School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vial liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE) was evaluated for the determination of the acidic drugs ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen present in water samples and in human urine. The 2.5 mL samples containing the drugs were filled into conventional vials and subsequently acidified by 250 microL of 1-10 M HCl. Porous hollow fibers of polypropylene containing 25 microL of an aqueous solution of 0.01-0.1 M NaOH (acceptor solution) and with dihexyl ether immobilized in the pores of the wall were placed into each of the samples. The acidic drugs were extracted from the acidified sample solutions into the dihexyl ether phase, in the pores of the hollow fiber, and further into the alkaline acceptor solution forced by high partition coefficients. The drugs were extracted almost quantitatively (75-100% extraction efficiency) from the 2.5 mL samples and into the 25 microL acceptor solutions, providing 75-100 times preconcentration. The acceptor solutions were collected for automated CE analysis, which enabled the drugs to be detected down to the 1 ng/mL level.
The measurement of ecstasy in human hair by triple phase directly suspended droplet microextraction prior to HPLC-DAD analysis.
Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Mashhad, Iran.
New pre-concentration technique, triple phase suspended droplet microextraction (SD-LPME) and liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection was applied to determine ecstasy, MDMA (3,4-methylendioxy-N-methylamphetamine) in hair samples. In this research MDMA in hair was digested and after treatment extracted. The effective parameters were investigated and method was evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the MDMA was enriched by factor 98.11. Linearity (r=0.9921), was obtained in the range of 10-15,000ngmL(-1) and detection limit was 0.1ngmL(-1).
A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction based on ultrasound-dispersion for separation and preconcentration of palladium in aqueous samples.
Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
A new method of solidified floating organic drop microextraction, based on ultrasound-dispersion prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully used for separation and enrichment of trace amounts of palladium in aqueous samples. In this method, palladium (II) was extracted into the fine droplets of 1-undecanol after chelate formation with the water soluble ligand, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. The fine droplets of 1-undecanol were made and dispersed as a cloud in the aqueous sample with the help of ultrasonic waves. Several variable factors that influence the extraction and complex formation, such as pH, concentration of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sonication time, centrifuging time, type and volume of the extracting solvent were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.60 ng mL(-1) and a good relative standard deviation of +/-2% at 10 ng mL(-1) were obtained (n=7). The proposed method was applied to well water, tap water, wastewater and synthetic samples and spiked recoveries were in the range of 97-105%. The results showed that solidified floating organic drop microextraction based on ultrasound-dispersion combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry was a rapid, simple, sensitive, low cost, minimum organic solvent consumption and efficient analytical method for the separation and determination of trace amounts of palladium ion.
Combining poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and octadecyl phosphonic acid-modified zirconia-coated CEC with field-enhanced sample injection for analysis of antidepressants in human plasma and urine.
Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, P. R. China.
A method based on poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and octadecylphosphonic acid-modified zirconia-coated CEC followed by field-enhanced sample injection preconcentration technique was proposed for sensitive CE-UV analysis of six antidepressants (doxepin, clozapine, imipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine and chlorimipramine) in human plasma and urine. A poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolithic capillary column was introduced for the extraction of antidepressants from urine and plasma samples. The hydrophobic main chains and acidic pendant groups of the monolithic column make it a superior material for extraction of basic analytes from aqueous matrix. After extraction, the desorption solvent, which normally provided an excellent medium to ensure direct compatibility for field-enhanced sample injection in CE, was analyzed by CE directly. By the use of alkylphosphonate-modified zirconia-coated CEC for separation of the basic compounds of antidepressants, high separation efficiency and resolution were achieved because that both hydrophobic interaction between analytes and alkylphosphonate-modified zirconia coat and electrophoretic effect work on the separation of antidepressants. The best separation was achieved using a buffer composed of 0.3 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 4.5 with 1 M acetic acid) and 35% ACN v/v, with a temperature and voltage of 20 degrees C and 20 kV, respectively. By applying both preconcentration procedures, LODs of 11.4-51.5 and 3.7-17.0 mug/L were achieved for the six antidepressants in human plasma and urine, respectively. Excellent method of reproducibility was found over a linear range of 50-5000 mug/L in plasma and urine sample.
Fabio Augusto, Eduardo Carasek, Raquel Gomes Costa Silva, Sandra Regina Rivellino, Alex Domingues Batista, Edmar Martendal
Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. email@example.com
This review outlines recent progress in the research on some new classes of sorbents for extraction and microextraction techniques. Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with cylindrical structure. They are very stable systems having considerable chemical inertness due to the strong covalent bonds of the carbon atoms on the nanotube surface. Some applications of carbon nanotubes are presented in a perspective view. Molecular imprinting has proved to be an effective technique for the creation of recognition sites on a polymer scaffold. By a mechanism of molecular recognition, the molecularly imprinted polymers are used as selective tools for the development of various analytical techniques such as liquid chromatography, capillary electrochromatography, solid-phase extraction (SPE), binding assays and biosensors. Sol-gel chemistry provides a convenient pathway to create advanced material systems that can be effectively utilized to solve the solid phase microextraction fiber technology problems. This review is mainly focused on recent advanced developments in the design, synthesis and application of sol-gel in preparation of coatings for the SPME fibers.
Optimization of some experimental parameters in the electro membrane extraction of chlorophenols from seawater.
Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.
An electro membrane extraction (EME) methodology was utilized to study the isolation of some environmentally important pollutants, such as chlorophenols, from aquatic media based upon the electrokinetic migration process. The analytes were transported by application of an electrical potential difference over a supported liquid membrane (SLM). A driving force of 10V was applied to extract the analytes through 1-octanol, used as the SLM, into a strongly alkaline solution. The alkaline acceptor solution was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. The parameters influencing electromigration, including volumes and pH of the donor and acceptor phases, the organic solvent used as the SLM, and the applied voltage and its duration, were investigated to find the most suitable extraction conditions. Since the developed method showed a rather high degree of selectivity towards pentachlorophenol (PCP), validation of the method was performed using this compound. An enrichment factor of 23 along with acceptable sample clean-up was obtained for PCP. The calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 0.5-1000ng/mL with a coefficient of estimation corresponding to 0.999. Limits of detection and quantification, based on signal-to-noise ratios of 3 and 10, were 0.1 and 0.4ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the analysis at a PCP concentration of 0.5ng/mL was found to be 6.8%(n=6). The method was also applied to the extraction of this contaminant from seawater and an acceptable relative recovery of 74% was achieved at a concentration level of 1.0ng/mL.
School of Pharmacy, Shujitsu University, Nishigawara, Okayama, 703-8516, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sample preparation is important for isolating desired components from complex matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate analysis. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance, online coupling with analytical instruments, and low-cost operation through extremely low or no solvent consumption. Microextraction techniques, such as liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction, have these advantages over the traditional approaches of liquid-liquid extraction and conventional solid-phase extraction. This review focuses primarily on these microextraction techniques developed over the last decade, and presents a summary of the characteristics of various approaches in drug analysis.
Three-phase, liquid-phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the simultaneous determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma.
Daniela Fernanda de Freitas, Carlos Eduardo Dobrovolskin Porto, Elisabeth Pizzamiglio Vieira, Maria Elisa Pereira Bastos de Siqueira
Federal University of Alfenas, Laboratory of Toxicological Analysis, Alfenas, MG, Brazil.
A three-phase, liquid-phase microextraction using a hollow fibre (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) was developed for the analysis of fluoxetine (FLX) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (NFLX), in human plasma. An HF-LPME system using a disposable 7-cm polypropylene porous hollow fibre, 5 mL of alkaline plasma solution (donor phase), n-hexyl ether (extraction solvent) and 20 mM hydrochloric acid (acceptor phase) was used in the extraction. The method was validated after optimisation of several parameters that influence LPME efficiency. A reverse-phase LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B column (125 mm x 4 mm, 5 microm particle size) was used with 0.005 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile at a 50:50 (v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). In these conditions satisfactory chromatographic resolution and efficiency for the analytes were obtained. Fluorescence detection at 230 nm excitation wavelength and 290 nm emission wavelength was performed. Linearity over a range of 5-500 ng mL(-1), with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9999 and 0.9962 for FLX and NFLX, respectively, was established. Venlafaxine was used as the internal standard for both analytes. Extraction recoveries from plasma samples were 70.9% for FLX and 59.7% for NFLX. The intra-day coefficients of variation (CVs) were below 5.4%, and inter-day CVs were below 13.0%, for both analytes at concentrations of 20, 80 and 160 ng mL(-1). HF-LPME extraction followed by HPLC-FL detection for FLX and NFLX analyses demonstrated excellent sample clean-up and selectivity. This method was simple, cheap, and easy to perform, yielding substantial analytes enrichment. The method was applied to the analysis of samples from 12 patients under fluoxetine treatment and proved suitable for routine therapeutic drug monitoring for this antidepressant.
Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane microextraction for determination of sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.
School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.
By using ionic liquid as membrane liquid and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as additive, hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was developed for the determination of five sulfonamides in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection The extraction solvent and the parameters affecting the extraction enrichment factor such as the type and amount of carrier, pH and volume ratio of donor phase and acceptor phase, extraction time, salt-out effect and matrix effect were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions (organic liquid membrane phase:[C(8)MIM][PF(6)] with 14% TOPO (w/v); donor phase: 4mL, pH 4.5 KH(2)PO(4) with 2M Na(2)SO(4); acceptor phase: 25microL, pH 13 NaOH; extraction time: 8 h), low detection limits (0.1-0.4microg/L, RSD<or=5%) and good linear range (1-2000ng/mL, R(2)>or=0.999) were obtained for all the analytes. The presence of humic acid (0-25mg/L dissolved organic carbon) and bovine serum albumin (0-100microg/mL) had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Good spike recoveries over the range of 82.2-103.2% were obtained when applying the proposed method on five real environmental water samples. These results indicated that this present method was very sensitive and reliable with good repeatabilities and excellent clean-up in water samples. The proposed method confirmed hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membrane based LPME to be robust to monitoring trace levels of sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole in aqueous samples.
Double sample preconcentration by in-line coupled large volume single drop microextraction and sweeping in capillary electrophoresis.
Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Single drop microextraction (SDME) is a convenient and powerful preconcentration method for CE before injection. By simple combination of sample-handling sequences without modification of the CE apparatus, a drop of an aqueous acceptor phase covered with a thin organic layer was formed at the tip of a capillary; 10 min SDME of fluorescein and 6-carboxyfluorescein from a donor phase of pH 1 to an acceptor phase of pH 9 provided 110-fold enrichments without stirring the donor phase. To improve the concentration effect further, SDME was coupled with an on-line (after injection) sample preconcentration method, sweeping, in which analytes in a long sample zone are accumulated at the boundary of a pseudostationary phase penetrating into the sample zone. It is thus necessary to inject a sample of much larger volume than that of a drop in typical SDME. A Teflon sleeve over the capillary inlet allowed a large volume drop to be held stably during extraction. By in-line coupling 10 min SDME and sweeping of a 30 nL sample using a cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium, enrichment factors of the double preconcentration were increased up to 32,000.
Determination of widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water samples by in situ derivatization, continuous hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, Iran. zarrin email@example.com
The aim of this study was to develop an analytical procedure which allows the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water at the ng L(-1) level. Hence, it is reported research on the application of a rapid, inexpensive and simple continuous hollow fiber liquid-phase micro extraction (CHF-LPME) for the pre-concentration and determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (IBP), naproxen (NAP), and ketoprofen (KEP), in wastewater. In this method, a 2.50 cm end sealed piece of a polypropylene hollow fiber was immersed into the organic solvent, octanol, for 30 s. After solvent impregnation with the pores of the fiber, the excess amounts of solvent were removed from inside the fiber, and 4.0 microL of octanol, as the acceptor phase, was injected into the fiber carefully. The fiber was settled using a microsyringe into a 10.0 mL glass test tube, and 20.00 mL of the aqueous solution (the donor phase), was circulated by a pump around it. After analyte extraction for an optimized period of time (20 min), 2 microL of the organic solvent was withdrawn into the microsyringe and injected into the GC-FID for further analysis. Finally, based on the optimized analytical conditions, the method was linear in the range of 2.5-500 ng L(-1). The limits of detection were 1-2 ng L(-1). Repeatability of this method on an intra-day scale was 3.4-10.2%(RSD%). NSAIDs have been detected in several municipal wastewater samples, and the concentration range was 9.0-19.0 ng L(-1).
Other papers by authors:
Department of Analytical Chemistry, CPS-University of Zaragoza, María de Luna st. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain.
A three-phase liquid phase microextraction (LPME) technique with high selectivity for five aromatic carboxylic acids and three phenolic compounds has been developed and optimized. The system consists of an acidified donor phase, a thin layer of solvent inside the wall pores of a hollow fiber, and an alkaline acceptor phase located inside the hollow fiber. The analysis of the compounds in the acceptor phase was carried out by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. Eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol were efficiently extracted from the aqueous solution using chloropentane as organic phase, with recoveries from 73.8% to 93.8%. However, using 2-octanone as the organic phase, the recoveries for the aromatic carboxylic acid compounds ranged from 60.7% to 93.7% whereas the phenols were not extracted. 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid was found to remain in the organic phase. The influence of 10% ethanol and 3% acetic acid in the donor phase was deeply studied as these solutions are commonly used as food simulants. AS4 silicone oil was found to be the best organic phase for the extraction of phenols both in 3% acetic acid and matrices with a high content of alcohol. The results obtained are shown and discussed.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
Recently, we introduced a simple and inexpensive disposable device for liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) based on porous polypropylene hollow fibres. In the present paper, extraction times were significantly reduced by an increase in the surface of the hollow fibres. The model compounds methamphetamine and citalopram, were extracted from 2.5 ml of urine, plasma, and whole blood after dilution with water and alkalisation with 125 microl of 2 M NaOH though a porous polypropylene hollow fibre impregnated with hexyl ether and into an aqueous acceptor phase consisting of 0.1 M HCl. Two commercially available hollow fibres, which differed in surface area, wall thickness and internal diameter, were compared. An increase in the contact area of the hollow fibre with the sample solution by a factor of approximately two resulted in reduction in equilibrium times by approximately the same factor. Thus, the model compounds were extracted to equilibrium within 15 min from both urine and plasma, and within 30 min from whole blood. For the first time LPME was utilised to extract drugs from whole blood, and the extracts were comparable with plasma both with regard to sample clean-up and extraction recoveries. Extraction recoveries for methamphetamine and citalopram varied from 60 to 100% using the two fibres and the different matrices.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. email@example.com
A newly developed disposable device for liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) was evaluated for the capillary electrophoresis (CE) of the antidepressant drug citalopram (CIT) and its main metabolite N-desmethylcitalopram (DCIT) in human plasma. CIT and DCIT were extracted from 1 ml plasma samples through hexyl ether immobilised in the pores of a porous polypropylene hollow fibre and into 25 microl of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.75) present inside the hollow fibre (acceptor phase). Prior to extraction, the samples were made strongly alkaline in order to promote LPME of the basic drugs. Owing to the high ratio between the volumes of sample and acceptor phase, and owing to high partition coefficients, CIT and DCIT were enriched by a factor of 25 to 30. In addition, sample clean-up occurred during LPME since salts, proteins and the majority of endogenic substances were unable to penetrate the hexyl ether layer. Since the extracts were aqueous, they were injected directly into the CE instrument. Limits of quantification (S/N= 10) for CIT and DCIT in plasma were 16.5 ng/ml and 18 ng/ml respectively, while the limits of detection (S/N=3) were 5 ng/ml and 5.5 ng/ml respectively. This enabled CIT (and DCIT) to be analysed within the therapeutic range by LPME-CE and detection limits were comparable with previously reported HPLC methods.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org
This review article presents an overview of applications of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for analyte enrichment and clean-up of samples prior to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The basic principles of LLE are discussed with special emphasis on analyte enrichment. In addition, attention is focused on the requirements for the final extract to be compatible with CZE. The paper discusses selected examples from the literature with special emphasis on detection limits in drug analysis and in environmental chemistry. Finally, the paper focus on alternative liquid-phase extraction concepts based on electroextraction, supported liquid membranes, and liquid-phase microextraction.
Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography in suppressed electroosmotic flow environment. Separation of fat-soluble vitamins.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.
Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) was carried out in a pH 2.5 phosphate buffer to effectively suppress the electroosmotic flow (EOF). With 66.6%(w/w) 25 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5, 20.0%(w/w) 2-propanol, 6.6%(w/w) 1-butanol, 6.0%(w/w) sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS), and 0.8%(w/w) n-octane as the separation medium, the fat-soluble vitamins A palmitate, E acetate, and D3 were baseline separated within 11 min. With strongly suppressed EOF, the polarity of the separation voltage was reversed (positive electrode at the outlet); the n-octane micro droplets surrounded by negatively charged SDS molecules migrated towards the detector. The aqueous part of the microemulsion was modified with 20%(w/w) 2-propanol to improve partition between the n-octane phase and the surrounding aqueous medium. The fat-soluble vitamins were separated in order of decreasing hydrophobicity with a high migration time stability (repeatable within 0.1% RSD). Excellent accuracy and precision were obtained when the system was applied for the determination of vitamin E acetate in commercial vitamin tablets; quantitative data corresponded to 97.0% of label claim, intra-day results varied within 1.72% RSD (n=6), and inter-day results varied within 3.22% RSD (n=5).
Development of a simple in-vial liquid-phase microextraction device for drug analysis compatible with capillary gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.
A simple, inexpensive and disposable device for liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) is presented for use in combination with capillary gas chromatography (GC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 1-4 ml samples of human urine or plasma were filled into conventional 4-ml vials, whereafter 15-25 microl of the extraction medium (acceptor solution) was filled into a short piece of a porous hollow fiber and placed into the sample vial. The drugs of interest were extracted from the sample solutions and into the small volumes of acceptor solution based on high partition coefficients and were preconcentrated by a factor of 30-125. For LPME in combination with GC, the porous hollow fiber was filled with 15 microl n-octanol as the acceptor solution. Following 30 min of extraction, the organic acceptor solution was injected directly into the GC system. For LPME in combination with CE and HPLC, n-octanol was immobilized within the pores of the hollow fiber, while the internal volume of the fiber was filled with either 25 microl of 0.1 M HCl (for extraction of basic compounds) or 25 microl 0.02 M NaOH (for acidic compounds). Following 45 min extraction, the aqueous acceptor solution was injected directly into the CE or HPLC system. Owing to the low cost, the extraction devices were disposed after a single extraction which eliminated the possibility of carry over effects. In addition, because no expensive instrumentation was required for LPME, 10-30 samples were extracted in parallel to provide a high number of samples per unit time capacity.
Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for sample preparation of biological fluids prior to capillary electrophoresis.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.
Methamphetamine as a model compound was extracted from 2.5-mL aqueous samples adjusted to pH 13 (donor solution) through a thin phase of 1-octanol inside the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber and finally into a 25-microL acidic acceptor solution inside the hollow fiber. Following this liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME), the acceptor solutions were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CE). Extractions were performed in simple disposable devices each consisting of a conventional 4-mL sample vial, two needles for introduction and collection of the acceptor solution, and a 8-cm piece of a porous polypropylene hollow fiber. From 5 to 20 different samples were extracted in parallel for 45 min, providing a high sample capacity. Methamphetamine was preconcentrated by a factor of 75 from aqueous standard solutions, human urine, and human plasma utilizing 10(-1) M HCl as the acceptor phase and 10(-1) M NaOH in the donor solution. In addition to preconcentration, LLLME also served as a technique for sample cleanup since large molecules, acidic compounds, and neutral components were not extracted into the acceptor phase. Utilizing diphenhydramine hydrochloride as internal standard, repetitive extractions varied less than 5.2% RSD (n = 6), while the calibration curve for methamphetamine was linear within the range 20 ng/microL to 10 micrograms/mL (r = 0.9983). The detection limit of methamphetamine utilizing LLLME/CE was 5 ng/mL (S/N = 3) in both human urine and plasma.
Analysis of vitamin formulations by electrokinetic chromatography utilizing tetradecylammonium ions as the pseudostationary phase.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.
A recently proposed method for the separation of fat-soluble vitamins by electrokinetic chromatography was further developed and investigated in the present study. The separation medium consisted of acetonitrile-water (80:20 v/v) and contained 80 mM tetradecylammonium bromide (TDA+); the content of acetonitrile served to maintain the hydrophobic vitamins dissolved during electrophoresis, while the TDA+ ions served as the pseudostationary phase. With the cathode placed at the outlet of the capillary, the fat-soluble vitamins were separated based on different hydrophobic interactions to the TDA+ ions and migrated in order of decreasing hydrophobicity prior to the electroosmotic flow. Migration time stability was significantly enhanced by the addition of 4 mM borate to the separation medium. The separation system was validated for the determination of vitamin E acetate in commercial tablets; quantitative results deviated by less than 3.5% from specified values, varying by less than 2.5% relative standard deviation (RSD) for within-day experiments, and by less than 6.5% RSD during between-day experiments. The separation system was compatible with injection solvents ranging in polarity from water to tetrahydrofuran, and was even capable of separating the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B12, and nicotinamide.
Strategies for the capillary electrophoretic separation of indole alkaloids in Psilocybe semilanceata.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. email@example.com
While the hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata have previously been analyzed for the indole alkaloids psilocybin and baeocystin by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 11.5, the present work focused on the development of an alternative and complementary capillary electrophoretic method for their identification. Owing to their structural similarity and zwitterionic nature, the compounds were difficult to resolve based on different interactions with cationic or anionic micelles. However, while the attempts with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were unsuccessful, rapid derivatization with propyl chloroformate and reanalysis by CZE at pH 11.5 was effective to support identification of the two indole alkaloids. Psilocin was difficult to analyze by CZE at pH 11.5 owing to comigration with the electroosmotic flow. For this compound, the pH of the running buffer was reduced to 7.2 to effectively enhance the electrophoretic mobility.
School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.
A capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) method was developed for the rapid determination of psilocybin in Psilocybe semilanceata. Following a simple two step extraction with 3.0+2.0 ml methanol, the hallucinogenic compound was effectively separated from matrix components by CZE utilizing a 10 mM borate-phosphate running buffer adjusted to pH 11.5. The identity of psilocybin was confirmed by migration time information and by UV spectra, while quantitation was accomplished utilizing barbital as internal standard. The calibration curve for psilocybin was linear within 0.01-1 mg/ml, while intra-day and inter-day variations of quantitative data were 0.5 and 2.5% R.S.D., respectively. In addition to psilocybin, the method was also suitable for the determination of the structurally related compound baeocystin.
Latest similar papers:
Electrophoresis. 2012 Oct 25;: 23161101
Simultaneous determination of acidic and basic drugs using dual hollow fiber electromembrane extraction combined with capillary electrophoresis.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 193965 4716, Evin, Tehran, Iran.
The simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological samples is a significant challenge for sample preparation. A novel and efficient method named dual hollow fiber electromembrane extraction combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE) was applied for the simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of acidic and basic drugs in a single step. Under applied potential of 40 V during the extraction, ibuprofen as an acidic drug and thebaine as a basic drug migrated from a 4 mL aqueous sample solution at neutral pH into 20 μL of each basic (pH 12.5) and acidic (pH 2.0) acceptor phase, respectively. 1-octanol and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) were immobilized in the pores of anodic and cathodic hollow fibers as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), respectively. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) and the response surface methodology (RSM) were used for the optimization of different parameters on the extraction efficiency. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors (EFs) were between 150 and 170 and also the limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 3 to 7 ng mL(-1) in different samples. The method was reproducible so that intra and inter day RSDs%(n = 5) were less than 5.9%. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the simultaneous extraction and determination of acidic and basic drugs from plasma and urine samples.
Liquid-phase microextraction in a microfluidic-chip--high enrichment and sample clean-up from small sample volumes based on three-phase extraction.
María D Ramos Payán, Henrik Jensen, Nickolaj Jacob Petersen, Steen Honoré Hansen, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012, Seville, Spain.
In this work, a microfluidic-chip based system for liquid-phase microextraction (LPME-chip) was developed. Sample solutions were pumped into the LPME-chip with a micro-syringe pump at a flow rate of 3-4 μL min(-1). Inside the LPME chip, the sample was in direct contact with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) composed of 0.2 μL dodecyl acetate immobilized in the pores of a flat membrane of polypropylene (25 μm thickness). On the other side of the SLM, the acceptor phase was present. The acceptor phase was either pumped at 1 μL min(-1) during extraction or kept stagnant (stop-flow). Amitriptyline, methadone, haloperidol, loperamide, and pethidine were selected as model analytes, and they were extracted from alkaline sample solution, through the SLM, and into 10 mM HCl or 100mM HCOOH functioning as acceptor phase. Subsequently, the acceptor phase was either analyzed off-line by capillary electrophoresis for exact quantification, or on-line by UV detection or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for time profiling of concentrations. The LPME-chip was found to be highly effective, and extraction efficiencies were in the range of 52-91%. When the flow of acceptor phase was turned off during extraction (stop-flow), analyte enrichment increased linearly with the extraction time. After 10 min as an example, amitriptyline was enriched by a factor of 42 from only 30 μL sample solution, and after 120 min amitriptyline was enriched by a factor of 500 from 320 μL sample solution. This suggested that the LPME-chip has great potentials for very efficient analyte enrichments from limited sample volumes in the future.
Low-voltage electrically-enhanced microextraction as a novel technique for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids.
Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran.
In the present work, for the first time a new set-up was presented for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs using a recent novel electrically-enhanced microextraction technique, termed electromembrane extraction at low voltages followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Nalmefene (NAL) as a basic drug and diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic drug were extracted from 24 mL aqueous sample solutions at neutral pH into 10 μL of each acidified (HCl 50 mM) and basic (NaOH 50 mM) acceptor solution, respectively. Supported liquid membranes including 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether containing 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate and 1-octanol were used to ensure efficient extraction of NAL and DIC, respectively. Low voltage of 40 V was applied over the SLMs during 14 min extraction time. The influences of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of target drugs were optimized using experimental design. Under optimal conditions, NAL and DIC were extracted with extraction recoveries of 12.5 and 14.6, respectively, which corresponded to preconcentration factors of 300 and 350, respectively. The proposed technique provided good linearity with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.9956 over a concentration range of 8-500 μg L⁻¹ and 12-500 μg L⁻¹ for NAL and DIC, respectively. Limits of detection and quantifications, and intra-day precisions (n=3) were less than 4 μg L⁻¹, 12 μg L⁻¹, and 10.1%, respectively. Extraction and determination of NAL and DIC in human urine samples were successfully performed. In light of the data obtained in the present work, this new set-up for EME with low voltages has a future potential as a simple, selective, and fast sample preparation technique for simultaneous extraction and determination of acidic and basic drugs in different complicated matrices.
J Sep Sci. 2012 Mar ;35 (5-6):702-6 22517642
Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Shalu, Taichung, Taiwan.
The method of liquid-phase microextraction assisted with voltage was developed and applied on determination of quinolones in water sample in this study. Both of the reproducibility and extraction time were improved with the aid of applying voltage. Four analytes in neutral state such as cinoxacin, oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid, and flumequine were extracted from a sample solution at pH 2.0, through a polypropylene hollow fiber which was immobilized with 2-octanone, and then into a 25 μL of the acceptor phase of 40 mM borate buffer at pH 10.0 by applying voltage of 100 V. Subsequently, the acceptor solution was directly subjected to analysis by LC-MS. The performance of the method for four quinolones was also evaluated. Linearity was obtained in the range of 1.0-25.0 ng/mL with R(2)> 0.996. Limits of detection were below 0.6 ng/mL, and recoveries of water sample were ranged from 90.8 to 109.6%.
Electro membrane extraction of sodium diclofenac as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk, and plasma samples and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Saied Saeed Hosseiny Davarani, Ahmad Pourahadi, Saeed Nojavan, Mohammad Hossein Banitaba, Mahnaz Nasiri-Aghdam
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
Electro membrane extraction (EME) as a new microextraction method was applied for extraction of sodium diclofenac (SDF) as an acidic compound from wastewater, urine, bovine milk and plasma samples. Under applied potential of 20 V during the extraction, SDF migrated from a 2.1 mL of sample solution (1mM NaOH), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), into a 30 μL acceptor solution (10 mM NaOH), exist inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The negative electrode was placed in the donor solution, and the positive electrode was placed in the acceptor solution. 1-octanol was immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene as SLM. Then the extract was analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-detection for quantification of SDF. Best results were obtained using a phosphate running electrolyte (10 mM, pH 2.5). The ranges of quantitation for different samples were 8-500 ngmL(-1). Intra- and inter-day RSDs were less than 14.5%. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration factors were between 31 and 66 and also the limit of detections (LODs) ranged from 2.7 ng mL(-1) to 5 ng mL(-1) in different samples. This procedure was applied to determine SDF in wastewater, bovine milk, urine and plasma samples (spiked and real samples). Extraction recoveries for different samples were between 44-95% after 5 min of extraction.
Electromembrane extraction combined with cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis for the quantification of trimipramine enantiomers.
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
A sensitive, simple and reproducible method was developed for preconcentration and determination of trimipramine (TPM) enantiomers in biological samples using electromembrane extraction combined with cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis (CE). During the extraction, TPM enantiomers migrated from a 5 mL sample solution through a thin layer of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether NPOE immobilized in the pores of a hollow fiber, and into a 20 μL acidic aqueous acceptor phase presented inside the lumen of the fiber. A Box-Behnken design and the response surface methodology (RSM) were used for the optimization of different variables on extraction efficiency. Optimized extraction conditions were: NPOE as supported liquid membrane, inter-electrode distance of 5 mm, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, 51 V potential difference, 34 min as the extraction time, acceptor phase pH 1.0 and donor phase pH 4.5. Then, the extract was analyzed using optimized cyclodextrin (CD)-modified CE method for the separation of TPM enantiomers. Best results were achieved using 100 mM phosphate running buffer (pH 2.0) containing 10 mM α-CD as the chiral selector, applied voltage of 18 kV and 20°C. The range of quantitation for both enantiomers was 20-500 ng/mL. The method was very reproducible so that intra- and interday RSDs (n=6) were <6%. The limits of quantitation and detection for both enantiomers were 20 and 7 ng/mL, respectively. Finally, this method was successfully applied to determine the concentration of TPM enantiomers in plasma and urine samples without any pre-treatment.
Anal Sci. 2011 ;27 (10):965 21985919
Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.
Electro-assisted extraction of ionic drugs from biological fluids through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) and into an aqueous acceptor solution was recently introduced as a new sample preparation technique termed electromembrane extraction (EME). The applied electrical potential across the SLM has typically been in the range of 1 - 300 V. Successful extractions have been demonstrated even with common batteries (9 V) instead of a power supply. The chemical composition of the SLM has been crucial for the selectivity and for the recoveries of the extraction. Compared to other liquid-phase microextraction techniques (LPME), extraction times have been reduced by a factor of 6 - 17, and successful extractions have been obtained at extraction times of 1 - 5 min, and even down to a few seconds with online microfluidic EME devices. The technique has provided very efficient sample clean-up and has been found well suited for the extraction of sample sizes in the low µL range. Extractions have been performed with both rod-shaped hydrophobic porous fibers and with flat hydrophobic porous sheets as SLM support. The technique has been successfully downscaled into the micro-chip format. The nature of the SLM has been tuned for extraction of drugs with different polarity allowing extractions to be tailored for specific applications depending on the analyte of interest. The technique has been found to be compatible with a wide range of biological fluids and extraction of drugs directly from untreated human plasma and whole blood has been demonstrated. EME selectively extracts the compounds from the complex biological sample matrix as well as allowing concentration of the drugs. With home-built equipment fully acceptable validation results have been obtained.
Exhaustive electromembrane extraction of some basic drugs from human plasma followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
Citalopram, loperamide, methadone, paroxetine, pethidine, and sertraline were extracted exhaustively with electromembrane extraction (EME) by increasing the number of hollow fibers from one to three. Experiments reported recoveries in the range 97-115% from 1000μl spiked water samples. EME was accomplished with 200V as extraction voltage, the extraction time was set to 10min (equilibrium), and the extraction unit was subjected to 1200 revolutions per minute (rpm). The same experiment with different geometry in a stagnant system conducted with 21μl acceptor solution provided recoveries from 50μl undiluted human plasma (pH 7.4) in the range of 56-102% for the six basic model substances. In each experiment the acceptor solution was distributed into three separately hollow fibers in the same sample vial. The importance of an electrical field was verified by comparing EME with liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) under optimal conditions and demonstrated that the time needed to reach equilibrium was reduced by EME. EME-LC/MS provided linearity >0.99 (r(2) values) for the six basic model substances, and the repeatability within the low therapeutic range (10ng/ml) was in the range 5.1-21.4% RSD. LC-MS provided estimated limit of quantification (S/N=10) in the range 0.6-3.2ng/ml. Eventually, patient samples from a reference laboratory were analyzed and provided reliable results with a relative difference <14% compared to stated values from the reference laboratory.
Capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction for the enantioselective determination of albendazole sulfoxide after biotransformation of albendazole by an endophytic fungus.
Daniel B Carrão, Keyller B Borges, Thiago Barth, Mônica T Pupo, Pierina S Bonato, Anderson R Moraes de Oliveira
Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and CE were applied for the determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ASOX) enantiomers in liquid culture medium after a fungal biotransformation study. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL of liquid culture medium spiked with the internal standard (rac-hydroxychloroquine) and buffered with 0.50 mol/L phosphate buffer, pH 10. The analytes were extracted into 1-octanol impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and into an acid acceptor solution inside the polypropylene hollow fiber. The electrophoretic separations were carried out in 0.05 mol/L tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 9.3, containing 3.0% w/v sulfated-β-CD (S-β-CD) with a constant voltage of +15 kV and detection at 220 nm. The method was linear over the concentration range of 250-5000 ng/mL for each ASOX enantiomer. Within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy for the analytes were studied at three concentration levels and the values of RSD% and relative error % were lower than 15%. The developed method was applied for the determination of ASOX after a biotransformation study employing the endophytic fungus Penicillium crustosum (VR4). This study showed that the endophytic fungus was able to metabolize the albendazole to ASOX enantioselectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled to CE can be an excellent and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of samples obtained in biotransformation studies.
Enantioselective fungal biotransformation of risperidone in liquid culture medium by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction.
Liana I de Jesus, Nayara C P Albuquerque, Keyller B Borges, Rodrigo A Simões, Leandro A Calixto, Niege A J C Furtado, Cristiane M de Gaitani, Mônica T Pupo, Anderson R M de Oliveira
Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
Knowing that microbial transformations of compounds play vital roles in the preparation of new derivatives with biological activities, risperidone and its chiral metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction after a fungal biotransformation study in liquid culture medium. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL liquid culture medium into 1-octanol impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and into an acid acceptor solution inside the polypropylene hollow fiber. The electrophoretic separations were carried out in 100 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer pH 3.0 containing 2.0% w/v sulfated-α-CD and carboxymethyl-β-CD 0.5% w/v with a constant voltage of -10 kV. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng/mL for risperidone and 50-5000 ng/mL for each metabolite enantiomer. Within-day and between-day assay precisions and accuracies for all the analytes were studied at three concentration levels, and the values of relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15%. The developed method was applied in a pilot biotransformation study employing risperidone as the substrate and the filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii. This study showed that the filamentous fungus was able to metabolize risperidone enantioselectively into its chiral active metabolite,(-)-9-hydroxyrisperidone.