Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the validity, reliability, and utility of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), which is a measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study (n = 375), the psychometric properties of the DES were calculated. To establish validity, DES subscales were compared with 2 previously validated subscales of the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP). Factor and item analyses were conducted to develop subscales that were coherent, meaningful, and had an acceptable coefficient alpha. RESULTS The psychometric analyses resulted in a 28-item DES (alpha = 0.96) with 3 subscales: Managing the Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes (alpha = 0.93), Assessing Dissatisfaction and Readiness To Change (alpha = 0.81), and Setting and Achieving Diabetes Goals (alpha = 0.91). Consistent correlations in the expected direction between DES subscales and DCP subscales provided evidence of concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS This study provides preliminary evidence that the DES is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy. The DES should be a useful outcome measure for various educational and psychosocial interventions related to diabetes.
BMC Psychiatry. 2011 ;11 :117 21791069
Health Services and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF, UK. Liam.Ennis@kcl.ac.uk
A major objective of many healthcare providers is to increase patients' participation in their own care. The introduction of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) may help to achieve this. An ePHR is an electronic database of an individual's health information, accessible to and maintained by the patient. ePHRs are very much in vogue, with an increasing number of studies reporting their potential utility as well as cost. However, the vast majority of these studies focus on general healthcare. Little attempt has been made to document the specific problems which might occur throughout the implementation of ePHRs in mental health. This review identifies such concerns through an electronic search of the literature. Several potential difficulties are highlighted and addressed, including access to information technology, identifying relevant populations and the handling of sensitive information. Special attention is paid to the concept of 'empowerment' and what this means in relation to ePHRs.
Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences, School of Rural Health, Department of Rural & Indigenous Health, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To determine what models of integrative medicine (IM) are being employed in contemporary health care settings, and how and which factors affect and facilitate the success of IM in terms of the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine in primary health care (PHC). DESIGN Literature review. SETTING Australian and international PHC settings, and hospitals. MEASURES Australian and international peer-reviewed literature identified from database searches, reference lists, desktop searches, texts, and relevant website searches (e.g., government and health-related departments and agencies). Focus was literature with the keywords 'integrative' or 'integrated' in conjunction with 'medicine' or 'health care'. Articles were analysed for descriptions of continuous and integrative services involving contemporary IM practices, their background, characteristics, and implementation. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Classifications of IM in the literature present various ways that IM can be implemented, and it appears that strategies have been successfully developed to facilitate integration. Although few of the barriers to the integration of CAM and conventional medicine have been resolved, concerns over the legitimacy of CAM in health care (e.g., safety, biomedical evidence, and efficacy) are being overcome by the use of evidence-based practice in IM delivery. There are two dominant models of IM that have been developed. One is the selective combination of both biomedical evidence and experience-based evidence of both CAM and conventional medicine. The other is the selective incorporation of exclusively evidence-based CAMs into conventional medicine. The two model types signify different levels of equity between CAM and conventional medicine in regard to the power, autonomy, and control held by each. However, the factors common to all IM models, whether describing CAM as supplementary (and subordinate) or complementary (and partnered) to conventional medicine, is the concept of a health care model that aspires to be client-centred and holistic, with focus on health rather than disease as well as mutual respect among peer practitioners. CONCLUSIONS The growth and viability of IM will depend on evidence-based practices, non-hierarchal IM practices, and identifying the successful influences on the integration of CAM and conventional medicine for recognition of its inherent value in PHC.
Silvina Santana, Berthold Lausen, Maria Bujnowska-Fedak, Catherine E Chronaki, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Rolf Wynn
Institute of Electronics Engineering and Telematics of Aveiro, Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Portugal. email@example.com
The knowledge about the relationship between health-related activities on the Internet (i.e. informed citizens) and individuals' control over their own experiences of health or illness (i.e. empowered citizens) is valuable but scarce. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between four ways of using the Internet for information on health or illness and citizens attitudes and behaviours toward health professionals and health systems and establish the profile of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe. Data was collected during April and May 2007 (N = 7022), through computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Norway, Poland and Portugal participated in the survey. The profiles were generated using logistic regressions and are based on: a) socio-demographic and health information, b) the level of use of health-related online services, c) the level of use of the Internet to get health information to decide whether to consult a health professional, prepare for a medical appointment and assess its outcome, and d) the impact of online health information on citizens' attitudes and behavior towards health professionals and health systems. Citizens using the Internet to decide whether to consult a health professional or to get a second opinion are likely to be frequent visitors of health sites, active participants of online health forums and recurrent buyers of medicines and other health related products online, while only infrequent epatients, visiting doctors they have never met face-to-face. Participation in online health communities seems to be related with more inquisitive and autonomous patients. The profiles of empowered eHealth citizens in Europe are situational and country dependent. The number of Europeans using the Internet to get health information to help them deal with a consultation is raising and having access to online health information seems to be associated with growing number of inquisitive and self-reliant patients. Doctors are increasingly likely to experience consultations with knowledgeable and empowered patients, who will challenge them in various ways.
Department of Family Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Enablement is an intervention by which the health care provider recognizes, promotes and enhances patients' ability to control their health and life. An abundant health literature suggests that enablement is associated with good outcomes. In this review, we aimed at identifying and comparing instruments that assess enablement in the health care context. We conducted a systematic literature review using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Cinahl and PsycINFO databases, 1980 through March 2009, with specific search strategy for each database. Citations were included if they reported:(1) development and/or validation of an instrument;(2) evaluation of enablement in a health care context; and (3) quantitative results following administration of the instrument. The quality of each main retained citation was assessed using a modified version of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy. Results: Of 3135 citations identified, 53 were retrieved for detailed evaluation. Four articles were included. Two instruments were found: the Patient Empowerment Scale (PES) and the Empowering Speech Practices Scale (ESPS). Both instruments assessed enablement in hospital setting, one from the inpatient's perspective (PES) and the other from both perspectives (ESPS). Two instruments assess enablement in hospital setting. No instrument is currently available to assess enablement in an ambulatory care context.
West J Nurs Res. 2010 Jul 30;: 20675621
Arizona State University.
There has been much discussion regarding the need to empower older adults to make informed health decisions and to test interventions targeting empowerment to promote health among older adults. It has been suggested that an empowerment approach may nurture an older adult's participation in health care decisions and promote positive health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a critical review of published empowerment intervention studies with community-dwelling older adults. A descriptive literature review was conducted to examine how empowerment is conceptualized across interventions, the guiding theoretical frameworks, the outcomes measured, as well as the health outcomes of these interventions. Based on the findings from this review, recommendations for future empowerment intervention research with older adults as well as implications for practice are proposed.
The impact of social comparison information on motivation in patients with diabetes as a function of regulatory focus and self-efficacy.
Marike C Schokker, Joost C Keers, Jelte Bouma, Thera P Links, Robbert Sanderman, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Mariët Hagedoorn
Health Psychology Section, Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. email@example.com
Effectiveness of web-based interventions on patient empowerment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Department of Public and Occupational Health, The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Patient empowerment is growing in popularity and application. Due to the increasing possibilities of the Internet and eHealth, many initiatives that are aimed at empowering patients are delivered online. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to evaluate whether Web-based interventions are effective in increasing patient empowerment compared with usual care or face-to-face interventions. METHODS We performed a systematic review by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases from January 1985 to January 2009 for relevant citations. From the 7096 unique citations retrieved from the search strategy, we included 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met all inclusion criteria. Pairs of review authors assessed the methodological quality of the obtained studies using the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed on studies that measured comparable outcomes. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence for each outcome. RESULTS In comparison with usual care or no care, Web-based interventions had a significant positive effect on empowerment measured with the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (2 studies, standardized mean difference [SMD]= 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29 - 0.94]), on self-efficacy measured with disease-specific self-efficacy scales (9 studies, SMD = 0.23, 95% CI 0.12 - 0.33), and on mastery measured with the Pearlin Mastery Scale (1 study, mean difference [MD]= 2.95, 95% CI 1.66 - 4.24). No effects were found for self-efficacy measured with general self-efficacy scales (3 studies, SMD = 0.05, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.35) or for self-esteem measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1 study, MD =-0.38, 95% CI -2.45 to 1.69). Furthermore, when comparing Web-based interventions with face-to-face deliveries of the same interventions, no significant (beneficial or harmful) effects were found for mastery (1 study, MD = 1.20, 95% CI -1.73 to 4.13) and self-esteem (1 study, MD =-0.10, 95% CI -0.45 to 0.25). CONCLUSIONS Web-based interventions showed positive effects on empowerment measured with the Diabetes Empowerment Scale, disease-specific self-efficacy scales and the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Because of the low quality of evidence we found, the results should be interpreted with caution. The clinical relevance of the findings can be questioned because the significant effects we found were, in general, small.
Diabetes Care Protocol: effects on patient-important outcomes. A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial in primary care.
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands. email@example.com
AIMS The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP) combines task delegation, intensification of diabetes treatment and feedback. It reduces cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. This study determines the effects of DCP on patient-important outcomes. METHODS A cluster randomized, non-inferiority trial, by self-administered questionnaires in 55 Dutch primary care practices: 26 practices DCP (1699 patients), 26 usual care (1692 patients). T2DM patients treated by their general practitioner were included. Main outcome was the 1-year between-group difference in Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18) total score. Secondary outcomes: DHP-18 subscales, general perceived health [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Euroqol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and Euroqol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS)], treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; DTSQ status) and psychosocial self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale Short Form; DES-SF). Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed: non-inferiority margin Delta=-2%. At baseline 2333 questionnaires were returned and 1437 1 year thereafter. RESULTS Comparing DCP with usual care, DHP-18 total score was non-inferior: PP -0.88 (95% CI -1.94 to 0.12), ITT -0.439 (95% CI -1.01 to 0.08), SF-36 'health change' improved: PP 3.51 (95% CI 1.23 to 5.82), ITT 1.91 (95% CI 0.62 to 3.23), SF-36 'social functioning' was inconclusive: PP-1.57 (95% CI-4.3 to 0.72), ITT-1.031 (95% CI-2.52 to -0.25). Other DHP and SF-36 scores were inconsistent or non-inferior. DHP-18 'disinhibited eating' was significantly worse in PP analyses. For EQ-5D/EQ-VAS, DTSQ and DES-SF, no significant between-group differences were found. CONCLUSION DCP does not seem to influence health status negatively, therefore diabetes care providers should not shrink from intensified treatment. However, they should take possible detrimental effects on 'social functioning' and 'disinhibited eating' into account.
Promoting patient empowerment in the healthcare system: highlighting the need for patient-centered drug policy.
University of Heidelberg Medical School, Junior Group of International Health, Economics and Technology Assessment (JGiHETA), Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org.
In recent years the term 'patient empowerment' has increasingly been used among healthcare policy makers; however, discussions have focused on narrow activities that as stand-alone activities would be unlikely to give patients power. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of the medical literature. After offering a new definition of patient empowerment, we review the literature behind the concept, aided by a conceptual model. The model is derived from our review of all papers published in medicine (Medline) between 1980 and 2005, and is focused around issues related to the antecedents, activities and outcomes of patient empowerment, especially as they relate to researchers who may need to formulate or evaluate public policies aimed at the issue. We strive to stimulate more discussion of the linkages between public policy and patient empowerment, identifying a need to take a holistic approach, especially when policies are aimed at empowering patients in the area of personal drug management.
Timothy R McConnell, William P Santamore, Sharon L Larson, Carol J Homko, Mohamed Kashem, Robert C Cross, Alfred A Bove
Department of Exercise Science, Bloomsburg University, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE Our aim was to provide a descriptive analysis of specific differences between rural and urban residents and the interaction between these differences and those who reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in response to intervention versus those who did not. METHODS This study is a descriptive analysis comparing rural groups with urban groups and those who decreased CVD risk with those who did not. Two hundred five rural (median age = 64.0 years [interquartile = 57.0, 71.0], 56% men) and 183 urban (median age = 58.0 years [interquartile = 50.0, 65.0], 53% men) residents were included. RESULTS Rural and urban groups differed (P <.05) for demographic, anthropometric, physiological, and health-related variables. Those who decreased CVD risk, regardless of rural or urban, had greater blood pressure, greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower walking distance, greater CVD risk score, greater metabolic syndrome score, and greater internal health locus of control (all P <.05). Interestingly, there were differences between those who decreased risk and those who did not within the rural and urban groups. Triglycerides, C-reactive protein, diabetes knowledge, risk perception, and outcome expectations were greater for the rural group who decreased their CVD risk versus those who did not (all P <.05). For the urban group, there was a greater powerful others locus of control for those who decreased CVD risk (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS To maximize the likelihood of success, risk reduction intervention and educational strategies for urban and rural groups must be tailored to address unique demographic, physiological, and health-related characteristics.
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Department of Medical Education, the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE The study examines diabetes attitude differences by treatment modality (insulin vs. no insulin), race/ethnicity, and the interaction of these two variables for people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were collected with the Diabetes Care Profile (DCP), an instrument that assesses psychosocial factors related to diabetes. Participants (n = 672) were recruited in the metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, area from 1993 to 1996. A total of 68% of these participants were African-Americans with type 2 diabetes, and 32% were Caucasians with type 2 diabetes. Analyses of covariance were performed to examine the effects of race/ethnicity, treatment, and their interaction for each DCP scale. RESULTS The four patient categories (two ethnicities by two treatment modalities) differed by age, years with diabetes, education, and sex distribution. Treatment modality had a significant effect on 6 of the 16 DCP scales (Control, Social and Personal Factors, Positive Attitude, Negative Attitude, Self-Care Ability, and Exercise Barriers). Ethnicity was a significant effect for three scales (Control, Support, and Support Attitudes). The interaction of race/ethnicity and treatment modality was a significant effect for two related attitude scales (Positive Attitude and Negative Attitude). CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that attitudes toward diabetes are similar for African-American and Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that treatment modality has a greater effect on attitudes than either race/ethnicity or the interaction effect. However, Caucasian patients using insulin differed from the other patient groups by having the least positive and the most negative attitudes regarding diabetes.
Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE This study was conducted to assess the cultural relevance of an education program for urban African Americans with diabetes. METHODS A set of 12 videotape vignettes were developed for use in diabetes education for urban African Americans with diabetes. Focus groups and questionnaires were used to determine if patients and diabetes educators would find the materials stimulating, culturally appropriate, and useful. RESULTS The videotape and discussion guide were perceived as valuable by both healthcare professionals and patients. CONCLUSIONS This education program could be a valuable resource for diabetes educators who want to provide culturally sensitive and relevant diabetes education for urban African Americans with diabetes.
Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a third version of the Diabetes Attitude Scale (DAS-3) that is congruent with current scientific knowledge about diabetes, has improved subscale internal reliability scores, and is shorter than the earlier versions of this instrument. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The second DAS was revised and rewritten by a panel of diabetes experts, including patients, associated with the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center. The revised version of the instrument was sent to physicians, nurses, dietitians, and patients with diabetes. Completed and usable questionnaires were obtained from 384 patients with diabetes, 321 physicians, 540 nurses, and 569 dietitians. The total number of surveys used for these analyses was 1,814. RESULTS: The study resulted in a revised DAS with 33 items and five discrete subscales. The subscales were attitudes toward the following: 1) need for special training to provide diabetes care, 2) seriousness of type 2 diabetes, 3) value of tight glucose control, 4) pyschosocial impact of diabetes, and 5) attitude toward patient autonomy. Overall, the subscale reliabilities of the DAS-3 were superior to the earlier versions of the scale. CONCLUSIONS: The DAS-3 is a valid and reliable general measure of diabetes-related attitudes and is most suitable for comparisons across different groups of health care professionals and/or patients. The DAS-3 is also suitable for the evaluation of patient and/or professional education programs if those programs focus on the specific topic areas measured by the five DAS-3 subscales.
Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test. The diabetes knowledge test has two components: a 14-item general test and a 9-item insulin-use subscale. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Two populations completed the test. In one population, patients received diabetes care in their community from a variety of providers, while the other population received care from local health departments. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used to calculate scale reliability for each sample. To determine validity, patient group differences were examined. It was hypothesized that test scores would be higher for patients with type 1 diabetes, for patients with more education, and for patients who had received diabetes education. RESULTS: The coefficient alpha s for the general test and the insulin-use subscale indicate that both are reliable, alpha > or = 0.70. In the community sample, patients with type 1 diabetes scored higher than patients with type 2 diabetes on the general test and the insulin-use subscale. In the health department sample, patients with type 1 scored higher than patients with type 2 on the insulin-use subscale. For both samples, scores increased as the years of formal education completed increased, and patients who received diabetes education scored higher than patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Although the samples differed demographically, the reliability and validity of the test were supported in both the community and the health department samples. This suggests that the test is appropriate for a variety of settings and patient populations.
J T Fitzgerald, R M Anderson, M M Funnell, M S Arnold, W K Davis, L C Aman, S J Jacober, G Grunberger
Department of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
African-American and Caucasian patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were surveyed to determine differences in self-reported dietary adherence. The relationship between dietary adherence and other psychosocial factors also was explored. The Diabetes Care Profile, an instrument designed to assess psychosocial factors related to diabetes, was completed by 178 patients. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between dietary adherence and 15 other scales in this instrument. Regression analyses revealed that selected scales were better at predicting dietary adherence for African Americans than for Caucasians. Self-care adherence was the most significant predictor of dietary adherence for African Americans while support was the most significant predictor for Caucasians. These findings suggest that cultural and social functions of food and diet should be examined and incorporated in the development of appropriate meal plans and educational interventions.
The purpose of this focus group research was to identify issues that could serve as topics for a series of educational videos portraying psychosocial issues of urban black individuals with diabetes. Four focus groups involving 34 black adults were conducted in the Detroit area. Psychosocial issues were identified and rated in order of priority by an expert panel. The major psychosocial issues identified were the importance of food and eating in the black culture, the necessity for learning more about diabetes and its complications, learning to interact effectively with healthcare providers and systems, and the need for help and support in managing psychosocial issues related to diabetes. Black individuals with diabetes face unique psychosocial challenges. Focus groups are an effective method for obtaining relevant, culturally specific, in-depth information about living with diabetes from patients who are members of minority groups.
This study evaluated a monthly, activated patient newsletter sent to over 7000 patients in Michigan with diabetes. The newsletter provided concise and action-oriented information about diabetes care. Patients who had signed up to receive the newsletter during the first 4 months of the project (1863) were surveyed to determine how many patients found the newsletter helpful; 80%(1498) of the patients replied. Patients who found the newsletter most helpful were older; had lower incomes, and reported more complications, less understanding of diabetes, and being in poorer overall health. They also were more likely to have non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) than insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We concluded that the activated patient newsletter is a useful public health/patient education intervention for persons with diabetes. Such a newsletter should be part of a coordinated system of ongoing patient care, education, screening, and social and psychological support.
The diabetes education experience of randomly selected patients under the care of community physicians.
The purpose of this study was to describe the diabetes education and nutritional counseling received by patients under the active care of community physicians. The study population consisted of 440 patients with diabetes from the practices of 68 primary care physicians in eight Michigan communities. Fifty-eight percent of the sample reported having received diabetes education, and the mean number of years since the most recent education was 4.15 years. Sixty-six percent reported having seen a dietitian. Patients who had received diabetes education scored higher on a basic diabetes knowledge test (70% correct vs 60%) than patients who had not received diabetes education. From 1981 to 1991, a decline was observed in the percentage of patients who reported having received diabetes education (70% to 58%). Although patient education is an integral part of comprehensive diabetes care, too few patients are receiving it. Furthermore, diabetes education often results in less-than-optimal levels of knowledge. The situation has deteriorated over the past 10 years, and patients who are not on insulin typically are the least well served.
University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0201, USA.
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a patient empowerment program would result in improved psychosocial self-efficacy and attitudes toward diabetes, as well as a reduction in blood glucose levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was conducted as a randomized, wait-listed control group trial. The intervention group received a six-session (one session per week) patient empowerment education program; the control group was assigned to a wait-list. At the end of 6 weeks, the control group completed the six-session empowerment program. Six weeks after the program, both groups provided follow-up data. RESULTS The intervention group showed gains over the control group on four of the eight self-efficacy subscales and two of the five diabetes attitude subscales. Also, the intervention group showed a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin levels. Within groups, analysis of data from all program participants showed sustained improvements in all of the self-efficacy areas and two of the five diabetes attitude subscales and a modest improvement in blood glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS This study indicated that patient empowerment is an effective approach to developing educational interventions for addressing the psychosocial aspects of living with diabetes. Furthermore, patient empowerment is conducive to improving blood glucose control. In an ideal setting, patient education would address equally blood glucose management and the psychosocial challenges of living with diabetes.
Patient-provider perceptions of diabetes and its impact on self-management: a comparison of African-American and White patients.
University of Michigan Department of Medical Education, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. email@example.com
AIMS To compare patient-provider differences in diabetes-related perceptions between African-American and White patients and to examine its association with self-care behaviours. METHODS One hundred and thirty patient-provider pairs were recruited from the greater Detroit area. Patients and providers completed a survey assessing perceptions about diabetes-related concepts and demographic background. The Diabetes Semantic Differential Scale was used to measure diabetes-related perceptions. Patients also reported the frequency of performing self-care behaviours, including following a healthy eating plan, engaging in physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, and taking medication and/or insulin. RESULTS There were a greater number of patient-provider differences in diabetes-related perceptions for the African-American patients (nine of 18 concepts) compared with the White patients (four of 18 concepts). Stepwise regression analyses found patients' semantic differential scores to be significantly associated with five self-care behaviours for African-American patients and two self-care behaviours for White patients. Providers' semantic differential scores emerged as predictors of self-care behaviours for African-American patients, but not for White patients. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that compared with White patients, African-Americans differ in a greater number of diabetes-related perceptions than their providers. Patients' and providers' perceptions of diabetes care concepts have a significant impact on a greater number of self-care behaviours for African-American patients than White patients.
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Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2012 Oct 2;: 23054977
Duke University Medical Center, 2200W. Main Street, Durham, NC, 27705, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Arthritis pain may be best understood in the context of a biospychosocial model of pain. The biopsychosocial model of pain suggests that adjustment to arthritis pain is multifaceted and is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. One psychological construct that appears to be particularly helpful in understanding arthritis pain is patients' self-efficacy for managing pain and other symptoms. In recent work, investigators have included self-efficacy for managing pain and other symptoms as key outcome measures in behavioral and psychosocial intervention studies. The goal of this article was to review recent intervention studies that have examined the effect of behavioral and psychosocial interventions on self-efficacy for managing pain and other symptoms. Throughout the article, we make several suggestions for future clinical and research considerations regarding the role of self-efficacy for managing pain and other symptoms in the context of arthritis pain.
Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
OBJECTIVES To assess empowerment score in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS A descriptive - correlation study was performed for a period of four months in 2011. Study population was type 2 diabetic patients referred to Omolbanin, Diabetic Center in Isfahan, cultural capital of Iran. Hundred and sixty diabetic patients met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patient's empowerment was measured by DES (Diabetes Empowerment Scale) self-report scale with subscales reflecting three areas including Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes (9 items), Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change (9 items) and Setting and achieving diabetes goal (10 items). Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. RESULTS Participants were between the ages of 38 and 78 with a mean of 48.67 +/- 7.99 years. There were 49.4% males, 87.5% were married, and 44.9% had education of diploma and higher. Mean duration of diabetes was 5.62 +/- 3.81 years. In all 46.9% participants had borderline metabolic control according to World Health Organization criteria. Using Diabetes Empowerment Scale, three conceptual domains of 'Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes','Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change' and 'Setting and achieving diabetes goal' were measured and scored for each patient. The average score of each domain was 27.15 +/- 8.20),(29.03 +/- 10.40),(31.95 +/- 11.70) respectively.'Setting and achieving diabetes goal' was considered as the most important domain in measuring diabetes self-management. Diabetes empowerment level showed a significant relationship between variables such as educational level (p<0.001), gender (0.007), age (p<0.001), and duration of diabetes (p<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficient also revealed that empowerment of type 2 diabetic patients has a reverse relationship with HbA1c (r =- 0.75, p 0.001). Furthermore, ordinal regression test revealed that having diploma and higher education (p=0.005), and optimal and borderline HbA1c (p<0.001) were effective factors in empowering diabetic patients. CONCLUSION Empowerment is psychosocial self-efficacy. Healthcare professionals and researches have introduced 'self-empowerment' as a key element in managing chronic diseases. When it comes to diabetes, empowerment implies an approach that attempts to enhance the ability of patients to actively understand and influence their own lives and health status. It seems that patients with diabetes can be empowered to manage their chronic disease if they are actively informed and educated.
Early warning signs checklists for relapse in bipolar depression and mania: utility, reliability and validity.
Spectrum Centre, School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, United Kingdom. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Recognising early warning signs (EWS) of mood changes is a key part of many effective interventions for people with Bipolar Disorder (BD). This study describes the development of valid and reliable checklists required to assess these signs of depression and mania. METHODS Checklists of EWS based on previous research and participant feedback were designed for depression and mania and compared with spontaneous reporting of EWS. Psychometric properties and utility were examined in 96 participants with BD. RESULTS The majority of participants did not spontaneously monitor EWS regularly prior to use of the checklists. The checklists identified most spontaneously generated EWS and led to a ten fold increase in the identification of EWS for depression and an eight fold increase for mania. The scales were generally reliable over time and responses were not associated with current mood. Frequency of monitoring for EWS correlated positively with social and occupational functioning for depression (beta=3.80, p=0.015) and mania (beta=3.92, p=0.008). LIMITATIONS The study is limited by a small sample size and the fact that raters were not blind to measures of mood and function. CONCLUSIONS EWS checklists are useful and reliable clinical and research tools helping to generate enough EWS for an effective EWS intervention.
Jennifer D Ryan, Helene J Polatajko, Sara McEwen, Melissa Peressotti, Alexis Young, Katherine Rummel, Stephanie Farrow, Christina Villate, M Tracy Morrison, Carolyn M Baum
Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although the environment can impact, or otherwise support, cognition, no measure currently exists to help the clinician identify items within the environment that may support cognition. To address this gap in the literature, the Analysis of Cognitive Environmental Support (ACES) was developed. Here, content validity, concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability were assessed, in parallel, for the ACES. Based on the findings, modifications were made to the tool, which is included in an effort to initiate further research regarding its clinical utility.
Division of Research, American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, Virginia 22209-3901, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE Apathy is highly prevalent among neuropsychiatric populations and is associated with greater morbidity and worse functional outcomes. Despite this, it remains understudied and poorly understood, primarily due to lack of consensus definition and clear diagnostic criteria for apathy. Without a gold standard for defining and measuring apathy, the availability of empirically sound measures is imperative. This paper provides a psychometric review of the most commonly used apathy measures and provides recommendations for use and further research. METHODS Pertinent literature databases were searched to identify all available assessment tools for apathy in adults aged 18 and older. Evidence of the reliability and validity of the scales were examined. Alternate variations of scales (e.g., non-English versions) were also evaluated if the validating articles were written in English. RESULTS Fifteen apathy scales or subscales were examined. The most psychometrically robust measures for assessing apathy across any disease population appear to be the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the apathy subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory based on the criteria set in this review. For assessment in specific populations, the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating for patients with Alzheimer's dementia, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for schizophrenia populations, and the Frontal System Behavior Scale for patients with frontotemporal deficits are reliable and valid measures. CONCLUSION Clinicians and researchers have numerous apathy scales for use in broad and disease-specific neuropsychiatric populations. Our understanding of apathy would be advanced by research that helps build a consensus as to the definition and diagnosis of apathy and further refine the psychometric properties of all apathy assessment tools.
Behav Modif. 2010 Jul ;34 (4):310-29 20562324
Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, Brown Medical School, Coro Bldg West, Suite 500, One Hoppin St, Providence, RI 02903, USA. Andrew_busch@brown.edu
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.
University of Virginia, Department of Neurology, PO Box 800394, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To study the concurrent and construct validity and test-retest reliability in the practice setting of an outcome measure for myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS Eleven centers participated in the validation study of the Myasthenia Gravis Composite (MGC) scale. Patients with MG were evaluated at 2 consecutive visits. Concurrent and construct validities of the MGC were assessed by evaluating MGC scores in the context of other MG-specific outcome measures. We used numerous potential indicators of clinical improvement to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the MGC for detecting clinical improvement. Test-retest reliability was performed on patients at the University of Virginia. RESULTS A total of 175 patients with MG were enrolled at 11 sites from July 1, 2008, to January 31, 2009. A total of 151 patients were seen in follow-up. Total MGC scores showed excellent concurrent validity with other MG-specific scales. Analyses of sensitivities and specificities of the MGC revealed that a 3-point improvement in total MGC score was optimal for signifying clinical improvement. A 3-point improvement in the MGC also appears to represent a meaningful improvement to most patients, as indicated by improved 15-item myasthenia gravis quality of life scale (MG-QOL15) scores. The psychometric properties were no better for an individualized subscore made up of the 2 functional domains that the patient identified as most important to treat. The test-retest reliability coefficient of the MGC was 98%, with a lower 95% confidence interval of 97%, indicating excellent test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS The Myasthenia Gravis Composite is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring clinical status of patients with myasthenia gravis in the practice setting and in clinical trials.
Outcome expectancies of partner abuse: assessing perpetrators' expectancies and their associations with readiness to change, abuse, and relevant problems.
Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA. email@example.com
Concerns about low motivation to change among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) have heightened interest employing behavior change models with this population. In the present investigation, a new scale was developed, the Outcome Expectancies for Partner Abuse (OEPA) Scale, assessing the negative and positive outcome expectancies of partner abuse. Items were generated from statements made by IPV offenders during videotaped group therapy sessions. Among a clinical sample of 130 IPV perpetrators, item psychometric properties, factor structure, and subscale validity were examined. Results indicated generally good psychometric properties and a 2-factor solution, with the exception of 4 items subsequently removed from the negative expectancies scale. Significant associations were demonstrated between instrument subscales, readiness to change, and self-reported abusive behavior. Additionally, positive expectancy scores correlated with anger problems and relationship adjustment whereas negative expectancy scores correlated with partner-reported IPV. Potential uses of the OEPA and future directions for psychometric research are discussed.
Am J Health Behav. ;33 (4):425-34 19182987
Department of Community and Family Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). METHODS Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. RESULTS Three CPAS factors emerged: values, attitudes, and motivation, with reliability coefficients ranging from .429 to .821. Significant correlations existed between subscales and physical activity frequency. CONCLUSIONS The CPAS was reliable and valid and in a sample of third-to fifth-grade girls. Findings support using the CPAS for measuring overall commitment to physical activity in girls.
Alcohol Alcohol. 2008 Nov 13;: 19008551
Jennis Freyer-Adam, Beate Coder, Caspar Ottersbach, J Scott Tonigan, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Ulrich John, Ulfert Hapke
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany.
AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the performance of the treatment version of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ[TV]) among individuals currently receiving alcohol detoxification and to develop a treatment version of the Treatment Readiness Tool (TReaT[TV]). METHODS: A total of 549 patients (86% men) recruited from two detoxification units were interviewed close to treatment intake and followed up 12 months later. Confirmatory factor analyses and logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: A modified nine-item version of the RCQ[TV] showed a good fit of the model (CFI = 0.95) and internal consistencies ranging between 0.49 and 0.91. Twelve months later, RCQ-Actors had an odds ratio of 1.95 (95% CI: 1.12-3.37) for being abstinent compared to Precontemplators/Contemplators. The development of the TReaT[TV] resulted in 15 items and 5 scales with a CFI of 0.97 and Cronbach's alphas ranging between 0.59 and 0.94. TReaT[TV] Precontemplators/Contemplators were less likely to utilize help than Maintainers (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.45). CONCLUSIONS: The psychometric properties were modest for the modified RCQ[TV] and good for the TReaT[TV]. Readiness to change and readiness to seek help should be assessed separately among treatment seekers.