Internal mammary node irradiation neither decreases distant metastases nor improves survival in stage I and II breast cancer.
B Fowble, A Hanlon, G Freedman, N Nicolaou, J Hoffman, E Sigurdson, M Boraas, M Torosian, L Goldstein
Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. B_Fowble@FCCC.EDU
PURPOSE To compare outcome for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), or regional node recurrence, initial and subsequent distant metastases, and overall and cause-specific survival in women treated with conservative surgery and radiation based on whether or not radiation was targeted to the internal mammary nodes (IMN). METHODS AND MATERIALS From 1979-1994, 1383 women with Stage I-II breast cancer underwent wide excision, axillary node dissection with >/=10 nodes removed, and radiation. Median follow-up was 6 years; median age was 55 years. A total of 114 women had radiation targeted to the IMN with deep tangents and 1269 did not. Women who received IMN treatment were more often axillary node-positive (40% vs. 25%, p = 0. 002), had central or inner quadrant tumors (61% vs. 40%, p = 0.001), and had T2 tumors (47% vs. 31%, p = 0.001). All axillary node-positive women received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen. For axillary node-negative women, 13% of the IMN treatment group received adjuvant systemic therapy compared to 37% of the no treatment group (p = 0.001). Radiation was directed to the breast only in 97% of the axillary node-negative women who had IMN treatment and 99% of the no IMN treatment group. For axillary node-positive women, 98% of the IMN-treated group had radiation to the breast and supraclavicular nodes +/- a posterior axillary field compared to 77% of the no IMN treatment group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups for median age, menopausal status, histology, final surgical margin, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, or the number of positive nodes. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the 5- and 10-year cumulative incidence of an IBTR, regional node recurrence, initial or total distant metastases for the two groups. Similarly 5- and 10-year actuarial overall and cause-specific survival were not significantly different. However, subset analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in initial (29% vs. 15% at 10 yr, p = 0.002) and total (30% vs. 17% at 10 yr, p = 0.01) distant metastases and a significant decrease in cause-specific survival (76% vs. 89% at 10 yr, p = 0.02) for postmenopausal women who received IMN treatment. These findings could not be attributed to differences in the use of systemic therapy or the number of positive nodes. Axillary node-positive patients did not experience a significant decrease in initial (36% vs. 22% at 10 yr, p = 0.21) or total distant metastases (37% vs. 28% at 10 yr, p = 0.62) or a significant improvement in cause-specific survival (72% vs. 76% at 10 yr, p = 0.76) with IMN treatment regardless of whether the tumor was lateral or medial/central in location. IMN treatment was not associated with an increase in non-breast cancer deaths during this period of observation. CONCLUSIONS This retrospective series was unable to identify a significant benefit for IMN irradiation in terms of distant metastases or cause-specific survival for the entire patient population, and in particular, for patients with positive axillary nodes and medially located lesions. The results of the proposed or ongoing prospective randomized trials will further address this controversial issue.
Prognostic significance of number of positive nodes: a long-term study of one to two nodes versus three nodes in breast cancer patients.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. email@example.com
Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Services, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Between 1997 and 1999, three studies re-ignited the debate on post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Despite 20 years of follow-up and multiple re-analyses, the results of these studies still generate vigorous debate among the learned men and women who care for breast cancer patients. In honor of the 10th anniversary of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Post-Mastectomy trial 82c publication, the following review offers the reader a brief history of the controversies that preceded and followed these publications. Other related controversies, PMRT in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, positive margins or T3N0 primary tumors, as well as internal mammary lymph node irradiation, are also presented. Finally, we present a brief discussion about the toxicities associated with PMRT. This review will familiarize the reader with often discussed/debated issues concerning PMRT and prepare them to enter the debate.
The effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on mortality differs according to primary tumor location in women with node-positive breast cancer.
Vincent Vinh-Hung, Pauline T Truong, Wolfgang Janni, Nam Phong Nguyen, Georges Vlastos, Gábor Cserni, Melanie E Royce, Wendy A Woodward, Donald Promish, Patricia Tai, Guy Soete, Sabine Balmer-Majno, Bruno Cutuli, Guy Storme, Christine Bouchardy
Oncology Center, UZ Brussel, Jette, Belgium.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of primary tumor location and to examine whether the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival varies according to tumor location in women with axillary node-positive (ALN+) breast cancer (BC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were abstracted from the SEER database for 24,410 women aged 25-95 years, diagnosed between 1988-1997 with nonmetastatic T1-T2, ALN+ BC. Subgroup analyses were performed using interactions within proportional hazards models. Event was defined as death from any cause. Prognostic variables were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Joint significances of subgroups were evaluated with Wald test. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 10 years. In joint models, statistically significant interactions were found between tumor location, nodal involvement, type of surgery, and radiotherapy. Factorial presentation of interactions showed consistent 13% proportional reduction of mortality in all subgroups, except in women with medial tumors with > or = 4 ALN+ treated with mastectomy. In this subgroup, use of radiotherapy was associated with a 16% proportional increase in mortality. CONCLUSION: Medial tumor location is a significant adverse prognostic factor that should be considered in treatment decision- making for women with ALN+ BC. Improved survival was observed with radiotherapy use in all subgroups, except in women with medial tumors with > or = 4 ALN+ treated with postmastectomy radiotherapy. These findings raise concern that the favorable effect of radiotherapy may be offset by excess toxicities in the latter subgroup.
Wide Tangential Fields Including the Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes in Patients with Left-Sided Breast Cancer : Influence of Respiratory-Controlled Radiotherapy (4D-CT) on Cardiac Exposure.
Department of Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Medical School of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 32, 8036, Graz, Austria, email@example.com.
PURPOSE:: To evaluate the impact of wide-tangent fields including the internal mammary chain during deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiotherapy in patients with left-sided breast cancer on cardiac exposure. PATIENTS AND METHODS:: Eleven patients with left-sided breast cancer were irradiated postoperatively and underwent CT scans during free breathing and DIBH. For scientific interest only, treatment plans were calculated consisting of wide tangents including the ipsilateral mammary lymph nodes using both, the free breathing and respiratory-controlled CT scan. The resulting dose-volume histograms were compared for irradiated volumes and doses to organs at risk. RESULTS:: The mean patient age was 51 years (range: 37-65 years). Radiotherapy using wide tangents with DIBH as compared to free breathing led to a significantly lower cardiac exposure. Mean irradiated heart volumes (>/= 20 Gy) were 14 cm(3)(range: 0-51.3 cm(3)) versus 35 cm(3)(range: 2.1-78.7 cm(3); p = 0.01). For eight patients, DIBH reduced irradiated relative lung volume, while in three patients, the lung volume slightly increased. CONCLUSION:: Radiation exposure of organs at risk can significantly be reduced for breast cancer patients using the DIBH technique. If radiotherapy of the internal mammary lymph nodes is considered necessary, DIBH may be the preferable technique.
Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and oncologic outcome of patients treated with a chest wall resection for isolated breast cancer recurrences in the Internal Mammary Chain. Retrospectively we retrieved data from 29 patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for (disease-free) survival. There were no postoperative deaths. Complications occurred in 11 patients. The median follow-up after CWR for all 16 patients still alive at the end of this study is 18.4 months. Nine patients were free of cancer. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival is 59.2% and 8.6%. The median survival is 40.7 months. After multivariate analysis for each of the four endpoints studied, only one prognostic factor remains significant for survival: systemic therapy before CRW (p=0.004). For local recurrence-free survival a first CRW recurrence (p<0.00001) and for disease-free survival radicality of the resection (p=0.008) are independent prognostic factors. Chest wall resection is a safe and effective treatment for isolated breast cancer recurrences in the IMC. Surgically treated patients have a fair survival and some of them are even cured.
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Radiotherapy, Chandigarh, India. email@example.com
PURPOSE To study the potential risk factors for contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in women after treatment of the primary breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1985 and December 1995, records of 1084 breast cancer patients at our institution were analyzed for incidence of CBC. In all the patients a detailed analysis was carried out with respect to age, disease stage, radiation therapy technique, dose, the use of chemotherapy or hormone therapy, and other clinical and/or pathologic characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the acturial rate of CBC. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of CBC. RESULTS Up to December 2005, the median follow up was 12 years. Overall incidence of CBC was 4%. The 10 and 20 year acturial rate of CBC was 5.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The CBC rate at 10 and 20 year was 5.4% and 10.2%, respectively, for patients with mastectomy only and 5.1% and 9.7%, respectively, in the mastectomy plus RT group (p=0.3). In the subset of patients <45 years of age at the time of treatment, 10 and 20 year acturial rate of CBC was 5% and 9%, respectively, for patients who underwent mastectomy only and 6.3% and 11%, respectively, for patients treated with mastectomy plus RT (RR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.14-1.45, p=0.003). There was statistically significant lower rate of CBC in patients given adjuvant hormonal therapy (8.5%) as compared to those without hormonal therapy (14.3%, p=0.004) at 20 year. Women with family history of breast cancer had highest rate (15.3%) of CBC (RR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.12-1.27) at 20 years. The adjuvant use of chemotherapy did not significantly affect the risk of second malignancy. CONCLUSION There seems to be little risk of second malignancies in patients treated with mastectomy plus RT using modern techniques, compared with mastectomy only, that was only prevalent in patients <45 years of age. Family history of breast cancer seems to be the highest risk factor for CBC.
Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation for stage II-III breast cancer: treatment intervals and clinical outcomes.
Jean L Wright, Peter G Cordeiro, Leah Ben-Porat, Kimberly J Van Zee, Clifford Hudis, Kathryn Beal, Beryl McCormick
Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
PURPOSE To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm:(1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement,(2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy,(3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant,(4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5,040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. CONCLUSIONS Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.
Should adjuvant radiotherapy to the supraclavicular fossa be routinely given in patients with breast conservative treatment?
Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
BACKGROUND To analyze the overall outcome, supraclavicular fossa (SCF) recurrence rate, and pattern of failure in breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy excluding SCF treatment. METHODS A total of 143 patients were enrolled in the study. Ninety-two percent of patients were stages I and II, and 8% were stage III. The median age was 44 years, and 31% of patients were </=40 years old. Radiotherapy was delivered to the ipsilateral breast excluding the SCF. RESULTS The 5-year overall survival rate of the cohort was 95%, and disease-free survival rate was 91%. The cumulative incidence of SCF recurrence was 18% in patients with involved axillary nodes (N)>/= 4, and 0.8% in patients with N < 4. The 5-year SCF-recurrence-free survival in patients with N >/= 4 and N < 4 was 80% and 99%, respectively (P < 0.001). N >/= 4 was the only independent predictor for locoregional control (P = 0.045), disease-free survival (P = 0.001), and overall survival (P = 0.008) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Women with N >/= 4 have a significantly higher risk of SCF recurrence and poorer survival. The SCF might be safely spared in patients with N < 4, but should be routinely included in the radiotherapy design for those with N >/= 4.
Austrian Breast Cancer Patterns-of-Care Studies PCS93 and PCS01 versus PCS85 to Identify Changes in National Practice.
Ramona Mayer, Lore Handl-Zeller, Franz Quehenberger, Josef Hammer, Walter Rhomberg, Karin Brinda-Raitmayr, Britta Forthuber, Ruth Freund, Beatrix Günczler, Gerhard Kametriser, Martina Metz, Wolfgang Raunik, Irene Wedrich, Richard Pötter
Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, University Medical School of Graz, Austria.
PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of evaluation and treatment in Austrian breast cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy in 1993 (PCS93) and 2001 (PCS01), and to compare these with the results of PCS85. MATERIAL AND METHODS: According to the evaluation process of the Austrian PCS85, ten randomly selected patient charts from every Austrian radiotherapy center from 1993 (n = 100) as well as 2001 (n = 120) were reviewed. The work-up included surgical and (histo)pathologic information, systemic therapy and detailed information on radiation therapy. RESULTS: Availability of histopathologic core data improved distinctly between 1985 and 2001. In 1985, treatment planning included fluoroscopic simulation and/or computed tomography in 55% of the cases as compared to 100% in 2001. The technical equipment in Austria changed distinctly. In 2001, 84% of the breast/chest wall fields and all regional node fields (+/- electrons) were treated by photons. Radiotherapy of the supraclavicular (77% vs. 28%), internal mammary (62% vs. 7.5%) and axillary nodes (51% vs. 5%) diminished from 1985 to 2001. A tumor bed boost was given in 34% of the patients in 1985 compared to 73% in 2001. The use of wedges (21% vs. 97%) and the number of port films (26% vs. 90%) increased substantially. CONCLUSION: Comparing both recent Austrian Patterns-of-Care surveys to the results obtained in 1985, an obvious increase in the quality level of histopathologic reporting as well as radiation treatment planning and delivery was found.
Quality assurance in breast cancer: EORTC experiences in the phase III trial on irradiation of the internal mammary nodes.
Elena Musat, Philip Poortmans, Walter Van den Bogaert, Henk Struikmans, Alain Fourquet, Harry Bartelink, Carine Kirkove, Volker Budach, Marianne Pierart, Laurence Collette
EORTC, Avenue E. Mounierlaan, 83/11, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
The EORTC 22922/10925 trial randomly compares irradiation or no irradiation of the internal mammary and medio supraclavicular (IM-MS) nodes for stage I-III breast cancer. We report on the characteristics of 4004 participating patients, aspects of quality assurance and compliance to protocol treatment. The actual population has intermediate-risk disease: 51.8% stage II, 56% positive axillary nodes. The allocated treatment was not followed in 3.2% in the IM-MS irradiation arm versus 2% in the no IM-MS irradiation arm. In the IM-MS arm, there were major deviations for dose in 0.8%, surgery-to-radiotherapy time interval in 3.9% and in overall treatment time in 0.9% cases. Major deviations were found in 7.9% patients in the IM-MS group and in 2% patients in the no IM-MS group. In the final trial analysis, a sensitivity analysis should evaluate the subgroup of patients receiving an optimal treatment to verify the robustness of the results and the true impact of IM-MS irradiation.
Other papers by authors:
Accuracy of the extent of axillary nodal positivity related to primary tumor size, number of involved nodes, and number of nodes examined.
R V Iyer, A Hanlon, B Fowble, G Freedman, N Nicolaou, P Anderson, J Hoffman, E Sigurdson, M Boraas, M Torosian
Departments of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
PURPOSE While a number of studies have evaluated the minimum number of axillary nodes that need to be examined to accurately determine nodal positivity or negativity, there is little information on the number of nodes which must be examined to determine the extent of nodal positivity. This study attempts to determine for patients with 1-3 positive nodes the probability that the number of positive nodes reported is the true number of positive nodes as well as the probability that 4 or more nodes could be positive based on primary tumor size and number of nodes examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS From 1979 to 1998, 1652 women with Stages I-II invasive breast cancer underwent an axillary dissection as part of their breast conservation therapy and had more than 10 lymph nodes examined. The mean and median number of nodes identified in the dissection was 19 and 17 (range, 11-75). The median age was 55 years. A total of 1155 women had T1 tumors and 497 had T2 tumors. Of the 459 node-positive women, 72% had 1-3 positive nodes, 18% had 4-9 positive nodes, and 10% had 10 or more positive nodes. A mathematical model based on tumor size and number of nodes examined was created using the hypergeometric distribution and Bayes Theorem. The resulting model was used to estimate the accuracy of the reported number of positive nodes and the probability of 4 or more positive nodes based on various observed sampling combinations. RESULTS For patients with T1 tumors and 1, 2, or 3 positive nodes, the minimum number of nodes examined needed for a 90% probability of accuracy is 19, 20, and 20. For T2 tumors and 1, 2, or 3 positive nodes, a minimum of 20 nodes is required. The probability of 4 or more positive nodes increases as tumor size and the number of reported positive nodes increase and as the number of examined nodes decreases. For a 10% or less probability of 4 or more positive nodes, a patient with a T1 tumor and 1, 2, or 3 observed positive nodes would require a minimum of 8, 15, and 20 nodes removed. For a T2 tumor and 1, 2, or 3 observed positive nodes, the corresponding numbers are 10, 16, and 20. CONCLUSION The accuracy of the extent of axillary nodal positivity is influenced by the number of observed positive nodes, tumor size, and the number of nodes examined. Underestimation of the number of positive nodes will result in errors in the assessment of an individual's risk for locoregional recurrence, distant disease, and breast cancer death and will adversely impact on treatment recommendations. This model provides the clinician with a means for assessing the accuracy of the number of positive nodes reported in patients with 1-3 positive nodes.
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: effect on diagnosis and outcome in early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation.
B Fowble, A Hanlon, G Freedman, A Patchefsky, H Kessler, N Nicolaou, J Hoffman, E Sigurdson, M Boraas, L Goldstein
Division of Population Science, Department of Biostatistics, and Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiology, Pathology, and Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: To compare the pretreatment characteristics and outcome of postmenopausal women with stage I-II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation who had a history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with those who had never received HRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1979 to 1993, 485 postmenopausal women underwent excisional biopsy, axillary dissection, and radiation for stage I-II breast cancer. The median follow-up was 5.9 years. One hundred forty-one patients reported a history of HRT. The median length of use was 5 years. Three hundred forty-four patients reported no history of HRT. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed for median age (HRT 60 years v no HRT 64 years; P =.0009), median weight (HRT 142 lbs v no HRT 152 lbs; P =.004), clinical tumor size < or = 2 cm (HRT 77% v no HRT 66%; P =.02), and the use of re-excision (HRT 62% v no HRT 49%; P =.01). The method of detection by mammogram only (HRT 52% v no HRT 42%; P =.06) was of borderline statistical significance. The HRT patients had a statistically significant increased cumulative incidence of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (8% v 2%; P =.02), a statistically significant decreased cumulative incidence of distant metastases (HRT 6% v no HRT 17%; P =.01), and a borderline statistically significant improvement in cause-specific survival at 10 years (HRT 92% v no HRT 86%; P =.07). Postmenopausal women with a history of HRT did not have an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer or second non-breast cancer malignancy. CONCLUSION: This study failed to identify an adverse effect of HRT on breast cancer mortality in patients with stage I-II disease treated with conservative surgery and radiation.
Patients with early stage invasive cancer with close or positive margins treated with conservative surgery and radiation have an increased risk of breast recurrence that is delayed by adjuvant systemic therapy.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. G_Freedman@FCCC.edu
PURPOSE The association between a positive resection margin and the risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after conservative surgery and radiation is controversial. The width of the resection margin that minimizes the risk of IBTR is unknown. While adjuvant systemic therapy may decrease the risk of an IBTR in all patients, its impact on patients with positive or close margins is largely unknown. This study examines the interaction between margin status, margin width, and adjuvant systemic therapy on the 5- and 10-year risk of IBTR after conservative surgery and radiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS A series of 1,262 patients with clinical Stage I or II breast cancer were treated by breast-conserving surgery, axillary node dissection, and radiation between March 1979 and December 1992. The median follow-up was 6.3 years (range 0.1-15.6). The median age was 55 years (range 24-89). Clinical size was T1 in 66% and T2 in 34%. Seventy-three percent of patients were node-negative. Only 5 % of patients had tumors that were EIC-positive. Forty-one percent had a single excision, and 59% had a reexcision. The final margins were negative in 77%, positive in 12%, and close (< or = 2 mm) in 11%. The median total dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy with negative margins, 64 Gy with close margins, and 66 Gy with positive margins. Chemotherapy +/- tamoxifen was used in 28%, tamoxifen alone in 20%, and no adjuvant systemic therapy in 52%. RESULTS The 5-year cumulative incidence (CI) of IBTR was not significantly different between patients with negative (4%), positive (5%), or close (7%) margins. However, by 10 years, a significant difference in IBTR became apparent (negative 7%, positive 12%, close 14%, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in IBTR when a close or positive margin was involved by invasive tumor or DCIS. Reexcision diminished the IBTR rate to 7% at 10 years if the final margin was negative; however, the highest risk was observed in patients with persistently positive (13%) or close (21%)(p = 0.02) margins. The median interval to failure was 3.7 years after no adjuvant systemic therapy, 5.0 years after chemotherapy +/- tamoxifen, and 6.7 years after tamoxifen alone. This delay to IBTR was observed in patients with close or positive margins, with little impact on the time to failure in patients with negative margins. The 5-year CI of IBTR in patients with close or positive margins was 1% with adjuvant systemic therapy and 13% with no adjuvant therapy. However, by 10 years, the CI of IBTR was similar (18% vs. 14%) due to more late failures in the patients who received adjuvant systemic therapy. CONCLUSION A negative margin (> 2 mm) identifies patients with a very low risk of IBTR (7% at 10 years) after conservative surgery and radiation. Patients with a close margin (< or = 2 mm) are at an equal or greater risk of IBTR as with a positive margin, especially following a reexcision. A margin involved by DCIS or invasive tumor has the same increased risk of IBTR. A reexcision of an initially close or positive margin that results in a negative final margin reduces the risk of IBTR to that of an initially negative margin. A close or positive margin is associated with an increased risk of IBTR even in patients who are EIC-negative or receiving higher boost doses of radiation. The median time to IBTR is delayed; however, the CI is not significantly decreased by adjuvant systemic therapy in patients with close or positive margins-the 5 year results in these patients underestimate their ultimate risk of recurrence.
Second cancers after conservative surgery and radiation for stages I-II breast cancer: identifying a subset of women at increased risk.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
PURPOSE To assess the risk and patterns of second malignancy in a group of women treated with conservative surgery and radiation in a relatively contemporary manner for early-stage invasive breast cancer, and to identify a subgroup of these women at increased risk for a second cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS From 1978 to 1994, 1,253 women with unilateral Stage I-II breast cancer underwent wide excision, axillary dissection, and radiation. The median follow-up was 8.9 years, with 446 patients followed for >or= 10 years. The median age was 55 years. Sixty-eight percent had T1 tumors and 74% were axillary-node negative. Radiation was directed to the breast only in 78%. Adjuvant therapy consisted of chemotherapy in 19%, tamoxifen in 19%, and both in 8%. Factors analyzed for their association with the cumulative incidence of all second malignancies, contralateral breast cancer, and non-breast cancer malignancy were: age, menopausal status, race, family history, obesity, smoking, tumor size, location, histology, pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and the use and type of adjuvant therapy. RESULTS One hundred seventy-six women developed a second malignancy (87 contralateral breast cancers at a median interval of 5.8 years, and 98 non-breast cancer malignancies at a median interval of 7.2 years). Nine women had both a contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of a second malignancy were 5% and 16% for all cancers, 3% and 7% for contralateral breast cancer, 3% and 8%, for all second non-breast cancer malignancies, and 1% and 5%, respectively, for second non-breast cancer malignancies, excluding skin cancers. Patient age was a significant factor for contralateral breast cancer and non-breast cancer second malignancy. Young age was associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, while older age was associated with an increased the risk of a second non-breast cancer second malignancy. A positive family history increased the risk of contralateral breast cancer, but not non-breast cancer malignancies. The risk of a contralateral breast cancer increased as the number of affected relatives increased. Tamoxifen resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in contralateral breast cancer and an increase in non-breast cancer second malignancies. The 5-and 10-year cumulative incidences for leukemia and lung cancer were 0.08% and 0.2%, and 0.8% and 1%, respectively. There was no significant effect of chemotherapy or the regions treated with radiation on contralateral breast cancer or non-breast cancer second malignancy. The most common types of second non-breast cancer malignancies were skin cancers, followed by gynecologic malignancies (endometrial), and gastrointestinal malignancies (colorectal and pancreas). CONCLUSION The 10-years cumulative incidence of a second cancer in this study was 16%. Young age and family history predicted for an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, and older age predicted for an increased risk of non-breast cancer malignancy. The majority of patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation with or without adjuvant systemic therapy will not develop a second cancer. Long-term follow-up is important to document the risk and patterns of second cancer, and knowledge of this risk and the patterns will influence surveillance and prevention strategies.
Lobular carcinoma in situ increases the risk of local recurrence in selected patients with stages I and II breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and radiation.
A R Sasson, B Fowble, A L Hanlon, M H Torosian, G Freedman, M Boraas, E R Sigurdson, J P Hoffman, B L Eisenberg, A Patchefsky
Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
BACKGROUND Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for the development of invasive breast carcinoma. However, little is known regarding the impact of LCIS in association with an invasive carcinoma on the risk of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in patients who are treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of LCIS on the local recurrence rate in patients with early stage breast carcinoma after breast-conserving therapy. METHODS Between 1979 and 1995, 1274 patients with Stage I or Stage II invasive breast carcinoma were treated with CS and RT. The median follow-up time was 6.3 years. RESULTS LCIS was present in 65 of 1274 patients (5%) in the study population. LCIS was more likely to be associated with an invasive lobular carcinoma (30 of 59 patients; 51%) than with invasive ductal carcinoma (26 of 1125 patients; 2%). Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) occurred in 57 of 1209 patients (5%) without LCIS compared with 10 of 65 patients (15%) with LCIS (P = 0.001). The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of IBTR was 6% in women without LCIS compared with 29% in women with LCIS (P = 0.0003). In both groups, the majority of recurrences were invasive. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of IBTR in patients who received tamoxifen was 8% when LCIS was present compared with 6% when LCIS was absent (P = 0.46). Subsets of patients in which the presence of LCIS was associated with an increased risk of breast recurrence included tumor size < 2 cm (T1), age < 50 years, invasive ductal carcinoma, negative lymph node status, and the absence of any adjuvant systemic treatment (chemotherapy or hormonal therapy)(P < 0.001). LCIS margin status, invasive lobular carcinoma histology, T2 tumor size, and positive axillary lymph nodes were not associated with an increased risk of breast recurrence in these women. CONCLUSIONS The authors conclude that the presence of LCIS significantly increases the risk of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in certain subsets of patients who are treated with breast-conserving therapy. The risk of local recurrence appears to be modified by the use of tamoxifen. Further studies are needed to address this issue.
Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.
BACKGROUND Microinvasive breast carcinoma (MIC) has a good prognosis but specific definitions have varied in the past, making the clinical significance of MIC a subject of debate. METHODS Microscopic slides of 59 cases of breast carcinoma originally diagnosed as MIC were reviewed retrospectively. Histologic parameters were correlated with clinical findings and outcome to define diagnostic criteria better. RESULTS On review, the 59 cases were recategorized as follows: pure DCIS (N = 16), DCIS with foci equivocal for microinvasion (N = 7), DCIS with > or =1 focus of microinvasion (N = 11), T1 invasive carcinomas with > or =90% DCIS (N = 18), and T1 tumors with <90% DCIS (N = 7). The MIC cases in the current study averaged 3 separate foci of early infiltration outside the basement membrane, each one not >1.0 mm. The mean follow-up was 95 months. Six patients (10%) had only local recurrence: 1 case each in patients with equivocal microinvasion, microinvasion, and T1 tumors with <90% DCIS and 3 cases among the patients with T1 tumors with > or = 90% DCIS. Four patients, all with T1 tumors with > or =90% DCIS, had distant failure (7%). In the MIC group, only one patient developed a local recurrence after breast conservation. No patient had axillary lymph node metastasis. For the entire series, factors associated with local recurrence were younger age, breast conservation versus mastectomy, and close surgical margins. The only factor associated with distant failure was the size of the DCIS component. Seven patients with T1 tumors with > or =90% DCIS experienced local or distant failure and 5 of these (71%) developed progressive disease or died of disease. All other patients who developed a recurrence were disease free at last follow-up. In a retrospective series, poorer outcome in carcinomas with > or =90% DCIS may be related to the greater likelihood of missed larger areas of invasive carcinoma. Therefore, meticulous and extensive sampling of these carcinomas is required. CONCLUSIONS MIC as defined has a good prognosis. It has a different biology than T1 invasive carcinoma with > or =90% DCIS, which may progress and cause death. Large tumors with multiple foci of microinvasion may have metastatic potential.
Low complication rates are achievable after post-mastectomy breast reconstruction and radiation therapy.
Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE Urethrography is commonly used to aid in definition of the prostate apex during CT simulation for prostate cancer. If the position of the prostate were altered by the urethrogram itself, then systematic error could be introduced into the patient's treatment. Sagittal MRI scans were acquired immediately before and after a localization urethrogram to determine the extent of displacement. METHODS AND MATERIALS Thirteen patients underwent sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI scans. Patients were scanned supine in an alpha cradle cast in the treatment position. The prostate was contoured by 3 different observers to determine the apex location on the central sagittal MRI section and the center of mass relative to an immobile bony landmark. Statistical multivariate analysis was performed to establish if there was a net displacement of the prostate (systematic error), and to determine the margin required to cover the random prostate position within a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS There was no significant systematic motion of either the prostate nor its apex in either the anterior-posterior or superior-inferior directions. The average motion of the prostate center of mass was 0.04 +/- 0.40 cm (1 SD) and 0.01 +/- 0.33 cm in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior direction, respectively. The corresponding figures for location of the apex were 0.05 +/- 0.30 cm and 0.01 +/- 0.33 cm, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that a margin of 2 mm is sufficient to cover any random motion of the prostate that could occur as a result of the urethrogram 95% of the time. CONCLUSION Urethrography during CT simulation for prostate cancer does not cause significant prostate displacement or systematic error in planning and delivering external-beam radiation.
Biological markers of risk in nipple aspirate fluid are associated with residual cancer and tumour size.
E R Sauter, H Ehya, J Babb, E Diamandis, M Daly, A Klein-Szanto, E Sigurdson, J Hoffman, J Malick, P F Engstrom
Division of Population Sciences, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
We previously demonstrated that nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) can be obtained from virtually all non-Asian women between the ages of 30 and 72. The focus of this report is to (1) determine the association of candidate markers of breast cancer risk in NAF obtained from fresh mastectomy specimens with residual breast carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the association of the markers with breast tumour progression. Nipple aspiration was performed on 97 specimens. Cytology, DNA index (including % hypertetraploid cells), cell cycle parameters (S phase fraction,% cells in G2/M), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), epidermal growth factor (EGF), testosterone, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS) were evaluated in NAF for their association with (1) residual ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive cancer, and (2) pathologic tumour size. NAF was obtained from 99%(96/97) of specimens. Atypical and malignant NAF cytology were significantly associated with residual DCIS or invasive cancer (P = 0.001) and with larger tumours (P = 0.004). One hundred per cent and 88% of subjects with malignant and atypical NAF cytology, respectively, had residual carcinoma. The percentage of cells in G2/M and DNA index were associated both with risk of residual carcinoma (P = 0.01 for each) and larger tumour size (DNA index, P = 0.03; G2/M, P = 0.05), although neither biomarker improved the ability of NAF cytology, to predict residual breast cancer. Higher DNA index was associated with atypical cytology (P = 0.0001). In summary, atypical and malignant NAF cytology are associated with larger tumour size, and are highly predictive of residual carcinoma after needle or excisional biopsy of the breast.
The presence of proliferative breast disease with atypia does not significantly influence outcome in early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the benign background breast-tissue change of atypical hyperplasia (AH) on outcome in patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and sixty women with Stage I--II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation from 1982-1994 had pathologic assessment of their background adjacent benign breast tissue. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.1-15). The median age was 55 years (range 24-88). Of these, 23% had positive axillary nodes; 25% received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF) with (9%) or without (17%) tamoxifen. Of the total, 24% received adjuvant tamoxifen alone. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 131 patients with atypical hyperplasia (ductal, 99 patients; lobular, 20 pts; and type not specified, 12 pts), and 329 patients with no proliferative changes or proliferative changes without atypia. RESULT: A statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for method of detection, primary tumor size, presence of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and type of adjuvant therapy. Patients with atypical hyperplasia (AH) had smaller primary tumors (T1 80% vs. 70%) more often detected solely by mammography (51% vs. 36%) with negative axillary nodes (87% vs. 73%) and radiation treatment to the breast only (93% vs. 78%). LCIS was observed in 9% of the patients with AH and 3% of those without AH. Patients with AH more often received tamoxifen alone (32% vs. 21%), rather than chemotherapy (15% vs. 29%). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups for race, age, menopausal status, family history, histology, histologic subtype DCIS when present, the presence or absence of an extensive intraductal component, final margin status, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, use of re-excision, or total radiation dose to the primary. The 5- and 10-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence rates were 2% and 12% for patients with AH and 4% and 8% for those without AH (p=0.44). Younger women or those with a positive family history of breast cancer with AH did not have an increased rate of breast failure when compared to similar patients without AH. There were no significant differences in the 5- and 10-year actuarial rates of distant metastases (AH 5- and 10-year 7% and 7%, no AH 5- and 10-year 8% and 16%,p=0.31), regional node recurrence (AH 1% and 1%, no AH 1% and 1%,p=0.71), contralateral breast cancer (AH 3% and 3%, no AH 3% and 8%,p=0.71), overall survival (AH 95% and 86%, no AH 95% and 89%, p=0.79), or cause-specific survival (AH 98% and 95%, no AH 96% and 91%,p=0.27). Subset analysis for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence, distant metastases, overall, and cause-specific survival for T1 vs. T2 tumors and path node-negative vs. path node-positive patients revealed no significant differences between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: AH was not associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence or contralateral breast cancer in this study of patients with invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation. Therefore, the presence of proliferative changes with atypia in background benign breast tissue should not be a contraindication to breast-conservation therapy.
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Curr Oncol. 2012 Aug ;19 (4):197-201 22876145
BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver, Vancouver, BC.
INTRODUCTION Large randomized trials assessing the benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab in early-stage breast cancer positive for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2) have demonstrated a significant improvement in survival. The objective of the present study was to describe the outcomes of women who received adjuvant trastuzumab for her2-positive breast cancer in British Columbia since publicly funded population-based use was initiated in July 2005. METHODS Women from British Columbia, newly diagnosed with stage i-iii breast cancer between July 2004 and December 2006, who were positive for her2 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (3+) or amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (ratio ≥ 2.0) were included in the study. Data were collected from the prospectively assembled BC Cancer Agency Outcomes Unit, with cases linked to the provincial pharmacy data repository to determine the proportion of women who received adjuvant trastuzumab. RESULTS Our retrospective study identified 703 her2-positive patients, of whom 480 (68%) received trastuzumab. In patients receiving trastuzumab, the 2-year relapse-free survival was 96.1%[95% confidence interval (CI): 93.6% to 97.7%] and the overall survival was 99.3%(95% CI: 97.9% to 99.8%). Among node-negative and -positive patients, the 2-year relapse-free survival was 97.8% and 94.8% respectively (p = 0.09) for the trastuzumab-treated group and 90.9% and 77.3%(p = 0.01) for the group not receiving trastuzumab (n = 223). Site of first distant metastasis was the central nervous system in 19.5% of the entire cohort and in 37.5% of patients treated with trastuzumab. DISCUSSION This population-based analysis of adjuvant trastuzumab use among Canadian women demonstrates highly favorable outcomes at the 2-year follow-up.
Does the intent to irradiate the internal mammary nodes impact survival in women with breast cancer? A Population-based analysis in british columbia.
Robert A Olson, Ryan Woods, Caroline Speers, Jeffrey Lau, Andrea Lo, Pauline T Truong, Scott Tyldesley, Ivo A Olivotto, Lorna Weir
BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC, Canada; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
PURPOSE To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82%(p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87%(p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83%(p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88%(p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92%(p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88%(p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.
Linn Woelber, Christine Eulenburg, Matthias Choschzick, Andreas Kruell, Cordula Petersen, Friederike Gieseking, Fritz Jaenicke, Sven Mahner
Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor for recurrence and survival in vulvar cancer. However, information regarding the impact of the number of positive nodes in vulvar cancer is inconsistent, and so are recommendations when to apply adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS One hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the vulva treated at our center were analyzed. All patients underwent primary surgery by triple incision resulting in complete tumor resection. RESULTS Median age was 61 years; 49 patients (31%) had lymph node metastases; 21 patients had 1, 13 had 2, and 15 had more than 2 positive lymph nodes. Thirty-two percent of the patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The risk of lymph node metastases increased with age, greater tumor size, deeper invasion, and higher tumor grade. Median follow-up was 36 months; 23 patients (14.6%) developed disease recurrence (61% vulva, 35% groins, and 4% both). Compared with node-negative patients, survival in all node-positive patients was significantly impaired (P < 0.001; disease-free patients after 2 years: 88% in node-negative patients; 60%, 43%, and 29% in patients with 1, 2, and >2 affected nodes, respectively), whereas no significant difference between the node-positive subgroups could be demonstrated regarding disease-free survival. In multivariate analysis, lymph node status remained the most important prognostic factor regarding disease-free survival, but the effect of positive nodes differed significantly dependent on adjuvant treatment (P = 0.001). In patients without adjuvant radiotherapy to the groins/pelvis, the number of metastatic nodes was highly relevant for prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.752; P < 0.001), whereas this effect disappeared in patients who were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.972; P = 0.828). CONCLUSIONS The negative impact of lymph node metastases is already evident in patients with only 1 affected lymph node. In patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, the negative effect of additional lymph node metastases is reduced; adjuvant treatment might therefore be beneficial in patients with only 1 positive node.
How Do the ASTRO Consensus Statement Guidelines for the Application of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Fit Intraoperative Radiotherapy? A Retrospective Analysis of Patients Treated at the European Institute of Oncology.
Maria Cristina Leonardi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Mauro Giuseppe Mastropasqua, Anna Morra, Roberta Lazzari, Nicole Rotmensz, Claudia Sangalli, Alberto Luini, Umberto Veronesi, Roberto Orecchia
Division of Radiation Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.
PURPOSE To verify how the classification according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) consensus statement (CS) for the application of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) fits patients treated with intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (ELIOT) at a single institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study included 1,822 patients treated with ELIOT as the sole radiation modality outside of a clinical trial at the European Institute of Oncology after breast-conserving surgery for invasive breast cancer, who were classified into CS groups of suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable. The outcome in terms of ipsilateral breast recurrence, regional node relapse, distant metastases, progression free-survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were assessed. RESULTS All the 1,822 cases except for 25 could be classified according to ASTRO CS: 294 patients met the criteria for inclusion into the suitable group, 691 patients into the cautionary group, and 812 patients into the unsuitable group. The 5-year rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence for suitable, cautionary, and unsuitable groups were 1.5%, 4.4%, and 8.8%, respectively (p = 0.0003). Whereas the regional node relapse showed no difference, the rate of distant metastases was significantly different in the unsuitable group compared with the suitable and cautionary groups, having a significant impact on survival. CONCLUSION In the context of patients treated with ELIOT, the ASTRO guidelines identify well the groups for whom APBI might be considered as an effective alternative to whole breast radiotherapy and also identify groups for whom APBI is not indicated.
Nicole L Simone, Tu Dan, Joanna Shih, Sharon L Smith, Linda Sciuto, Elena Lita, Marc E Lippman, Eli Glatstein, Sandra M Swain, David N Danforth, Kevin Camphausen
Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/NIH, Building 10-CRC, Room B2-3500, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Breast conservation therapy (BCT) consisting of lumpectomy and postoperative radiation has become an accepted alternative to mastectomy (MRM) for the treatment of early stage breast cancer. We currently report the 25 year outcomes of a single institution, prospective, randomized clinical trial at the National Cancer Institute. 237 women with pathologically confirmed invasive breast tumors 5 cm or less were accrued between 1979 and 1987 and randomized to receive either BCT or MRM. Overall survival was the primary endpoint. Patients with node positive disease were included and treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Both arms received axillary dissection. BCT patients had radiation to the whole breast followed by a boost. At a median follow-up of 25.7 years, overall survival was 43.8% for the MRM group and 37.9% for BCT (P = 0.38). Although the cumulative incidence of a disease-free survival event was higher in BCT patients (29.0% MRM vs. 56.4% BCT, P = 0.0017), the additional treatment failures were primarily isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR's) requiring salvage mastectomy. 22.3% of BCT patients experienced an IBTR. Distant disease and second cancers were similar in both arms. After 25 years, long term survival between BCT and MRM continues to be similar in patients treated for early stage breast cancer. Patients receiving BCT may be at risk for additional treatment-related morbidity, which may occur as a late event. Further studies are required to delineate patients at higher risk for these events, and prolonged follow up should be encouraged after treatment for all women.
Surgery in metastatic breast cancer: patients with a favorable profile seem to have the most benefit from surgery.
Z M Rashaan, E Bastiaannet, J E A Portielje, W van de Water, S van der Velde, M F Ernst, C J H van de Velde, G J Liefers
Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands.
INTRODUCTION About 3-10% of breast cancer patients have distant metastases (Stage IV) at initial presentation; standard treatment (in the Netherlands) of these patients consists of palliative systemic therapy. However, retrospective studies have shown an improved survival in patients who received surgery for their primary tumor. The aim of this study was to assess characteristics associated with surgical treatment and to determine the impact on survival in women with stage IV breast cancer. METHODS A cohort of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and concomitant distant metastases was retrospectively studied. Patient characteristics, treatment and survival distilled from medical files were evaluated using univariate and multivariable analysis. RESULTS Of 171 patients included in this analysis, 59 underwent surgery. In multivariable analysis lower age, no medication use, lower clinical T-stage and lower grade were associated with receiving surgery. In 21 of the 59 patients (35%) who received surgery it was unknown at the time of surgery that the patient had metastatic disease. Stratified survival analyses showed an association between surgery and improved survival for young patients (HR 0.3; p = 0.02), without comorbidity (HR 0.4; p = 0.002), with no medication use (HR 0.5; p = 0.009), with a small tumor (HR 0.4; p = 0.01), no regional lymph node involvement (HR 0.4; p = 0.01), with positive Estrogen (HR 0.6; p = 0.02) or Progesterone receptor (HR 0.4; p = 0.03) and with only visceral metastases (HR 0.5; p = 0.03). In multivariable analyses, younger patients and patients without comorbidity that received surgery had an increased survival (HR 0.3; p = 0.03 and HR 0.5; p = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSION This study showed that patients with the most favorable profile receive local surgery and that a survival gain for operated patients was seen in young patients and in patients without comorbidity.
Twelve-year clinical outcomes and patterns of failure with accelerated partial breast irradiation versus whole-breast irradiation: Results of a matched-pair analysis.
Chirag Shah, John Vito Antonucci, John Ben Wilkinson, Michelle Wallace, Mihai Ghilezan, Peter Chen, Kenneth Lewis, Christina Mitchell, Frank Vicini
Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, MI, USA.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare 12-year outcomes of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in patients treated with breast conservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A matched-pair analysis was performed using 199 patients receiving WBI and 199 patients receiving interstitial APBI. Match criteria included tumor size, age, nodal status, ER status, and the use of adjuvant hormonal therapy. Patterns of failure and efficacy of salvage treatments were examined. RESULTS: No differences were seen in the 12-year rates of local recurrence (3.8% vs. 5.0%, p=0.40), regional recurrence (0% vs. 1.1%, p=0.15), disease free survival (DFS)(87% vs. 91%, p=0.30), cause-specific survival (CSS)(93% vs. 95%, p=0.28), or overall survival (OS)(78% vs. 71%, p=0.06) between the WBI and APBI groups, respectively. The rate of distant metastases was lower in the APBI group (10.1% vs. 4.5%, p=.05). Following LR, no difference in outcome was seen between the two groups with 5year post-LR rates of DFS (80% vs. 86%, p=0.55), CSS (88% vs. 75%, p=0.77), and OS (88% vs. 75%, p=0.77), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With 12-year follow-up, APBI produced outcomes equivalent to WBI. Following LR, patients treated with APBI also had similar failure patterns to those managed with WBI.
Breast. 2011 Jun ;20 (3):278-83 21310616
Internal mammary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: predictive models to assist with prognostic influence.
Department of Surgical Oncology, Mater and Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney, Lindfield, NSW 2071, Sydney, Australia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Metastatic breast cancer in the internal mammary nodes (IMN) indicates a poor prognosis. Several recent epidemiological surveys have determined a reduction in survival for patients with medial compared to lateral sector tumors attributing this to a higher rate of unrecognized IMN metastasis and hence these patients are undertreated with adjuvant therapy.(1-6) AIM Through mathematical modeling based on large datasets we aim to quantify the impact on survival of IMN metastases at different tumor and axillary stages. METHODS Mathematical models were created to estimate the survival of patients with and without IMN metastasis. It was assumed that the different rate of survival between medial and lateral sector breast cancers was a result of the differential rate of unrecognized IMN metastases with resultant under-staging and under treatment. We applied these models on a retrospective database analysis from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) registries from 1994 to 2003. RESULTS The 10-year odds of death (OOD) from breast cancer for patients with medial compared with lateral sector tumors ranged from 1.2 to 1.5 depending on stage. The predicted odds of breast cancer death for patients with unrecognized IMN metastases ranged from 2.4 to 20, with the highest OOD in the groups with small tumors and no axillary node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS Through modeling we have been able to predict and quantify the significantly worse survival outcomes for patients with undiagnosed IMN metastasis.
Outcomes of Positron Emission Tomography-Staged Clinical N3 Breast Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Radiotherapy.
Hae Jin Park, Kyung Hwan Shin, Kwan Ho Cho, In Hae Park, Keun Seok Lee, Jungsil Ro, So-Youn Jung, Seeyoun Lee, Seok Won Kim, Han-Sung Kang, Eui Kyu Chie, Sung Whan Ha
Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcome and efficacy of regional lymph node irradiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) and surgery in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive clinical N3 (cN3) breast cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 55 patients with ipsilateral infraclavicular (ICL), internal mammary (IMN), or supraclavicular (SCL) lymph node involvement in the absence of distant metastases, as revealed by an initial PET scan, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical nodal stage at diagnosis (2002 AJCC) was cN3a in 14 patients (26%), cN3b in 12 patients (22%), and cN3c in 29 patients (53%). All patients were treated with NCT, followed by mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery and subsequent radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. RESULTS: At the median follow-up of 38 months (range, 9-80 months), 20 patients (36%) had developed treatment failures, including distant metastases either alone or combined with locoregional recurrences that included one ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), six regional failures (RF), and one case of combined IBR and RF. Only 3 patients (5.5%) exhibited treatment failure at the initial PET-positive clinical N3 lymph node. The 5-year locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 80%, 60%, and 79%, respectively. RT delivered to PET-positive IMN regions in cN3b patients and at higher doses (≥55 Gy) to SCL regions in cN3c patients was not associated with improved 5-year IMN/SCL relapse-free survival or DFS. CONCLUSION: NCT followed by surgery and RT, including the regional lymph nodes, resulted in excellent locoregional control for patients with PET-positive cN3 breast cancer. The primary treatment failure in this group was due to distant metastasis rather than RF. Neither higher-dose RT directed at PET-positive SCL nodes nor coverage of PET-positive IMN nodes was associated with additional gains in locoregional control or DFS.
Breast Cancer Res. 2010 ;12 (4):R47 20615243
Mammostrat as a tool to stratify breast cancer patients at risk of recurrence during endocrine therapy.
John M S Bartlett, Jeremy Thomas, Douglas T Ross, Robert S Seitz, Brian Z Ring, Rodney A Beck, Hans Christian Pedersen, Alison Munro, Ian H Kunkler, Fiona M Campbell, Wilma Jack, Gillian R Kerr, Laura Johnstone, David A Cameron, Udi Chetty
Endocrine Cancer Group, Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Edinburgh University, Carrington Crescent, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org