Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the flavor and fragrance industry. Due to the limited sources for natural aromas, there is a growing interest in developing alternative sources for natural aroma compounds, and in particular aromatic aldehydes. In several microbial species aromatic aldehydes are detected as intermediates in the degradation pathway of phenylpropanoids. Thus, bioconversion of phenylpropanoids is one possible route for the production of these aroma compounds. The present work describes the isolation of microbial strains, capable of producing vanillin from isoeugenol. Bacterial strains isolated from soil, were screened for their ability to transform isoeugenol to vanillin. One of these strains, strain B2, was found to produce high amounts of vanillin when grown in the presence of isoeugenol, and was also capable of growing on isoeugenol as the sole carbon source. Based on its fatty acids profile, strain B2 was identified as a Bacillus subtilis sp. The bioconversion capabilities of strain B2 were tested in growing cultures and cell free extracts. In the presence of isoeugenol, a growing cultures of B. subtilis B2 produced 0.61 g l-1 vanillin (molar yield of 12.4%), whereas cell free extracts resulted in 0.9 g l-1 vanillin (molar yield of 14%).
Nuttawat Wangrangsimagul, Kunticha Klinsakul, Alisa S Vangnai, Jirarut Wongkongkatep, Pranee Inprakhon, Kohsuke Honda, Hisao Ohtake, Junichi Kato, Thunyarat Pongtharangkul
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
Nowadays, majority of vanillin supplied to the world market is chemically synthesized from a petroleum-based raw material, raising a concern among the consumers regarding the product safety. In this study, an organic solvent-tolerant Brevibacillus agri 13 previously reported for a strong predilectic property was utilized as a whole-cell biocatalyst for bioproduction of vanillin from isoeugenol (IG). B. agri 13 is the first biocatalyst reported for bioproduction of vanillin at a temperature as high as 45°C. Both pH and temperature were found to affect vanillin production significantly. An extreme level of organic solvent tolerance of B. agri 13 allowed us to utilize it in a biphasic system using organic solvents generally considered as highly toxic to most bacteria. With an addition of butyl acetate at 30%(v/v) as an organic second phase, toxicity of IG exerted onto the biocatalyst was reduced dramatically while faster and more efficient vanillin production was obtained (1.7 g/L after 48 h with 27.8% molar conversion).
N Biotechnol. 2011 Jun 13;: 21689800
Pseudomonas resinovorans SPR1, a newly isolated strain with potential of transforming eugenol to vanillin and vanillic acid.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Azadi Sq., Daneshgah St., Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran.
In this study a novel strain was isolated with the capability to grow on eugenol as a source of carbon and energy. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovorans (GenBank accession no. HQ198585) based on phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene. The intermediates coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin and vanillic acid were detected in the culture supernatant during eugenol biotransformation with this strain. The products were confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectral data achieved from UV-vis, FTIR and mass spectroscopy. Using eugenol as substrate and resting cells of P. resinovorans SPR1, which were harvested at the end of the exponential growth phase, without further optimization 0.24g/L vanillin (molar yield of 10%) and 1.1g/L vanillic acid (molar yield of 44%) were produced after 30h and 60h biotransformation, respectively. The current work gives the first evidence for the eugenol biotransformation by P. resinovorans.
Isoeugenol monooxygenase and its putative regulatory gene are located in the eugenol metabolic gene cluster in Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1.
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Korea.
The plant-derived phenylpropanoids eugenol and isoeugenol have been proposed as useful precursors for the production of natural vanillin. Genes involved in the metabolism of eugenol and isoeugenol were clustered in region of about a 30 kb of Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1. Two of the 23 ORFs in this region, ORFs 26 (iemR) and 27 (iem), were predicted to be involved in the conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin. The deduced amino acid sequence of isoeugenol monooxygenase (Iem) of strain Jin1 had 81.4% identity to isoeugenol monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida IE27, which also transforms isoeugenol to vanillin. Iem was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and was found to lead to isoeugenol to vanillin transformation. Deletion and cloning analyses indicated that the gene iemR, located upstream of iem, is required for expression of iem in the presence of isoeugenol, suggesting it to be the iem regulatory gene. Reverse transcription, real-time PCR analyses indicated that the genes involved in the metabolism of eugenol and isoeugenol were differently induced by isoeugenol, eugenol, and vanillin.
Vanillin production using Escherichia coli cells over-expressing isoeugenol monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida.
Department of Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.
The isoeugenol monooxygenase gene of Pseudomonas putida IE27 was inserted into an expression vector, pET21a, under the control of the T7 promoter. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, containing no vanillin-degrading activity. The transformed E. coli BL21(DE3) cells produced 28.3 g vanillin/l from 230 mM isoeugenol, with a molar conversion yield of 81% at 20 degrees C after 6 h. In the reaction system, no accumulation of undesired by-products, such as vanillic acid or acetaldehyde, was observed.
Metabolic characterization of newly isolated Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1 growing on eugenol and isoeugenol.
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering and International Environmental Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Korea.
Newly isolated soil bacterium strain Jin1 was able to grow on both eugenol and isoeugenol each as sole source of carbon and energy. Based on bacterial 16S rDNA analysis, Jin1 belongs to Pseudomonas nitroreducens with a similarity of 98.92%(14/1297). P. nitroreducens Jin1 was found to biotransform eugenol and isoeugenol to vanillin by different pathways. Eugenol was biotransformed to vanillin through coniferyl alcohol and ferulic acid similarly to the pathway shown previously by Pseudomonassp. HR199 and vanillin produced from eugenol was rapidly metabolized to vanillic acid. Contrastively, Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1 did not appear to produce metabolic intermediates during the biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin which was finally biotransformed to vanillic acid with much slower rate. These results indicate that there seems to be different metabolic regulation systems for the biotransformation of eugenol and isoeugenol by this bacterium. Herein, we report on Pseudomonas nitroreducens Jin1, a novel bacterium that produces vanillin from eugenol and isoeugenol by two different metabolic pathways.
Purification, characterization and gene cloning of isoeugenol-degrading enzyme from Pseudomonas putida IE27.
Department of Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.
An isoeugenol-degrading enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas putida IE27, an isoeugenol-assimilating bacterium. The purified enzyme was a 55 kDa monomer and catalyzed the initial step of isoeugenol degradation, the oxidative cleavage of the side chain double-bond of isoeugenol, to form vanillin. Another reaction product of isoeugenol degradation besides vanillin was identified to be acetaldehyde. The values of Km and k (cat) for isoeugenol were 175 muM and 5.18 s(-1), respectively. The purified enzyme catalyzed the incorporation of an oxygen atom from either molecular oxygen or water into vanillin, suggesting that the isoeugenol-degrading enzyme is a kind of monooxygenase. The gene encoding the isoeugenol-degrading enzyme and its flanking regions were isolated from P. putida IE27. The amino acid sequence of the enzyme was similar to those of lignostilbene-alpha,beta-dioxygenases, carotenoid monooxygenases and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases.
UMR 1219 INRA/Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Faculté d’Œnologie, ISVV Talence, France.
Aims: The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to metabolize certain phenolic precursors to vanillin was investigated. Methods and Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or HPLC was used to evaluate the biosynthesis of vanillin from simple phenolic precursors. LAB were not able to form vanillin from eugenol, isoeugenol or vanillic acid. However Oenococcus oeni or Lactobacillus sp. could convert ferulic acid to vanillin, but in low yield. Only Lactobacillus sp. or Pediococcus sp. strains were able to produce significant quantities of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Moreover, LAB reduced vanillin to the corresponding vanillyl alcohol. Conclusions: The transformation of phenolic compounds tested by LAB could not explain the concentrations of vanillin observed during LAB growth in contact with wood. Significance and Impact of the Study: Important details of the role of LAB in the conversion of phenolic compounds to vanillin have been elucidated. These findings contribute to the understanding of malolactic fermentation in the production of aroma compounds.
Department of Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, 501-1193, Gifu, Japan.
The ability to produce vanillin and/or vanillic acid from isoeugenol was screened using resting cells of various bacteria. The vanillin- and/or vanillic-acid-producing activities were observed in strains belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Aeromonas, Agrobacerium, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodobacter, and Rhodococcus. Strain IE27, a soil isolate showing the highest vanillin-producing activity, was identified as Pseudomonas putida. We optimized the culture and reaction conditions for vanillin production from isoeugenol using P. putida IE27 cells. The vanillin-producing activity was induced by adding isoeugenol to the culture medium but not vanillin or eugenol. Under the optimized reaction conditions, P. putida IE27 cells produced 16.1 g/l vanillin from 150 mM isoeugenol, with a molar conversion yield of 71% at 20 degrees C after a 24-h incubation in the presence of 10%(v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide.
Conversion of isoeugenol into vanillic acid by Pseudomonas putida I58 cells exhibiting high isoeugenol-degrading activity.
Department of Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan; Chisso Corporation, Yokohama Research Center, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8605, Japan.
Pseudomonas putida I58 was isolated from soil by a conventional enrichment culture method using isoeugenol as a sole carbon source. The strain utilized isoeugenol, vanillin and vanillic acid as carbon sources. On the other hand, the intermediates of the eugenol-degrading pathway, such as eugenol, coniferyl alcohol, coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, were not utilized by this strain, indicating that isoeugenol is directly degraded to vanillin without the formation of ferulic acid. The resting cells of P. putida I58 rapidly converted isoeugenol into vanillic acid via vanillin with a conversion yield of 98% by 40-min incubation.
The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Southern Yangtze University, 214036, Wuxi, PR China.
A novel strain of Bacillus fusiformis, producing high amounts of vanillin from isoeugenol, was isolated from soil. Using 60%(v/v) isoeugenol as substrate and solvent and at pH 4.0, 37 degrees C and 180 rpm, vanillin was produced at 32.5 g l(-1) over 72 h. The unused isoeugenol was reusable.
Other papers by authors:
Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities.
E Lewinsohn, I Ziv-Raz I, N Dudai, Y Tadmor, E Lastochkin, O Larkov, D Chaimovitsh, U Ravid, E Putievsky, E Pichersky, Y Shoham
Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 1021, 30095, Ramat Yishay, Israel
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) is a common herb, used for culinary and medicinal purposes. The essential oils of different sweet basil chemotypes contain various proportions of the allyl phenol derivatives estragole (methyl chavicol), eugenol, and methyl eugenol, as well as the monoterpene alcohol linalool. To monitor the developmental regulation of estragole biosynthesis in sweet basil, an enzymatic assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM):chavicol O-methyltransferase activity was developed. Young leaves display high levels of chavicol O-methyltransferase activity, but the activity was negligible in older leaves, indicating that the O-methylation of chavicol primarily occurs early during leaf development. The O-methyltransferase activities detected in different sweet basil genotypes differed in their substrate specificities towards the methyl acceptor substrate. In the high-estragole-containing chemotype R3, the O-methyltransferase activity was highly specific for chavicol, while eugenol was virtually not O-methylated. In contrast, chemotype 147/97, that contains equal levels of estragole and methyl eugenol, displayed O-methyltransferase activities that accepted both chavicol and eugenol as substrates, generating estragole and methyl eugenol, respectively. Chemotype SW that contains high levels of eugenol, but lacks both estragole and methyl eugenol, had apparently no allylphenol dependent O-methyltransferase activities. These results indicate the presence of at least two types of allylphenol-specific O-methyltransferase activities in sweet basil chemotypes, one highly specific for chavicol; and a different one that can accept eugenol as a substrate. The relative availability and substrate specificities of these O-methyltransferase activities biochemically rationalizes the variation in the composition of the essential oils of these chemotypes.
Plastic Surgery Department and Burn Unit, Soroka Medical Hospital, The Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Be'er Sheva, Israel.
The treatment and hospitalization policies in various hospitals in Israel are influenced by injury severity and by the existence or non-existence of a designated burn treatment body. Severely injured burn victims requiring designated burn treatment are referred to one of Israel's five major burn units located in the highest level trauma centres that have an advanced burn treatment infrastructure. This national distribution of burn centres ensures designated treatment availability in various areas according to Israeli demographics, geography, and security threats. Israel does not have an obligatory burn report policy. Implementation of a national burn repository such as that in the USA will be able to give burn treatment specialists in our country a basis for comparison of treatment standards and allow for better care for burn victims. The Israeli Burn Association has a major role in the processes discussed in the manuscript.
J Anim Sci. 2009 May ;87 (5):1835-48 19122047
Dynamics of offensive gas-phase odorants in fresh and aged feces throughout the development of beef cattle.
Institute of Animal Science, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat Yishay, Israel 30095.
Livestock odors are largely caused by several groups of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including sulfur-containing compounds, VFA, and phenols and indoles. Throughout the growth stages of cattle in the nursery and feedlot, distinctly different diets are formulated to meet the changing requirements of the animal. Because diet composition and manure management are 2 major factors affecting odor emissions, it was assumed that changes in diet composition along the development of calves would affect VOC emissions from fresh and stored manure. In this study, the dynamics of gas-phase VOC in feces from 6 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were followed at 5 ages: 1 to 5 wk (stage I), 6 to 8 wk (stage II, before weaning), 9 to 14 wk (stage III, after weaning), and 15 to 36 wk (stages IV and V). The CP content of the formulated diet decreased from 23.0 to 13.9%. Samples of fresh feces were incubated under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 21 d. The VOC were analyzed from the feces headspace by solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Distinct changes in gas-phase VOC were observed in fresh and aged feces from calves at different ages. Semiquantitatively (based on comparative peak area counts), the following trends were observed: 1) S-containing compounds were the least dominant in fresh feces at the age of 2 wk (stage I), whereas VFA esters were the most dominant. 2) At the age of 7 wk (stage II), 1 wk before calves were weaned, feces seemed to be the most offensive, presumably because of the difficulty of synchronizing the requirements of the animal and the diet formulation during this stage of rapid development. 3) The VOC decreased during storage of feces under aerobic conditions but significantly increased at all 5 life stages during storage under anaerobic conditions. This study demonstrates that life stage and manure management affect odor emissions from beef fattening operations. Incorporation of the age and diet of calves in odor modeling could improve annoyance predictions.
ABSTRACT Nematicidal activity of essential oils extracted from 27 spices and aromatic plants were evaluated in vitro and in pot experiments. Twelve of the twenty-seven essential oils immobilized more than 80% of juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica at a concentration of 1,000 mul/liter. At this concentration, most of these oils also inhibited nematode hatching. Essential oils of Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha rotundifolia, and Mentha spicata showed the highest nematicidal activity among the in vitro tested oils. These oils and those from Origanum vulgare, O. syriacum, and Coridothymus capitatus mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced the root galling of cucumber seedlings in pot experiments. The main components of these essential oils were tested for their nematicidal activity. Carvacrol, t-anethole, thymol, and (+)-carvone immobilized the juveniles and inhibited hatching at >125 mul/liter in vitro. Most of these components mixed in sandy soil at concentrations of 75 and 150 mg/kg reduced root galling of cucumber seedlings. In 3-liter pot experiments, nematicidal activity of the essential oils and their components was confirmed at 200 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the essential oils and their main components may serve as nematicides.
Fermentation Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
Recombinant plasmid pCEDS is structurally unstable in Bacillus subtilis cultures. We have previously shown that stability can be independently increased by changing from a complex medium supporting high growth rates to a chemically-defined medium supporting a lower growth rate and removal of a 4.77-kb EcoRI fragment from pCED3 to give plasmid YS1. Further stabilization was achieved by combining the two approaches. In the present work, we show that the stabilization of the plasmid-encoded LacZ(+) phenotype can be explained solely by the effect on the growth rate ratio between cells containing modified and parental plasmids. By using modified stability experiments (where a single cell rather than a suspended colony was used to initiate growth), independent growth rate measurements, and a simple mathematical model, we can describe the kinetics of the loss of the LacZ(+) phenotype in terms of two variables, alpha and p (where alpha is the ratio of growth rates between modified and parental cells, and p is the probability of obtaining modified cells from parental cells). Under the conditions tested, the average values of alpha were 1.52 for cultures growing in complex medium, 1.28 for cultures growing in defined medium, and 1.18 for cultures containing the modified plasmid pYS1 growing in complex medium. The calculated p values ranged between 10(-8) and 10(-10) under all conditions. Plasmid (pYS137) was used to directly estimate plasmid deletion rates in B. subtilis and it showed a rate between 5 x 10(-8) and 1.1 x 10(-9) deletions/cell/generation. In contrast to B. subtilis, there were no detectable differences in growth rates between Escherichia coli strains harboring plasmid pCEDS and plasmid-free cells. These results explain the observed stability of pCEDS in E. coli cultures and indicate that readily detected instability in B. subtilis cultures can be the result of rare deletion events.
Structure-specificity relationships of an intracellular xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.
Department of Inorganic Chemistry and the Laboratory for Structural Chemistry and Biology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 is a thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium that produces two selective family 10 xylanases which both take part in the complete degradation and utilization of the xylan polymer. The two xylanases exhibit significantly different substrate specificities. While the extracellular xylanase (XT6; MW 43.8 kDa) hydrolyzes the long and branched native xylan polymer, the intracellular xylanase (IXT6; MW 38.6 kDa) preferentially hydrolyzes only short xylo-oligosaccharides. In this study, the detailed three-dimensional structure of IXT6 is reported, as determined by X-ray crystallography. It was initially solved by molecular replacement and then refined at 1.45 A resolution to a final R factor of 15.0% and an R(free) of 19.0%. As expected, the structure forms the classical (alpha/beta)(8) fold, in which the two catalytic residues (Glu134 and Glu241) are located on the inner surface of the central cavity. The structure of IXT6 was compared with the highly homologous extracellular xylanase XT6, revealing a number of structural differences between the active sites of the two enzymes. In particular, structural differences derived from the unique subdomain in the carboxy-terminal region of XT6, which is completely absent in IXT6. These structural modifications may account for the significant differences in the substrate specificities of these otherwise very similar enzymes.
Division of Medicinal and Spice Crops, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar, Israel.
The essential oils of MAJORANA SYRIACA, CORIDOTHYMUS CAPITATUS and SATUREJA THYMBRA plants growing wild in Israel were investigated by means of GLC and GLC-MS. 18 components were identified, the main ones being thymol, carvacrol, gamma-terpinene and p-cymene.
Division of Medicinal and Spice Crops, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar, Post Haifa 31-999, Israel.
The essential oils of THYMBRA SPICATA and SATUREJA THYMBRA growing wild in Israel were investigated by means of GLC and GC-MS. The main components of the oils were carvacrol, thymol, gamma-terpinene and P-cymene. Eleven monoterpene hydrocarbons, two sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and nine oxygenated monoterpenes were identified.
Department of Plant Sciences, G. S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
The composition of hexane extract constituents of ripe mericarps ("achenes") of eleven indigenous populations of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare (Apiaceae) was studied. Natural populations were selected along a gradient of annual rainfall from ca. 1000 mm in the northern region down to 125 mm in the Negev desert. Eighteen constituents, with estragole, trans-anethole, fenchone, limonene and alpha-pinene as the major components were separated by GC-MS. Characterized by the level of estragole and trans-anethole, four different groups were obtained:(1) highest estragole (63%) and the lowest trans-ane-thole (3%) characterized the population of Mt. Meron;(2) estra-gole (39-47%) and trans-anethole (17-29%) in 3 mountainous populations;(3) estragole (21-29%) and trans-anethole (38-49%) in the coastal and lowland populations;(4) two exceptional populations with the lowest content of estragole (ca.8%) and high content of trans-anethole (55 and 74%). A reversed association between the content of estragole and trans-anethole suggests a common precursor. In habitats with a high precipitation, the content of estragole was high and that of trans-anethole was low, and vice versa under limited rainfall. It is proposed that the composition of oleoresins of F. vulgare var. vulgare could be governed by environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it is not ruled out that genetic variations account for the recorded differences.
Therapeutic ultrasound-mediated DNA to cell and nucleus: bioeffects revealed by confocal and atomic force microscopy.
The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, The Technion - Israel institute of Technology, Haifa.
Therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) has the potential of becoming a powerful nonviral method for the delivery of genes into cells and tissues. Understanding the mechanism by which TUS delivers genes, its bioeffects on cells and the kinetic of gene entrances to the nucleus can improve transfection efficiency and allow better control of this modality when bringing it to clinical settings. In the present study, direct evidence for the role and possible mechanism of TUS (with or without Optison) in the in vitro gene-delivery process are presented. Appling a 1 MHz TUS, at 2 W/cm(2), 30%DC for 30 min was found to achieve the highest transfection level and efficiency while maintaining high cell viability (>80%). Adding Optison further increase transfection level and efficiency by 1.5 to three-fold. Confocal microscopy studies indicate that long-term TUS application localizes the DNA in cell and nucleus regardless of Optison addition. Thus, TUS significantly affects transfection efficiency and protein kinetic expression. Using innovative direct microscopy approaches: atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate that TUS exerts bioeffects, which differ from the ones obtained when Optison is used together with TUS. Our data suggest that TUS alone affect the cell membrane in a different mechanism than when Optison is used.
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State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.
Two Bacillus strains; Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus natto CICC 24640 separately adsorbed and degraded zearalenone in liquid media, in vitro. Viable, autoclaved (121°C, 20 min) and acid-treated cells of both strains separately bound more than 55% of zearalenone (ZEN, 20 μg/L) after 30 min and 1-h incubation at 37°C under aerobic conditions, and the amount of ZEN adsorbed was dependent on initial cell volume. In addition, ZEN was degraded by the culture extract of both strains. Degradation by B. subtilis 168 and B. natto CICC 24640 culture extract after 24-h aerobic incubation at 30°C was 81% and 100%, respectively. B. natto CICC 24640 culture extract comprehensively degraded ZEN and, for both strains, no oestrogenic ZEN analogues were present. ZEN degradation was accompanied by carbondioxide emission indicating a decarboxylation reaction. ZEN degradation by the salient B. natto CICC 24640 culture extract varied with initial ZEN concentration, incubation time, temperature and pH. Degradation was enhanced by Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) but impeded by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline. The degradation reaction is associated with a metalloproteinase of molar mass in the range 31-43 kDa. Overall, the two generally recognised as safe Bacillus strains can, potentially, be utilised for detoxification of zearalenone in food.
Variety and variability of glycosidase activities in an Oenococcus oeni strain collection tested with synthetic and natural substrates.
UMR 1219 Oenologie, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, Villenave d'Ornon, France.
AIMS To evaluate the capacity of Oenococcus oeni strains to release aroma compounds from glycosylated precursors by measuring glycosidase activities with both synthetic and natural substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS Five glycosidase activities were investigated in 47 O. oeni strains using synthetic substrates. This screening revealed that activity levels vary considerably, not only for each strain (depending on the substrate tested), but also between strains. Fifteen strains exhibiting different activity profiles were further analysed using natural substrates extracted from both untoasted and toasted oak. In the latter, various amounts of aromatic compounds were measured, thus confirming the specific potentials of the selected strains, but the results were different from those obtained using synthetic substrates. In addition, the use of toasted wood extracts significantly increased the release of wood aromas, which minimized differences between strains. CONCLUSIONS The capability of O. oeni to hydrolysate glycoconjugate aroma precursors is strain-dependent and variable, depending on the substrate. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY Instead of synthetic substrates, natural aroma precursors should be used for an adequate evaluation of the glycosidase potential of O. oeni.
Arthrobacter sp. strain KU001 isolated from a Thai soil degrades atrazine in the presence of inorganic nitrogen sources.
Department of Soil Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand. email@example.com
An atrazine degrading bacterium, strain KU001, was obtained from a sugarcane field at the Cane and Sugar Research and Development Center at the Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen campus, Thailand. Strain KU001 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Biolog carbon source analysis indicated that the isolated bacterium was Arthrobacter histidinolovorans. Sequence analysis of PCR product indicated the 16S rRNA gene in strain KU001 was 99% identical to the same region in Arthrobacter sp.. The atrazine degradation pathway in strain KU001 consists of the catabolic genes, trzN, atzB and, atzC. Strain KU001 was able to use atrazine as a sole nitrogen source for growth, and surprisingly, atrazine degradation was not inhibited in cells grown on ammonium, nitrate or urea, as compared to cells cultivated on growth-limiting nitrogen sources. During the atrazine degradation process, the supplementation of nitrate completely inhibits atrazine degradation activity in strain KU001, whereas ammonium and urea had no effect on atrazine degradation activity. The addition of strain KU001 to sterile or nonsterile soils resulted in the disappearance of atrazine at a rate that was 4 to 5-fold more than that achieved by the indigenous microbial community. The addition of citrate to soils resulted in enhanced atrazine degradation, 80% of atrazine disappeared within one day following nutrient supplementation.
New metabolites in dibenzofuran cometabolic degradation by a biphenyl-cultivated Pseudomonas putida strain B6-2.
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, People's Republic of China.
A biphenyl (BP)-utilizing bacterium, designated B6-2, was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida. BP-grown B6-2 cells were capable of transforming dibenzofuran (DBF) via a lateral dioxygenation and meta-cleavage pathway. The ring cleavage product 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxo-3'H-benzofuran-2'-yliden)but-2-enoic acid (HOBB) was detected as a major metabolite. B6-2 growing cells could also cometabolically degrade DBF using BP as a primary substrate. A recombinant Escherichia coli strain DH10B (pUC118bphABC) expressing BP dioxygenase, BP-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, and dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase was shown to be capable of transforming DBF to HOBB. Using purified HOBB that was produced by the recombinant as the substrate for B6-2, we newly identified a series of benzofuran derivatives as metabolites. The structures of these metabolites indicate that an unreported HOBB degradation pathway is employed by strain B6-2. In this pathway, HOBB is proposed to be transformed to 2-oxo-4-(3'-oxobenzofuran-2'-yl)butanoic acid and 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxobenzofuran-2'-yl)butanoic acid (D4) through two sequential double-bond hydrogenation steps. D4 is suggested to undergo reactions including decarboxylation and oxidation to produce 3-(3'-oxobenzofuran-2'-yl)propanoic acid (D6). 3-Hydroxy-3-(3'-oxobenzofuran-2'-yl)propanoic acid (D7) and 2-(3'-oxobenzofuran-2'-yl)acetic acid (D8) would represent metabolites involved in the processes of beta- and alpha-oxidation of D6, respectively. D7 and D8 are suggested to be transformed to their respective products 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (D10) and 2-(3'-hydroxy-2',3'-dihydrobenzofuran-2'-yl)acetic acid. D10 is proposed to be transformed to salicylic acid (D14) via 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzofuran, 2-oxo-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and 2-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. Further experimental results revealed that B6-2 was capable of growing with D14 as the sole carbon source. Because benzofuran derivatives may have biological, pharmacological, and toxic properties, the elucidation of this new pathway should be significant from both biotechnological and environmental views.
Jinxia Liu, Ning Wang, Bogdan Szostek, Robert C Buck, Patricia K Panciroli, Patrick W Folsom, Lisa M Sulecki, Cheryl A Bellin
E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE 19714-6300, USA.
The first studies to explore 6-2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6-2 FTOH, F(CF(2))(6)CH(2)CH(2)OH] aerobic biodegradation are described. Biodegradation yields and metabolite concentrations were determined in mixed bacterial culture (90d) and aerobic soil (180d). 6-2 FTOH primary degradation half-life was less than 2d in both. The overall mass balance in mixed bacterial culture (day 90) was approximately 60%. At day 90, the molar yield was 6% for 6-2 FTA [F(CF(2))(6)CH(2)COOH], 23% for 6-2 FTUA [F(CF(2))(5)CFCHCOOH], 16% for 5-2 sFTOH [F(CF(2))(5)CHOHCH(3)], 6% for 5-3 acid [F(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)COOH], and 5% for PFHxA [F(CF(2))(5)COOH]. The overall mass balance in aerobic soil was approximately 67%(day 180). At day 180, the major terminal metabolites were PFPeA,[F(CF(2))(4)COOH, 30%], PFHxA (8%), PFBA [F(CF(2))(3)COOH, 2%], and 5-3 acid (15%). A new metabolite 4-3 acid [F(CF(2))(4)CH(2)CH(2)COOH] accounted for 1%, 6-2 FTOH for 3%, and 5-2 sFTOH for 7%. Based on 8-2 FTOH aerobic biodegradation pathways, PFHxA was expected in greatest yield from 6-2 FTOH degradation. However, PFPeA was observed in greatest yield in soil, suggesting a preference for alternate degradation pathways. Selected metabolites were also studied in aerobic soil. 5-3 Acid degraded to only 4-3 acid with a molar yield of 2.3%. 5-2 sFTOH degraded to PFPeA and PFHxA, and 5-2 FT Ketone [F(CF(2))(5)COCH(3)] degraded to 5-2 sFTOH, suggesting that 5-2 sFTOH is the direct precursor to PFPeA and PFHxA. Another new metabolite, 5-3 ketone aldehyde [F(CF(2))(5)COCH(2)CHO] was also identified in mixed bacterial culture. The formation of PFBA, PFPeA, and 4-3 acid indicates that multiple -CF(2)- groups in 6-2 FTOH were removed during microbial biodegradation.
Metabolism of acenaphthylene via 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene and catechol by Stenotrophomonas sp. RMSK.
Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka 585106, India.
Stenotrophomonas sp. RMSK capable of degrading acenaphthylene as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from coal sample. Metabolites produced were analyzed and characterized by TLC, HPLC and mass spectrometry. Identification of naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid, 1-naphthoic acid, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylate and detection of key enzymes namely 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase in the cell free extract suggest that acenaphthylene metabolized via 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, salicylate and catechol. The terminal metabolite, catechol was then metabolized by catechol-1,2-dioxygenase to cis,cis-muconic acid, ultimately forming TCA cycle intermediates. Based on these studies, the proposed metabolic pathway in strain RMSK is, acenaphthylene --> naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid --> 1-naphthoic acid --> 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene --> salicylic acid --> catechol --> cis,cis-muconic acid.
Degradation of trichloroethylene by Bacillus sp.: isolation strategy, strain characteristics, and cell immobilization.
Durgapur College of Commerce & Science, Rajbandh, Durgapur, Burdwan, 713212, West Bengal, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
A novel isolate of a bacterium, capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) and growing on this as the sole carbon source is reported. The test strain was isolated by an enrichment technique with trichloroethylene as the substrate. The isolated strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The practical utility of cleaning up oil spillage by bioremediation could be extended to this bacterium to degrade the environmental pollutant, which is used in metal degreasing in industries. Cells of the novel bacterium immobilized on calcium alginate were found to have better trichloroethylene degrading activity than the ones which were immobilized on agar-agar or free cells.
Amphoteric surfactant N-oleoyl-N-methyltaurine utilized by Pseudomonas alcaligenes with excretion of N-methyltaurine.
The amphoteric surfactant N-oleoyl-N-methyltaurine, which is in use in skin-care products, was utilized by aerobic bacteria as the sole source of carbon or of nitrogen in enrichment cultures. One isolate, which was identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes, grew with the xenobiotic compound as the sole source of carbon and energy. The sulfonate moiety, N-methyltaurine, was excreted quantitatively during growth, while the fatty acid was dissimilated. The initial degradative reaction was shown to be hydrolytic and inducible. This amidase reaction could be demonstrated with crude cell extracts. The excreted N-methyltaurine could be utilized by other bacteria in cocultures. Complete degradation of similar natural compounds in bacterial communities seems likely.
Asadollah Aghaie, Christophe Lechaplais, Peggy Sirven, Sabine Tricot, Marielle Besnard-Gonnet, Delphine Muselet, Véronique de Berardinis, Annett Kreimeyer, Gabor Gyapay, Marcel Salanoubat, Alain Perret
Genoscope, CEA Institut de Génomique-Genoscope, Evry 91057.
While the D-glucarate degradation pathway is well characterized in Escherichia coli, genetic and biochemical information concerning the alternative pathway proposed in Pseudomonas species and Bacillus subtilis remains incomplete. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is a Gram-negative soil bacterium possessing the alternative pathway and able to grow using D-glucarate as the only carbon source. Based on the annotation of its sequenced genome (1), we have constructed a complete collection of single-gene deletion mutants (2). High-throughput profiling for growth on a minimal medium containing D-glucarate as the only carbon source for ~2450 mutants led to the identification of the genes involved in D-glucarate degradation. Protein purification after recombinant production in E. coli allowed us to reconstitute the enzymatic pathway in vitro. We describe here the kinetic characterization of D-glucarate dehydratase, D-5-keto-4-deoxyglucarate dehydratase, and of cooperative alpha-ketoglutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Transcription and expression analyses of the genes involved in D-glucarate metabolism within a single organism made it possible to access information regarding the regulation of this pathway for the first time.
Bioresour Technol. 2007 Sep 11;: 17855081
The feasibility of trans-2-methyl-5-isopropylhexa-2,5-dienoic acid (novalic acid) accumulation using the alpha-pinene degradation pathway of Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 107491 was studied. This appeared possible by using concentrated living bacterial cells produced under oxygen limitation with alpha-pinene as sole carbon source. The second step of the process, the bioconversion itself, had to be performed without oxygen limitation due to the need for cofactor regeneration. Results showed that a not yet reported cofactor-dependent enzymatic isomerization of isonovalal into novalal was likely to occur and that both aldehyde isomers could be oxidized to the corresponding acid. Precursors tested, alpha-pinene oxide and isonovalal had a strong permeabilization effect on bacterial cells. This effect, which increased from the oxide to the aldehyde, led to an inactivation of the respiratory chain and to acids synthesis stop. Present results allowed to obtain about 12g/L acids (80% novalic acid) with an average yield close to 50% after 12h reaction in a biphasic system using alpha-pinene oxide as precursor .