Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition.
H L Martin, B A Richardson, P M Nyange, L Lavreys, S L Hillier, B Chohan, K Mandaliya, J O Ndinya-Achola, J Bwayo, J Kreiss
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between vaginal colonization with lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sexually transmitted diseases in a population of sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. In total, 657 HIV-1-seronegative women were enrolled and followed at monthly intervals. At baseline, only 26% of women were colonized with Lactobacillus species. During follow-up, absence of vaginal lactobacilli on culture was associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.5) and gonorrhea (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), after controlling for other identified risk factors in separate multivariate models. Presence of abnormal vaginal flora on Gram's stain was associated with increased risk of both HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1) and Trichomonas infection (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4). Treatment of BV and promotion of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli should be evaluated as potential interventions to reduce a woman's risk of acquiring HIV-1, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.
Wei Jiang, Santosh K Ghosh, Rebecca Flyckt, Magdalena Kalinowska, David Starks, Richard Jurevic, Aaron Weinberg, Michael M Lederman, Benigno Rodriguez
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Center for AIDS Research, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals/Case Medical Center, 2109 Adelbert Rd, CWRU BRB1048B, 4984. Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. email@example.com.
Beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides that serve to protect the host from microbial invasion at skin and mucosal surfaces. Here we explore the relationships among beta defensin levels, total bacterial colonization, and colonization by bacterial vaginosis (BV)-related bacteria and lactobacilli in the female genital tract in HIV infected women and healthy controls. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were obtained from 30 HIV-infected women and 36 uninfected controls. Quantitative PCR assays were used to measure DNA levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (reflective of total bacterial load), and levels of three BV-related bacteria, three Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. iners and L. jensenii), and total Lactobacillus levels in CVL. Levels of human beta defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) were quantified by ELISA. In viremic HIV+ donors, we found that CVL levels of bacterial 16S rDNA were significantly increased, and inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in HIV+ women, and inversely correlated with age in both HIV+ women and controls. Although CVL DNA levels of BV-associated bacteria tended to be increased, and CVL levels of Lactobacillus DNAs tended to be decreased in HIV+ donors, none of these differences was significant. CVL levels of hBD-2 and hBD-3 were correlated and were not different in HIV+ women and controls. However, significant positive correlations between hBD-3 levels and total bacterial DNA levels in controls were not demonstrable in HIV+ women; the significant positive correlations of hBD2 or hBD-3 and three Lactobacillus species in controls were also not demonstrable in HIV+ women. These results suggest that HIV infection is associated with impaired regulation of innate defenses at mucosal sites.
Behavioral predictors of colonization with Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii after treatment for bacterial vaginosis: a cohort study.
Harborview Women's Clinic, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE Evaluate predictors of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli after treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS Vaginal fluid specimens from women with BV underwent qPCR for Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. iners pre- and posttreatment. RESULTS Few women with BV were colonized with L. crispatus (4/44, 9%) or L. jensenii (1/44, 2%), though all had L. iners. One month posttreatment 12/44 (27%) had L. crispatus, 12/44 (27%) L. jensenii, and 43/44 (98%) L. iners. Presence of L. jensenii posttreatment was associated with cure (Risk Ratio (RR) 1.67; 95% CI 1.09-2.56); L. crispatus showed a similar trend (RR 1.41; 95% CI 0.89-2.24, P = 0.14). Receptive oral sex was associated with 2.2-log(10) lower concentration of L. crispatus (95% CI -4.38,-.02), and digital-vaginal sex with 2.6-log(10) lower concentration (95% CI -4.87,-.33). CONCLUSION One month after BV treatment, few women established colonization with L. crispatus or L. jensenii. Few behaviors were associated with colonization.
Antagonistic Action of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Relation to Staphylococcus aureus and Their Influence on the Immune Response in Cases of Intravaginal Staphylococcosis in Mice.
Liudmyla Lazarenko, Lidiia Babenko, Liubov Shynkarenko Sichel, Valentyn Pidgorskyi, Viktoriia Mokrozub, Olga Voronkova, Mykola Spivak
The antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lact. acidophilus IMV B-7279, Bifidobacterium longum VK1, and B. bifidum VK2 strains or their various compositions in relation to Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and on models of experimental intravaginal staphylococcosis of mice was determined. It was found that under the influence of these strains and their various compositions, the in vitro growth of Staph. aureus was inhibited, and the number of colonies of Staph. aureus plated from the vagina of infected mice was significantly reduced. The antibacterial activity of these strains separately and in compositions correlated with their ability to improve the performance of the immune response. These strains were the most effective in the following compositions: Lact. casei IMV B-7280-B. longum VK1-B. bifidum VK2. Strains of Lact. casei IMV B-7280, Lact. acidophilus IMV B-7279, B. bifidum VK2, and B. longum VK1 are prospective components of future probiotic drugs efficient in treating staphylococcosis and for immunity correction.
Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
Identifying naturally-occurring neutralizing antibodies (NAb) that are cross-reactive against all global subtypes of HIV-1 is an important step toward the development of a vaccine. Establishing the host and viral determinants for eliciting such broadly NAbs is also critical for immunogen design. NAb breadth has previously been shown to be positively associated with viral diversity. Therefore, we hypothesized that superinfected individuals develop a broad NAb response as a result of increased antigenic stimulation by two distinct viruses. To test this hypothesis, plasma samples from 12 superinfected women each assigned to three singly infected women were tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection). Here we show superinfected individuals develop significantly broader NAb responses post-superinfection when compared to singly infected individuals (RR = 1.68, CI: 1.23-2.30, p = 0.001). This was true even after controlling for NAb breadth developed prior to superinfection, contemporaneous CD4+ T cell count and viral load. Similarly, both unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed significantly greater potency in superinfected cases compared to controls. Notably, two superinfected individuals were able to neutralize variants from four different subtypes at plasma dilutions >1∶300, suggesting that their NAbs exhibit elite activity. Cross-subtype breadth was detected within a year of superinfection in both of these individuals, which was within 1.5 years of their initial infection. These data suggest that sequential infections lead to augmentation of the NAb response, a process that may provide insight into potential mechanisms that contribute to the development of antibody breadth. Therefore, a successful vaccination strategy that mimics superinfection may lead to the development of broad NAbs in immunized individuals.
Reproductive Cell Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg,New Delhi, India.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a global health concern. To control its transmission, safe sex has been proposed as one of the strategies. Microbicides- intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents have also been proposed to prevent HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing the attachment, entry or replication of HIV in susceptible target cells as well as their dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells lining the vaginal/rectal wall to other migratory cells. Microbicides must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms or inflammations following long-term repeated usage. However, a safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, several of which have advanced to clinical testing. Nonetheless, proof-of-concept of microbicides has been established based on the results of recent CAPRISA 004 clinical trials. In this article, the trends and challenges in the development of effective and safe microbicides to combat HIV transmission are reviewed.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health and Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. email@example.com
Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid-producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Hanyang University, College of Medicine, Seoul 133-791, Korea.
Lactobacillus species in the female genital tract are thought to act as a barrier to infection. Several studies have demonstrated that lactobacilli can adhere to vaginal epithelial cells. However, little is known about how the adherence of lactobacilli to vaginal epithelial cells affects the acidity, cell viability, or proliferation of the lactobacilli themselves or those of vaginal epithelial cells. Lactobacillus acidophilus was co-cultured with immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cell line), and the growth of L. acidophilus and the acidity of the culture medium were measured. MS74 cell density and viability were also assessed by counting cell numbers and observing the cell attachment state. L. acidophilus showed exponential growth for the first 6 hr until 9 hr, and the pH was maintained close to 4.0-5.0 at 24 hr after culture, consistent with previous studies. The growth curve of L. acidophilus or the pH values were relatively unaffected by co-culture with MS74 cells, confirming that L. acidophilus maintains a low pH in the presence of MS74 cells. This co-culture model could therefore potentially be used to mimic vaginal conditions for future in vitro studies. On the other hand, MS74 cells co-cultured with L. acidophilus more firmly attached to the culture plate, and a higher number of cells were present compared to cells cultured in the absence of L. acidophilus. These results indicate that L. acidophilus increases MS74 cell proliferation and viability, suggesting that lactobacilli may contribute to the healthy environment for vaginal epithelial cells.
Department of Gynaecology, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.
OBJECTIVES The presence of STD facilitates shedding of HIV and increases HIV-1 disease progression, possibly by increasing plasma viremia. Our aim was to study the presence of various associated Sexually transmitted disease/Reproductory tract infections in HIV-seropositive women in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 40 HIV-seropositive women attending the antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Lok Nayak Hospital. An informed consent was taken from all subjects. All cases were subjected to detailed gynecological examination and two types of swabs, i.e., a vaginal swab and a cervical swab were taken for STD/RTIs evaluation. The vaginal swabs were used for preparation of wet mount and KOH mount for diagnosis of trichomoniasis and candidiasis; to make a vaginal smear for Gram staining to diagnose bacterial vaginosis (BV) as per Nugent's criteria; for culture of aerobic bacteria and Candida spp. The cervical swab was used for isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture and for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen by Chlamydia microplate enzyme immunoassay kit (BIORAD). All data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS All 40 cases were evaluated for the presence of STD/RTIs associated with HIV infection. The women belonged to the reproductive age group (15-45 years) and majority (40%) of them were para 2. Most of the women (14, 35%) were in World Health Organization (WHO) stage I and maximum number (28, 70%) had their CD4 cell count more than 200 cells/ml. There was no significant correlation between WHO stage of HIV-seropositive women and their CD4 cell count (P=0.092). Out of 40 cases, 15 (37.5%) were on ART with maximum cases (53.3%) in WHO stage III. The duration of ART was more than 6 months in 9 (60%) cases. The most common presenting complaint was vaginal discharge in women with WHO stage II and III and 27.5% women showed vaginitis on per speculum examination. Laboratory tests showed high prevalence of BV (30%), mixed infection (30%), and candidiasis (10%) among HIV-seropositive women (P<0.001 in both). Women with BV were mostly in WHO stage I (38.4%) and stage II (36.3%), while those with mixed infection were mainly in WHO stage III (36.3%) and stage IV (40%).Women with candidiasis were mainly in WHO stage III. C. trachomatis antigen was found only in one subject (prevalence 2.5%). Both WHO stage and CD4 cell count had no significant correlation with presence of BV (P=0.056 and 0.063, respectively) and candidiasis (P=0.492 and 0.530, respectively). Maximum number of patients on ART had mixed infection (53.3%), while most of the patients (36%) not on ART had BV. There was no significant association between duration of ART and the presence of vaginal infections. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of gynecological symptoms and RTIs in HIV-seropositive women is high enough to warrant routine gynecologic evaluation and RTI screening in these patients. However, larger studies and trials are needed to evaluate the effects of ART on these abnormalities as well as to choose the best screening tool in HIV-seropositive women.
Multipurpose Prevention Technologies: Biomedical Tools to Prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, and Unintended Pregnancies.
CONRAD Clinical Research Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 601 Colley Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA.
Statistics clearly show an unmet need for highly effective contraception, especially in less developed countries. Many of these countries are at the core of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and show very high prevalence rates for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as that caused by HSV-2. A woman at risk of unintended pregnancy due to unprotected intercourse is also at risk for HIV/STI. Owing to their causative interrelationship, combining protection against these conditions will result in enhanced prevention and health benefits. Existing multipurpose prevention modalities such as condoms and physical barriers, albeit efficacious, face cultural hurdles that have so far hindered their widespread use. Success has recently been demonstrated in large clinical trials, demonstrating proof of concept of microbicides in reducing the incidence of HIV-1 and HSV-2 among at-risk populations. The challenge heretofore is to refine these products to make them more potent, convenient, accessible, and acceptable. Potent antiviral drugs released topically in the female reproductive tract by innovative delivered systems and formulations will provide safe, effective, and acceptable multipurpose prevention tools. This paper provides an overview of existing and novel approaches to multipurpose prevention strategies.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011 ;9 :102 21801392
Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies.
Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial research, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.
BACKGROUND Sperm immobilizing activity and plausible mechanism of action of Chenopodium album seed decoction (CAD) have been elucidated in our earlier studies. The present study has been carried out to explore the safety standards of CAD along with microbicidal properties as prerequisite for its use as a topically applicable vaginal contraceptive. METHODS The safety standards of CAD were assessed by a) Hemolytic index determination using rabbit erythrocytes, to set the doses of the other experiments, b) Dermal irritancy test using refined version of Draize scoring system on rabbits, c) Possible effect on local tissues and reproductive performance in female rats after fourteen daily single dose application, d) PCNA staining- to evaluate the effect of CAD on vaginal tissue proliferation, e) TUNEL assay- to examine its ability to induce in situ apoptosis in the vaginal tissue sections of the treated animals, and f) Microbicidal activity- to explore the effect of CAD on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. RESULTS In vitro irritation studies on rabbit erythrocytes revealed the hemolytic index of CAD to be 8.2 mg/ml. The dermal irritation test showed it to be a non-irritant even at higher doses. Intra vaginal application of CAD in rat vagina for 14 consecutive days caused slight reversible inflammation on vaginal epithelial cells at doses as high as 82 mg/ml. However, at this dose level it neither had any adverse effect on vaginal tissue proliferation nor did it cause in situ apoptosis as evident from PCNA staining and TUNEL assay. Fertility and fecundity were restored 4-15 days after withdrawal of CAD application. At dose level 10 times that of its spermicidal MEC (minimum effective concentration), CAD did not block the growth of Lactobacillus, although the size of individual colony was marginally reduced. However, growth of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was completely inhibited with 20 mg/ml of CAD. CONCLUSION The overall result evolved from the study strengthens the candidature of CAD as a safe microbicidal spermicide. It is almost non-irritant to rabbit skin and rat vaginal tissues at doses 10 fold higher than its hemolytic index. The effect of CAD on Lactobacillus culture was not highly encouraging but it prevented the growth of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans at 20 mg/ml of CAD.
Other papers by authors:
Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: results from a prospective study.
J M Baeten, P M Nyange, B A Richardson, L Lavreys, B Chohan, H L Martin Jr, K Mandaliya, J O Ndinya-Achola, J J Bwayo, J K Kreiss
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104-2499, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
Hormonal contraception, sexually transmitted diseases, and risk of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
H L Martin Jr, P M Nyange, B A Richardson, L Lavreys, K Mandaliya, D J Jackson, J O Ndinya-Achola, J Kreiss
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98104-2499, USA.
To examine associations between method of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and incident human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a prospective observational cohort study was done among female sex workers attending a municipal STD clinic in Mombasa, Kenya. Demographic and behavioral factors significantly associated with HIV-1 infection included type of workplace, condom use, and parity. In multivariate models, vulvitis, genital ulcer disease, vaginal discharge, and Candida vaginitis were significantly associated with HIV-1 seroconversion. Women who used depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) had an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.4). In a multivariate model controlling for demographic and exposure variables and biologic covariates, the adjusted HR for HIV-1 infection among DMPA users was 2.0 (CI, 1.3-3.1). There was a trend for an association between use of high-dose oral contraceptive pills and HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 2.6; CI, 0.8-8.5).
Trends in HIV-1 incidence in a cohort of prostitutes in Kenya: implications for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.
J M Baeten, B A Richardson, H L Martin Jr, P M Nyange, L Lavreys, E N Ngugi, K Mandaliya, J O Ndinya-Achola, J J Bwayo, J K Kreiss
Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Accurate predictions of HIV-1 incidence in potential study populations are essential for designing HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Little information is available on the estimated incidence of HIV-1 in such populations, especially information on incidence over time and incidence while participating in risk-reduction programs. OBJECTIVES To examine time trends in HIV-1 incidence in a vaccine preparedness cohort. DESIGN Prospective cohort study of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS HIV-1 incidence was determined using open and closed cohort designs. Generalized estimating equations were used to model HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence and sexual risk behaviors over time. RESULTS When analyzed as a closed cohort, HIV-1 incidence declined 10-fold during 3 years of follow-up (from 17.4 to 1.7 cases/100 person-years; p <.001). More than 50% of the cases of HIV-1 occurred during the first 6 months after enrollment, and 73% during the first 12 months. When analyzed as an open cohort, HIV-1 incidence density fell during the first 4 calendar years, influenced by accumulation of lower risk participants and variations in study recruitment. Significant declines occurred in both STD incidence and high-risk sexual behaviors during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This study documents a dramatic decline in the risk of HIV-1 infection while participating in a prospective cohort, with most seroconversions occurring within 1 year of enrollment. Variations in HIV-1 incidence within high-risk populations should be anticipated during the design of vaccine trials.
J Overbaugh, J Kreiss, M Poss, P Lewis, S Mostad, G John, R Nduati, D Mbori-Ngacha, H Martin Jr, B Richardson, S Jackson, J Neilson, E M Long, D Panteleeff, M Welch, J Rakwar, D Jackson, B Chohan, L Lavreys, K Mandaliya, J Ndinya-Achola, J Bwayo
Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org. email@example.com
If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.
Evaluation of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomized clinical trial.
B A Richardson, L Lavreys, H L Martin Jr, C E Stevens, E Ngugi, K Mandaliya, J Bwayo, J Ndinya-Achola, J K Kreiss
Departments of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98104-2499, USA.
BACKGROUND Low-dose nonoxynol-9 products have a potential advantage of reduced toxicity. However, little is known about their efficacy in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). GOAL To determine the effect that an intravaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 has on the acquisition of STDs in a cohort of HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was performed. RESULTS In this study, 139 women were randomized to the nonoxynol-9 group and 139 to the placebo group. No significant differences were found between the two study groups in terms of safety outcomes and reported symptoms, except for a lower incidence of vaginal erythema in the nonoxynol-9 group. There was a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea in the nonoxynol-9 group than in the placebo group. No significant differences were observed between the groups for acquisition of Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1, although the statistical power to detect differences for some of these STDs was limited. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized placebo-controlled trial of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel, a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea was found in the nonoxynol-9 group, but no significant differences between the groups were found for Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1.
Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: clinical manifestations among women in Mombasa, Kenya.
Departments of Epidemiology, Medicine, and Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104-2499, USA.
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had >/=1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having >/=2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could potentially reduce secondary HIV-1 transmission during this highly infectious period.
Cofactors for the acquisition of HIV-1 among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya.
J Rakwar, L Lavreys, M L Thompson, D Jackson, J Bwayo, S Hassanali, K Mandaliya, J Ndinya-Achola, J Kreiss
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of east African trucking company employees. METHODS: HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and evaluated at 3 monthly intervals for HIV-1 seroconversion, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual behavior. RESULTS: The baseline seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 1500 trucking company employees was 17.8%. Among 752 HIV-1-seronegative men who were followed, the HIV-1 annual seroincidence was 3.1%. In univariate analysis, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with age under 25 years, 10 years or less of sexual activity, occupation as a driver/driver's assistant, occupational travel for more than 14 days per month, religion other than Christian or Muslim, uncircumcised status, sex with a prostitute, sex with a girlfriend/casual partner, extramarital sex, and enrollment seropositivity to Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (all P values < or = 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, HIV-1 acquisition was independently associated with 10 years or less of sexual activity (hazard rate ratio (HRR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.3), occupation as a driver/driver's assistant (HRR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.0), religion other than Christian or Muslim (HRR 6.1, 95% CI 1.4-25.7), uncircumcised status (HRR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0), and unprotected sex with a prostitute (HRR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.0). CONCLUSIONS: Trucking company employees had a high HIV-1 seroprevalence rate at enrollment and a high HIV-1 seroincidence during follow-up. Risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion included years of sexual activity, occupation, religion, uncircumcised status, and unprotected sex with a prostitute. This population is an appropriate target for HIV-1 prevention trials and behavioral interventions.
B A Richardson, H L Martin Jr, C E Stevens, S L Hillier, A K Mwatha, B H Chohan, P M Nyange, K Mandaliya, J Ndinya-Achola, J K Kreiss
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle 98104-2499, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Several in vitro studies have shown nonoxynol-9 (N-9) to be toxic to lactobacilli, especially to strains that produce H2O2. Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial that investigated the safety and toxicity of 2 weeks of daily vaginal application of an N-9 gel were analyzed, to examine the effect of N-9 use on vaginal lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis. In vivo, N-9 promoted sustained colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli among women already colonized (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.7). In addition, use of N-9 for 2 weeks reduced the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0). In contrast, N-9 use by women initially colonized only by non-H2O2-producing lactobacilli resulted in loss of vaginal lactobacilli (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3). These data suggest that daily use of N-9 does not adversely affect vaginal colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli but that such use may promote loss of non-H2O2-producing strains.
A prospective study of risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women in Kenya.
V Chohan, J M Baeten, S Benki, S M Graham, L Lavreys, K Mandaliya, J O Ndinya-Achola, W Jaoko, J Overbaugh, R S McClelland
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES Several studies have demonstrated an association between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1, but available data on risk factors for HSV-2 acquisition are limited. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 acquisition among HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers in Kenya. METHODS Between February 1993 and December 2006, HIV-1-seronegative women attending a municipal sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic were invited to enroll in a prospective cohort study. Screening for HIV-1 and STIs were done at monthly follow-up visits. Archived blood samples were tested for HSV-2. RESULTS Of 1527 HIV-1-seronegative women enrolled, 302 (20%) were HSV-2 seronegative at baseline of whom 297 had at least one follow-up visit. HSV-2 incidence was high (23 cases/100 person-years; 115 cases). In multivariate analysis, HSV-2 was significantly associated with more recent entry into sex work, workplace and higher number of sex partners per week. Condom use was protective, although this was statistically significant only for the intermediate strata (25-75% condom use; HR 0.43; p = 0.05). There were statistical trends for bacterial vaginosis to increase HSV-2 risk (HR 1.56; p = 0.07) and for oral contraceptive use to decrease risk (HR 0.50; p = 0.08). The 23% annual HSV-2 incidence in this study is among the highest reported anywhere in the world. CONCLUSIONS Women were at increased risk if they had recently entered sex work, had a higher number of sex partners or worked in bars. HSV-2 risk reduction interventions are urgently needed among high-risk African women.
Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women.
J M Baeten, W M Hassan, V Chohan, B A Richardson, K Mandaliya, J O Ndinya-Achola, W Jaoko, R S McClelland
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE Vaginal colonisation with Lactobacillus species is characteristic of normal vaginal ecology. The absence of vaginal lactobacilli, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-producing isolates, has been associated with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) and increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Identification of factors associated with vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation may suggest interventions to improve vaginal health. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation among Kenyan HIV-1 seronegative female sex workers. At monthly follow-up visits, vaginal Lactobacillus cultures were obtained. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine demographic, behavioural and medical correlates of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H(2)O(2)-producing strains. RESULTS Lactobacillus cultures were obtained from 1020 women who completed a total of 8896 follow-up visits. Vaginal washing, typically with water alone or with soap and water, was associated with an approximately 40% decreased likelihood of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H(2)O(2)-producing strains. Recent antibiotic use, excluding metronidazole and treatments for vaginal candidiasis, reduced Lactobacillus isolation by approximately 30%. H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli were significantly less common among women with Trichomonas vaginalis infection and those who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2. In contrast, H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli were significantly more common among women with concurrent vaginal candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS Modifiable biological and behavioural factors are associated with Lactobacillus colonisation in African women. Our results suggest intervention strategies to improve vaginal health in women at high risk for HIV-1.
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PLoS Med. 2012 Jun ;9 (6):e1001251 22745608
Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples.
Craig R Cohen, Jairam R Lingappa, Jared M Baeten, Musa O Ngayo, Carol A Spiegel, Ting Hong, Deborah Donnell, Connie Celum, Saidi Kapiga, Sinead Delany, Elizabeth A Bukusi
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1-infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS We assessed the association between BV on female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk in a prospective study of 2,236 HIV-1-seropositive women and their HIV-1 uninfected male partners from seven African countries from a randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and their HIV-1-seronegative partners. Participants were followed for up to 24 months; every three months, vaginal swabs were obtained from female partners for Gram stain and male partners were tested for HIV-1. BV and normal vaginal flora were defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 and 0-3, respectively. To reduce misclassification, HIV-1 sequence analysis of viruses from seroconverters and their partners was performed to determine linkage of HIV-1 transmissions. Overall, 50 incident HIV-1 infections occurred in men in which the HIV-1-infected female partner had an evaluable vaginal Gram stain. HIV-1 incidence in men whose HIV-1-infected female partners had BV was 2.91 versus 0.76 per 100 person-years in men whose female partners had normal vaginal flora (hazard ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.74-7.52). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, sexual behavior, male circumcision, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in female partners, BV was associated with a greater than 3-fold increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission (adjusted hazard ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.37-7.33). CONCLUSIONS This study identified an association between BV and increased risk of HIV-1 transmission to male partners. Several limitations may affect the generalizability of our results including: all participants underwent couples HIV counseling and testing and enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial, and index participants had a baseline CD4 count ≥250 cells/mm(3) and were HSV-2 seropositive. Given the high prevalence of BV and the association of BV with increased risk of both female HIV-1 acquisition and transmission found in our study, if this association proves to be causal, BV could be responsible for a substantial proportion of new HIV-1 infections in Africa. Normalization of vaginal flora in HIV-1-infected women could mitigate female-to-male HIV-1 transmission. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.com NCT00194519 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Effect of probiotic bacteria on microbial host defense, growth, and immune function in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection.
Susanna Cunningham-Rundles, Siv Ahrné, Rosemary Johann-Liang, Rachel Abuav, Ann-Margaret Dunn-Navarra, Claudia Grassey, Stig Bengmark, Joseph S Cervia
Weill-Cornell Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Host Defenses Program, Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA.
The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg) cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to formula alone. Pilot studies have shown that probiotic bacteria given as a supplement have improved growth and protected against loss of CD4+ T cells. The recognition that normal bacterial flora prime neonatal immune response and that abnormal flora have a profound impact on metabolism has generated insight into potential mechanisms of gut dysfunction in many settings including HIV-1 infection. As discussed here, current and emerging studies support the concept that probiotic bacteria can provide specific benefit in HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria have proven active against bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1 positive women and have enhanced growth in infants with congenital HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria may stabilize CD4+ T cell numbers in HIV-1 infected children and are likely to have protective effects against inflammation and chronic immune activation of the gastrointestinal immune system.
Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: results of a randomized trial.
R Scott McClelland, Barbra A Richardson, Wisal M Hassan, Vrasha Chohan, Ludo Lavreys, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, James Kiarie, Walter Jaoko, Jeckoniah O Ndinya-Achola, Jared M Baeten, Ann E Kurth, King K Holmes
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter,"trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms (P =.8). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
Opportunities for treating sexually transmitted infections and reducing HIV risk in rural South Africa.
Centre for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), School of Nursing, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Congella, South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM This paper is a report of a study to determine the aetiological distribution of sexually transmitted infections and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in selected primary health care clinic attendees. BACKGROUND South Africa has a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Sexually transmitted infections are managed syndromically in the public sector as part of the essential nurse-driven primary care services provided at no cost to the client. METHOD This cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community in South Africa between September and November 2002. A total of 277 consenting women were recruited. Vulvo-vaginal swabs were collected for screening for Neisseriae gonorrheae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis using DNA amplification methods and Gram stain with Nugent's score for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infection were determined. FINDINGS The overall prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in the study was 43.7%(95% confidence interval 37.6-50.0) with the prevalence in family planning clinic attendees 45.5%(95% confidence interval 38.9-52.3) and antenatal clinic attendees 33.3%(95% confidence interval 19.6-50.3). The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections amongst both the antenatal clinic and family planning attendees accounted for at least 70% of cases. Fifty per cent of women had one recognized sexually transmitted infection with 17.9% of the family planning and 14.5% of the antenatal clinic attendees having infections from two recognized pathogens. All infections were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION Nurse-driven antenatal and family planning services provide a useful opportunity for integrating reproductive health services, human immunodeficiency virus voluntary counselling and testing and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
R Scott McClelland, Laura Sangare, Wisal M Hassan, Ludo Lavreys, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, James Kiarie, Jeckoniah Ndinya-Achola, Walter Jaoko, Jared M Baeten
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. email@example.com
We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.
Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition in India.
Steven J Reynolds, Arun R Risbud, Mary E Shepherd, Jonathan M Zenilman, Ronald S Brookmeyer, Ramesh S Paranjape, Anand D Divekar, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Manisha V Ghate, Robert C Bollinger, Sanjay M Mehendale
Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
To estimate the impact of prevalent and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection on the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), stored serum samples from a cohort of 2732 HIV-1-seronegative patients attending 3 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 1 reproductive tract infection clinic in Pune, India, were screened for HSV-2-specific antibodies. Incident HSV-2 infection was defined serologically as "recent" if a negative result of testing for HSV-2 could be documented within the previous 6 months or "remote" if >6 months had elapsed since the last negative test result. The prevalence of HSV-2 at enrollment was 43%. The HSV-2 incidence was 11.4 cases/100 person-years, and the HIV-1 incidence was 5.8 cases/100 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratios of HIV-1 acquisition from exposure to HSV-2 infection were 1.67 for prevalent HSV-2, 1.92 for remote incident HSV-2, and 3.81 for recent incident HSV-2. Recent incident HSV-2 infection was associated with the highest risk of HIV-1 in this study, which suggests that prevention of HSV-2 infection may reduce the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
Community prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Tamil Nadu, India: a probability proportional to size cluster survey.
Kurien Thomas, S P Thyagarajan, L Jeyaseelan, Jacob C Varghese, P Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi Bai, Subhash Hira, K Sudhakar, Abraham Peedicayil, Soshamma George, Renu George, P Rajendran, A G Joyee, D Hari, Balakrishnan, N Sethuraman, Hemant Gharpure, Vijaya Srinivasan
Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS is threatening the survival of many nations. To evaluate ongoing interventional strategies and burden of illness estimates, valid data on the prevalence of HIV are required. Often, in the absence of community prevalence data, estimates are based on surrogate markers such as prevalence of HIV in antenatal clinics. Even though the antenatal prevalence of HIV is easier to measure and can be repeated for evaluation, it is important to establish the association between antenatal and community prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV, so that the validity of the estimates can be verified. METHODS A 'probability proportional to size' cluster survey was conducted in three randomly selected districts of Tamil Nadu in India. The basic unit of the survey was households from rural and urban clusters. Adults 15-45 years of age from the selected households were eligible for recruitment. Demographic, behavioural and laboratory data were collected. Clinical examination was done to identify STD syndromes and blood, urine, vaginal/urethral and endocervical swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis of STDs from the subjects. Direct smear examination for Trichomonas vaginalis; serological tests for syphilis, hepatitis B, HIV, herpes simplex virus 2, Chlamydia trachomatis; and culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi were performed on the collected specimens. The data were analysed adjusting for cluster effect. RESULT We selected and screened 1981 individuals (1157 women and 824 men) for STDs and HIV from 1114 households representing the 25 million projected adult population of Tamil Nadu. The overall community prevalence of STDs including HIV and hepatitis B in Tamil Nadu was 14.6%(CI: 14.1-15.1), and 8.3%(CI: 7.9-8.6) when HIV and hepatitis B were excluded. Community prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B infection was 1.8%(CI:1.7-1.9) and 5.3%(CI: 5.1-5.5), respectively. The distribution of HIV involved both rural and urban regions of Tamil Nadu. On clinical examination, at least one STD syndrome was noted in 486 (24.5%) of the women subjects; vaginal discharge was the most common and found in 421 women (38.4%). CONCLUSION The prevalence of STD and HIV in Tamil Nadu is higher than expected and has extended into the non-high risk population (generalized epidemic).
Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Africa Centre for Population Studies and Reproductive Health and Departments of Medical Microbiology, Durban, South Africa.
We assessed the association between the causative agents of vaginal discharge and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women attending a rural sexually transmitted disease clinic in South Africa; the role played by coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied. Vaginal and cervical specimens were obtained to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis. HIV-1 infection was established by use of serum antibody tests. A total of 696 women with vaginal discharge were recruited, 119 of whom had clinical PID. Patients with trichomoniasis had a significantly higher risk of PID than did women without trichomoniasis (P=.03). PID was not associated with any of the other pathogens. When the patients were stratified according to HIV-1 status, the risk of PID in HIV-1-infected patients with T. vaginalis increased significantly (P=.002); no association was found in patients without HIV-1. T. vaginalis infection of the lower genital tract is associated with a clinical diagnosis of PID in HIV-1-infected women.
Interrelationships among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and the presence of yeasts.
Africa Centre for Population Studies and Reproductive Health and Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vaginal discharge of mixed etiology occurs frequently, with abnormal vaginal flora being the most common condition. The interrelationships among the disturbance of the vaginal ecology, the presence of yeasts, and infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were investigated among women presenting to a sexually transmitted diseases service. Analysis was done for 598 women. Although the prevalence of HIV-1 infection increased linearly with increasing Nugent's score (bacterial vaginosis score of Gram stain), the prevalence of T. vaginalis increased suddenly, from 12% in patients with a Nugent's score of < or =3 to 33% in patients with a score of 4, and remained at this level at higher scores. Yeast colonization and vulvovaginal candidiasis were inversely related to Nugent's scores. T. vaginalis might be responsible for the change in normal vaginal flora and may, therefore, be one of the causes of bacterial vaginosis. This could lead to more effective HIV-1 acquisition.
Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis.
Department of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. email@example.com
To determine the contribution of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, a systematic review of literature and data synthesis were done. Thirty-one studies addressed the risk of HIV infection in HSV-2-seropositive persons. For 9 cohort and nested case-control studies that documented HSV-2 infection before HIV acquisition, the risk estimate was 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.2). Thus, the attributable risk percentage of HIV to HSV-2 was 52%, and the population attributable risk percentage was 19% in populations with 22% HSV-2 prevalence but increased to 47% in populations with 80% HSV-2 prevalence. For 22 case-control and cross-sectional studies, the risk estimate was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-5.1), but the temporal sequence of the 2 infections cannot be documented. Control strategies for HSV-2 need to be incorporated into control of sexually transmitted infections as a strategy for HIV prevention.