Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
The oil content and quality characteristics of Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. oil are described. The oils were extracted from the mesocarp and endocarp using hexane to remove the free flowing lipid (FFL) and successive extraction with CHCl3-MeOH followed by water saturated butanol to remove bound lipid (BL). On a dry matter basis, the mesocarp contained 68.3% FFL and 13.7% BL while the endocarp contained 67.0% FFL and 13.0% BL. The quality characteristics of the mesocarp oil extracts were 151.9-195.3 mg KOH/g fat saponification value (SV), 20-40 mEq peroxide/kg fat peroxide value (PV), 71.1-94.9 g iodine/100 g fat iodine value (IV) and 1.33-8.30 mg KOH acid value (AV). Characteristics for the endocarp oil extracts were 95.4-184.3 mg KOH/g fat SV, 4.0-8.0 mEq peroxide/kg fat PV, 100.1-118.3 g iodine/100 g fat IV, and AV of 0.48-8.70 mg KOH. The fatty acid composition of the first hexane extracts indicated that the oils were primarily C16 and C18s. The mesocarp contained 31.7% hexadecanoic acid, 30.0% 9-octadecenoic acid, 30.1% 6,9-octadecadienoic acid and 8.2% 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, while the endocarp, contained 31.2% hexadecanoic acid, 28.9% 9-octadecenoic acid and 31.3% 6,9-octadecadienoic acid.
Fitoterapia. 2005 Oct 17;: 16239074
CERPHAMETRA, Université de Bangui, BP1450 Bangui, République Centrafricaine.
The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the resin of Canarium schweinfurthii growing in Central African Republic, was analysed by GC and GC/MS and its analgesic and antiinflammatory effects were studied. The major constituents of the essential oil were octylacetate (60%) and nerolidol (14%). At the doses of 1, 2 and 3 ml/kg i.p. essential oil shows a significant analgesic effect using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate methods. However, its was unable to reduce inflammatory process in cotton pellet induced granuloma method.
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Chemistry Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
A survey of medicinal plants used locally in the treatment of various diseases was carried out in Bauchi State-Nigeria. A total of 84 medicinal plants were listed. Preliminary antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extracts of the plants was investigated. The results indicated that out of 84 plants, 75 exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more of the test organisms at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. The extracts were found to show potentially interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
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C-aMP dependent protein kinase A inhibitory activity of six algal extracts from South Eastern Australia and their fatty acid composition.
School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW, 2500, Australia.
c-AMP Dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red seaweeds > green seaweeds with the brown alga Sargassum sp. exhibiting the highest PKA inhibitory activity (84% at 100 microg/mL). GC/MS analysis identified a total of 18 fatty acids in the six algal extracts accounting for 72-87% of each extract, with hexadecanoic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid as the dominant components. The most active extract (Sargassum sp.) also contained the highest percentage of the saturated C14:0 fatty acid (12.8% of the total extract), which is a known to inhibit PKA. These results provide the first description of the PKA inhibitory activity of marine algae along with the first description of the fatty acid composition of these six algal species from South Eastern Australian waters. Importantly, this study reveals that abundant and readily available marine algae are a new and relatively unexplored source of PKA inhibitory compounds.
Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils.
Simultaneous analysis of free phytosterols/phytostanols and intact phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid and phenolic acid esters in cereals.
Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universität München, Maximus-von-Imhof-Forum 2, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.
An approach based on solid-phase extraction for the effective separation of free phytosterols/phytostanols and phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid and phenolic acid esters from cereal lipids was developed. The ester conjugates were analyzed in their intact form by means of capillary gas chromatography. Besides free sterols and stanols, up to 33 different fatty acid and phenolic acid esters were identified in four different cereal grains via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The majority (52-57%) of the sterols and stanols were present as fatty acid esters. The highest levels of all three sterol and stanol classes based on dry matter of ground kernels were determined in corn, whereas the oil extract of rye was 1.7 and 1.6 times richer in fatty acid esters and free sterols/stanols than the corn oil. The results showed that there are considerable differences in the sterols/stanols and their ester profiles and contents obtained from corn compared to rye, wheat, and spelt. The proposed method is useful for the quantification of a wide range of free phytosterols/phytostanols and intact phytosteryl/phytostanyl esters to characterize different types of grain.
Characterization of the pulp and kernel oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata.
Dept. of Food Engineering and Technology, São Paulo State Univ., São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, Brazil.
Vegetable oils are important sources of essential fatty acids. It is, therefore, important to characterize plant species that can be used as new oil sources. This study aimed to characterize the oils from guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana), and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). The physicochemical characterization was performed using official analytical methods for oils and fats, free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification number, and unsaponifiable matter. The oxidative stability was determined using the Rancimat at 110 °C. The fatty acid composition was performed by gas chromatography. The results were submitted to Tukey's test for the medium to 5% using the ESTAT program. The pulp oils were more unsaturated than kernel oils, as evidenced by the higher refractive index and iodine value, especially the macaúba pulp oil which gave 1.4556 and 80 g I(2)/100 g, respectively, for these indices. The kernel oils were less altered by oxidative process and had high induction period, free fatty acids below 0.5%, and peroxide value around 0.19 meq/kg. The guariroba kernel oil showed the largest induction period, 91.82 h. Practical Application: The vegetable oils, besides being consumed directly as food, are important raw material for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In recent years, the world market of vegetable oils has been characterized by stronger growth of demand over supply. Several species of palm trees are shown to be promising sources of oils. The characterization of oils extracted from some species, such as guariroba, jerivá, and macaúba, has not yet been fully elucidated. For this reason, it becomes important to investigate the physicochemical characterization of these oils, aiming at a possible use in food or in the industry.
Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec 2;: 22132714
a Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture , Selçuk University , 42031 Konya , Turkey.
Percentages of crude oil, protein, fibre and ash of grape seeds obtained from Turkish cultivars were of the ranges 5.40-10.79, 5.24-7.54, 17.6-27.1, and 1.2-2.6, respectively. The highest crude oil, crude protein and crude fibre were determined in Siyah pekmezlik, Karadimrit and Antep grape seeds. The energy values of seeds were established to be between 102.28 and 148.07 kcal g(-1). Potassium and calcium contents of seed samples were found to be at high levels compared to sodium. The seeds contained 686-967 ppm of Na, 2468-3618 ppm of K and 2373-4127 ppm of Ca. The refractive index, relative density, acidity, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and iodine value of seed oils were determined to be in the ranges 1.474-1.477 [Formula: see text], 0.909-0.934 25/25°C, 0.74-1.24%, 181-197, 0.91-1.66%, and 126-135, respectively. The main fatty acids were of the ranges 60.7-68.5% linoleic, 16.1-23.4% oleic and 8.0-10.2% palmitic. The highest percentages of linoleic acid (68.5%) was determined in Siyah pekmezlik seed oil.
J Oleo Sci. 2011 ;60 (9):463-7 21852745
Department of Biotechnology and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kinki University.
Fatty acids of Euterpe oleracea Mart seeds were analyzed in hexane and diethyl ether extracts. The hexane extract contained dodecanoic acid (3), tetradecanoic acid (4), hexadecanoic acid (7), and 9-octadecenoic acid (10). The diethyl ether extract contained (10). The oil of Mart seeds was obtained firstly by methanol extract and further extracted with diethyl ether. The hexane and diethyl ether extracts were then analyzed for antioxidant effects. Both extracts demonstrated a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical elimination effect similar to that of α-tocopherol and an active oxygen inhibition effect. Significant quantities (0.6212 mg/mL) of polyphenol, in comparison to the standard rejected gallic acid, were found in the extract oil of Mart seeds by the methanol extraction.
Meat Sci. 2011 Jun 13;: 21703777
Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil.
Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Product Design and Quality Management, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the chemical composition. The fat content was not significantly different between products (p>0.05). The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 8.49 in controls to 0.90-2.47 in modified products. Lipid oxidation parameters (propanal and hexanal) showed much higher values for sausages with pure fish oil than for products with encapsulated oil. For the latter, lipid oxidation was similar to controls. Products with encapsulated or pre-emulsified oil were significantly firmer than products from other treatments in physical and sensory analysis (p<0.05). Overall, it is technologically feasible to enrich dry fermented sausages with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil and the application of commercial encapsulated fish oil seems to be the best in retaining overall quality.
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 950 Reynolds Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27105, United States. email@example.com
A number of reference oils, two commercial oils, and several oil extracts from seeds of Nicotiana species were analyzed for the fatty acid content and also for triglyceride composition. The seed oils were obtained using an accelerated solvent extraction procedure, which was proven to be very efficient and reproducible. The fatty acids were analyzed after the hydrolysis of the oils, using trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The levels of sixteen molecular species of triglycerides in the oils were measured after GC separation using MS for identification and flame ionization detection (FID) for quantitation. The results for the fatty acids and those for triglycerides were combined to generate uniform information regarding the composition of the analyzed oils. For a number of oils, the individual triglyceride quantitation and mass spectra were reported for the first time. The study showed that in some cases, oils with similar fatty acid content do not have the same triglycerides profile. The fatty acids and triglycerides profile for selected Nicotiana species were described for the first time in the literature.
Chi-Cheng Yu, Hsiao-Wei Chen, Mao-Jing Chen, Yu-Ching Chang, Shih-Chang Chien, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Feng-Ling Yang, Shih-Hsiung Wu, Jie Chen, Hsiao-Hui Yu, Louis Kuop-Ping Chao
Greenlink Biotech Inc., Taipei 111, Taiwan.
The present study investigated the chemical composition of Isochrysis galbana Parke, a marine microalga which is widely used as a feedstock in aquaculture. From gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis the mono-sugar compositions of I. galbana were 2.1% fucose, 2.5% rhamnose, 2.7% arabinose, 8.5% xylose, 15.7% mannose, 32.7% galactose and 35.8% glucose. The polysaccharides of I. galbana were able to induce prointerleukin-1beta (pro-IL-1beta) protein expression within murine macrophages. Furthermore, five kinds of chlorophyll and one sterol were separated from the ethanolic extracts, including pheophorbide-a, ethyl pheophorbide-a, 10S-10-hydroxypheophytin-a, 10R-10-hydroxypheophytin-a,(132-R)-pheophytin-a, and brassicasterol. In addition, the major soluble components of the ethanol/n-hexane extract were 9-octadecenoic acid (E)(38.4%), hexadecanoic acid (23.3%), tetradecanoic acid (15.7%), and octadecanoic acid (7.2%), but only a few polyunsaturated fatty acids were found, such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (1.9%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)(3.4%), and docosahexaenoic acid (0.2%). This is the first occasion that polysaccharides from I. galbana have been demonstrated to exert immunomodulatory properties by the induction of IL-1 within macrophages.
Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
Hydrothermal processing of high lipid feedstock such as microalgae is an alternative method of oil extraction which has obvious benefits for high moisture containing biomass. A range of microalgae and lipids extracted from terrestrial oil seed have been processed at 350 °C, at pressures of 150-200 bar in water. Hydrothermal liquefaction is shown to convert the triglycerides to fatty acids and alkanes in the presence of certain heterogeneous catalysts. This investigation has compared the composition of lipids and free fatty acids from solvent extraction to those from hydrothermal processing. The initial decomposition products include free fatty acids and glycerol, and the potential for de-oxygenation using heterogeneous catalysts has been investigated. The results indicate that the bio-crude yields from the liquefaction of microalgae were increased slightly with the use of heterogeneous catalysts but the higher heating value (HHV) and the level of de-oxygenation increased, by up to 10%.