synthetic compounds related to vitamin A that have pleiotropic effects on body physiology, reproduction, immunity, and embryonic development. The diverse activities of retinoids are primarily mediated by two families of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, the RARs and RXRs. Retinoic acids are thought to be the only natural ligands for these receptors and are widely assumed to be the active principle of vitamin A. However, during an unbiased, bioactivity-guided fractionation of Xenopus embryos, we were unable to detect significant levels of all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acids. Instead, we found that the major bioactive retinoid in the Xenopus egg and early embryo is 4-oxoretinaldehyde, which is capable of binding to and transactivating RARs. In addition to its inherent activity, 4-oxoretinaldehyde appears to be a metabolic precursor of two other RAR ligands, 4-oxoretinoic acid and 4-oxoretinol. The remarkable increase in activity of retinaldehyde and retinol as a consequence of 4-oxo derivatization suggests that this metabolic step could serve a critical regulatory function during embryogenesis.
Intracellular signaling activity of synthetic (14R)-,(14S)-, and (14RS)-14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol.
Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027.
14-Hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol (14-HRR), first isolated from cultures of lymphoblastoid 5/2 and HeLa cells and characterized by NMR, UV, and CD, is a metabolite of retinol which promotes growth of B lymphocytes in culture and activation of T lymphocytes by antigen receptor-mediated signals. It is also produced by various tested cell lines: fibroblasts, leukemia, and Drosophila cells. 14-HRR is the first bioactive retro-retinoid to be discovered and, after retinal and retinoic acid, is the third intracellular messenger molecule derived from retinol. Physical properties and intracellular signaling activities of synthetic (14R)-HRR,(14S)-HRR, and racemic 14-HRR are described. CD spectra indicate that natural 14-HRR isolated previously was a mixture of enantiomers. B-cell survival and T-cell activation assays performed in the optimal range of (7-1.6) x 10(-7) M surprisingly showed that all 14-HRR compounds exhibit similar activity, with the 14R enantiomer exhibiting slightly higher activity in comparison to the 14S enantiomer. However, because of the semiquantitative nature of the assays, the conclusion as to which enantiomer is more active and which is the true ligand for the target receptor must await characterization of this protein.
Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
Deprivation of vitamin A (retinol) leads to reduced potential of B cell proliferation and nearly complete block of T cell activation in vitro. Retinol, which is thought to function as a pro-hormone, is enzymatically converted into intracellular messenger molecules. Thus, 14-hydroxy-retro-retinol (14-HRR) is an intracellular messenger molecule linked to activation and growth regulation of lymphocytes; whereas, anhydroretinol, another natural retro-retinoid, is an antagonist of 14-HRR effects. In this article, we describe the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and biological properties of a new intracellular retinol derivative, 13,14-dihydroxy-retinol (DHR), which also supports the viability of retinol-deprived lymphocytes. DHR is found in numerous cell lines representing a large cross-section of tissues and animals from insects to mammals. In T lymphocytes the production of DHR and 14-HRR is up-regulated by phorbol ester. DHR is converted to 14-HRR by mild acid treatment, but not by cells; therefore DHR is not a biosynthetic intermediate in the conversion of retinol to 14-HRR. DHR is a distinct end point of retinol metabolism. Although it is linked to cell proliferation, its biological role remains to be determined.
Department of Immunology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021.
In mammals, retinol is the precursor for retinoids, which affect various aspects of morphogenesis and development. However, B lymphocytes, although retinol-dependent, do not use retinoic acid as mediator. Retinol is metabolized by B lymphocytes and other cell lines to optically active 14-hydroxy-4,14-retro-retinol; it is this compound that mediates the growth control. Thus another second messenger molecule, in addition to retinoic acid and retinal, is derived from retinol.
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Fumihiko Yoshino, Ayaka Yoshida, Eizo Okada, Yasue Okada, Yojiro Maehata, Chihiro Miyamoto, Sachi Kishimoto, Takero Otsuka, Tomoko Nishimura, Masaichi Chang-Il Lee
Division of Pharmacology and ESR Laboratories, Department of Clinical Care Medicine, Kanagawa Dental College, Kanagawa 238-8580, Japan.
Dental resin curing blue light has been used in the treatment of tooth bleaching and to restore teeth with resin-based composite fillings. However, there has been little consideration of its effect on oral tissues such as dental pulp and oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dental resin curing blue light irradiation affects the dental pulp, especially the blood vessels that are known as the first target of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in vascular reactivity. We found that blue light irradiation increased the level of lipid peroxidation in isolated rat aorta blood vessels by measuring malondialdehyde. Furthermore, cell proliferative activity was decreased in a time-dependent manner and apoptosis of human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced. These results indicated that (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals were generated in VSMCs by irradiation with blue light, and they induced cytotoxicity associated with oxidative stress, which increased lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, which is a typical intracellular antioxidant, protected VSMCs against cytotoxicity associated with oxidative stress. These findings suggested that antioxidants may be used to prevent oxidative stress in dental pulp by repeated and/or multiple treatments with blue light irradiation in future dental treatments.
Gene. 2012 May 28;: 22652273
Jpk, a tran-acting regulatory factor associating with the position-specific regulatory element of Hoxa-7, has been reported to induce cell death in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells upon overexpression. The N- and C-terminal deleted variants of Jpk were constructed and then the toxicity of each construct was analyzed by checking the viability of the cells and the concomitant morphological changes through the electron microscopy following the expression. The N-terminus of Jpk harboring transmembrane domain seemed to be more toxic to bacterial cell than C-terminus and the morphology of bacterial cells expressing N-terminal Jpk was similar to that induced by full length Jpk. The toxicity caused by Jpk protein in bacterial cell was through the production of ROS, which was decreased by an antioxidant (DTT) in a concentration dependent manner. The finding described in this study provides valuable clues on the relationship between Jpk toxicity and ROS generation.
Chem Biol Interact. 2012 May 25;: 22640810
Association of zinc ion release and oxidative stress induced by intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles to rat lung.
Hiroko Fukui, Masanori Horie, Shigehisa Endoh, Haruhisa Kato, Katsuhide Fujita, Keiko Nishio, Lilian Kaede Komaba, Junko Maru, Arisa Miyauhi, Ayako Nakamura, Shinichi Kinugasa, Yasukazu Yoshida, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Hitoshi Iwahashi
Health Research Institute (HRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka, Japan; United Graduate school of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are one of the important industrial nanoparticles. The production of ZnO nanoparticles is increasing every year. On the other hand, it is known that ZnO nanoparticles have strong cytotoxicity. In vitro studies using culture cells revealed that ZnO nanoparticles induce severe oxidative stress. However, the in vivo influence of ZnO nanoparticles is still unclear. In the present study, rat lung was exposed to ZnO nanoparticles by intratracheal instillation, and the influences of ZnO nanoparticles to the lung in the acute phase, particularly oxidative stress, were examined. Additionally, in vitro cellular influences of ZnO nanoparticles were examined using lung carcinoma A549 cells and compared to in vivo examinations. The ZnO nanoparticles used in this study released zinc ion in both dispersions. In the in vivo examinations, ZnO dispersion induced strong oxidative stress in the lung in the acute phase. The oxidative stress induced by the ZnO nanoparticles was stronger than that of a ZnCl(2) solution. Intratracheal instillation of ZnO nanoparticles induced an increase of lipid peroxide, HO-1 and alpha-tocopherol in the lung. The ZnO nanoparticles also induced strong oxidative stress and cell death in culture cells. Intracellular zinc level and reactive oxygen species were increased. These results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the lung in the acute phase. Intracellular ROS level had a high correlation with intracellular Zn(2+) level. ZnO nanoparticles will stay in the lung and continually release zinc ion, and thus stronger oxidative stress is induced.
Photochem Photobiol. ;88 (1):167-74 22044317
Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR 8523 Université Lille 1-CNRS, Villeneuve-d'Ascq Cedex, France.
Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) is an electronic state of molecular oxygen which plays a major role in many chemical and biological photo-oxidation processes. It has a high chemical reactivity which is commonly harnessed for therapeutic issues. Indeed,(1)O(2) is believed to be the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. In this treatment of cancer,(1)O(2) is created, among other reactive species, by an indirect transfer of energy from light to molecular oxygen via excitation of a photosensitizer (PS). This PS is believed to be necessary to obtain an efficient (1)O(2) production. In this paper, we demonstrate that production of (1)O(2) is achieved in living cells from PS-free 1270 nm laser excitation of molecular oxygen. The quantity of (1)O(2) produced in this way is sufficient to induce an oxidative stress leading to cell death. Other effects such as thermal stress are discriminated and we conclude that cell death is only due to (1)O(2) creation. This new simplified scheme of (1)O(2) activation can be seen as a breakthrough for phototherapies of malignant diseases and/or as a noninvasive possibility to generate reactive oxygen species in a tightly controlled manner.
Methods Mol Biol. 2011 ;773 :343-67 21898265
UR5 EAC 7180 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Bat C, 2ème étage, Paris, France, email@example.com.
Evidence is emerging that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, together with plant hormones and other reactive species, such as reactive nitrogen species, are part of signalling networks pertinent to plant stress responses, cell division, and cell death. Consequently, they play pivotal roles in the regulation of seed development and maturation, germination and dormancy, seedling establishment, and seed ageing. Importantly, ROS, although essentially required at low concentrations, must be kept under stringent control by antioxidants. If the balance between pro- and antioxidative processes is lost and ROS production prevails, oxidative stress is the result, which can induce cell death and ultimately seed death. This chapter offers a variety of protocols for the determination of ROS, antioxidants, and stress markers aimed at enabling the reader to quantify these compounds. Protocols are also described to visualize ROS and localize the sites of ROS production, hoping to stimulate more research into ROS signalling and antioxidant control in key physiological and biochemical processes in seeds.
Chloroquine inhibits glutamate-induced death of a neuronal cell line by reducing reactive oxygen species through sigma-1 receptor.
Yoko Hirata, Hideko Yamamoto, Mostafa Shukry Moursy Atta, Shawky Mahmoud, Kentaro Oh-hashi, Kazutoshi Kiuchi
Department of Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chloroquine, a widely used anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, has been reported to induce apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence now suggests that chloroquine can sensitize cancer cells to cell death and augment chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy. However, chloroquine is reported to induce GM1 ganglioside accumulation in cultured cells at low μM concentrations and prevent damage to the blood brain barrier in mice. It remains unknown whether chloroquine has neuroprotective properties at concentrations below its reported ability to inhibit lysosomal enzymes and autophagy. In the present study, we demonstrated that chloroquine protected mouse hippocampal HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative stress by attenuating production of excess reactive oxygen species. The concentration of chloroquine required to rescue HT22 cells from oxidative stress was much lower than that sufficient enough to induce cell death and inhibit autophagy. Chloroquine increased GM1 level in HT22 cells at low μM concentrations but glutamate-induced cell death occurred before GM1 accumulation, suggesting that GM1 induction is not related to the protective effect of chloroquine against glutamate-induced cell death. Interestingly, BD1047 and NE-100, sigma-1 receptor antagonists, abrogated the protective effect of chloroquine against glutamate-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cutamesine (SA4503), a sigma-1 receptor agonist, prevented both glutamate-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species production. These findings indicate that chloroquine at concentrations below its ability to inhibit autophagy and induce cell death is able to rescue HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death by reducing excessive production of reactive oxygen species through sigma-1 receptors. These results suggest potential use of chloroquine, an established anti-malarial agent, as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress, which occurs in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.
Environ Toxicol. 2011 Aug 1;: 21809431
Is cell death induced by nematocysts extract of medusa Pelagia noctiluca related to oxidative stress?
Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, Faculty of Dentistry, Rue Avicenne, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia.
Pelagia noctiluca, a jellyfish widely distributed in the Mediterranean waters, especially in coastal areas of Tunisia, has garnered attention because of its stinging capacity and the resulting public health hazard. Crude extracts of P. noctiluca nematocysts have been tested for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. Our results clearly showed that nematocysts induced cell mortality in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A cytoprotective effect against cell mortality was obtained when Vero cells were treated with Vitamin E. This process was further confirmed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of Hsp 70 and 27 protein expressions. Thus, our findings suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the toxicity of pelagia nematocysts and may therefore constitute the major mechanism of this medusa nematocysts toxicity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.
Alpha-tocopherol ameliorates cypermethrin-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabdtis elegans.
Food Protectants and Infestation Control Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI, CSIR), Mysore 570 020, India.
Oxidative stress and other effects induced by cypermethrin (CYP, 15 mM) and their amelioration by alpha-tocopherol (400 microM) was studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The worms exposed for 4 h to CYP showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (46%), H2O2 (37%) and protein carbonyls (29%), accompanied by decreased lifespan and brood size. However, exposure to both CYP and alpha-tocopherol resulted in diminution of above alterations with the worms exhibiting relatively lower levels of ROS (30%), H2O2 (15%), protein carbonyls (14%), altered antioxidant enzyme activities and normal lifespan and brood size. The results suggest that CYP induces oxidative stress in C. elegans and the strategy of intervention with alpha-tocopherol could be exploited to offset this induced oxidative stress.
J Biochem. 2011 Oct ;150 (4):461-71 21693544
Cellular responses induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles: induction of intracellular calcium level and oxidative stress on culture cells.
Masanori Horie, Keiko Nishio, Haruhisa Kato, Katsuhide Fujita, Shigehisa Endoh, Ayako Nakamura, Arisa Miyauchi, Shinichi Kinugasa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Etsuo Niki, Yasukazu Yoshida, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Hitoshi Iwahashi
Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31, Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577, Japan. email@example.com
Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) is an important metal oxide used for industrial products. Many investigations about the cellular influence of CeO(2) nanoparticles have been done, but results are contradictory. It has been reported that CeO(2) nanoparticles have an anti-oxidative effect in cells, but it has also been reported that CeO(2) nanoparticles induce oxidative stress. We investigated the potential influence on cells and the mechanisms induced by CeO(2) nanoparticles in vitro. We prepared a stable CeO(2) culture medium dispersion. Cellular responses in CeO(2) medium-exposed cells were examined. Cellular uptake of CeO(2) nanoparticles was observed. After 24-h exposure, a high concentration of CeO(2) nanoparticles (∼200 mg/ml) induced an increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS); a low concentration of CeO(2) nanoparticles induced a decrease in the intracellular ROS level. On the other hand, exposure of CeO(2) nanoparticle for 24 h had little influence on the cell viability. Exposure of CeO(2) nanoparticles increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and also Calpain was activated. These results suggest that CeO(2) nanoparticles have a potential to induce intracellular oxidative stress and increase the intracellular Ca(2+) level, but these influences are small.
Extreme longevity is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress in Arctica islandica, the longest-living non-colonial animal.
Zoltan Ungvari, Iain Ridgway, Eva E R Philipp, Courtney M Campbell, Philip McQuary, Tracy Chow, Miguel Coelho, Elizabeth S Didier, Sara Gelino, Marissa A Holmbeck, Insil Kim, Erik Levy, Danuta Sosnowska, William E Sonntag, Steven N Austad, Anna Csiszar
Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We assess whether reactive oxygen species production and resistance to oxidative stress might be causally involved in the exceptional longevity exhibited by the ocean quahog Arctica islandica. We tested this hypothesis by comparing reactive oxygen species production, resistance to oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and protein damage elimination processes in long-lived A islandica with the shorter-lived hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. We compared baseline biochemical profiles, age-related changes, and responses to exposure to the oxidative stressor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). Our data support the premise that extreme longevity in A islandica is associated with an attenuated cellular reactive oxygen species production. The observation of reduced protein carbonyl concentration in A islandica gill tissue compared with M mercenaria suggests that reduced reactive oxygen species production in long-living bivalves is associated with lower levels of accumulated macromolecular damage, suggesting cellular redox homeostasis may determine life span. Resistance to aging at the organismal level is often reflected in resistance to oxidative stressors at the cellular level. Following TBHP exposure, we observed not only an association between longevity and resistance to oxidative stress-induced mortality but also marked resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death in the longer-living bivalves. Contrary to some expectations from the oxidative stress hypothesis, we observed that A islandica exhibited neither greater antioxidant capacities nor specific activities than in M mercenaria nor a more pronounced homeostatic antioxidant response following TBHP exposure. The study also failed to provide support for the exceptional longevity of A islandica being associated with enhanced protein recycling. Our findings demonstrate an association between longevity and resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death in A islandica, consistent with the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging and provide justification for detailed evaluation of pathways involving repair of free radical-mediated macromolecular damage and regulation of apoptosis in the world's longest-living non-colonial animal.