Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium.
A case of cervical chordoma in a 36-year-old white man with hypoesthesia in the neck and right shoulder, neck pain, and restricted neck mobility is presented. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed radiolucency of the body of C2 on the right side and enlargement of the right intervertebral foramen at C2-C3 level. Tumor encasement of the vertebral artery was demonstrated by MR imaging and confirmed by conventional arteriography. This proved to be particularly important for preoperative assessment.
Gwi Hyun Choi, Moon-Sool Yang, Do Heum Yoon, Hyun Chyul Shin, Keung Nyun Kim, Seong Yi, Dong Yeop Lee, Poong Gi Ahn, Yoon Ha
Department of Neurosurgery, Spine and Spinal Cord Institute, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Republic of Korea.
INTRODUCTION The majority of chordomas occur between the fifth and seventh decades of life and are thus extremely rare in children, which account for less than 5% of all spinal chordoma cases. CASE REPORT We report on the development of this rare condition in two boys aged 7 and 10 years. One patient presented with a palpable neck mass and dysphagia, while the other presented with posterior neck pain. Radiological studies revealed an extensive mass in the cervical vertebrae and paravertebral soft tissue of both patients. The tumors were subtotally removed in an attempt to improve the success of adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy. Pathological examination, which included immunohistochemical staining, revealed chordoma of the cervical spine in both patients. CONCLUSION Although en bloc resection is the ideal modality for treatment of chordoma, such a procedure is often associated with a significant risk of surgical morbidity due to the tumor location. Therefore, piecemeal resection followed by postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy, including proton radiotherapy or radiosurgery, should be considered in such cases.
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem, Belgium. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE To determine the MR features of non-sacral, non-clival chordoma and to describe a MR prototype of the lesion. DESIGN AND PATIENTS We reviewed the MR findings of 10 patients with a histologically proven chordoma (6 cervical spine, 1 thoracic spine, 3 lumbar spine). There were three female and seven male patients. Age ranged from 12 to 66 years with a mean age of 44.6 years. The MR images were reviewed for signal intensity (SI) and morphology. RESULTS All lesions showed a soft tissue extension spanning several vertebral segments. Most of the lesions exhibited a so-called collar button appearance (sagittal images). Two cases of cervical chordoma displayed a "dumbbell morphology"(axial images) or "mushroom" appearance without bone involvement and with enlargement of the neuroforamen mimicking a neurogenic tumor. Although the region of the nucleus pulposus is the last part of the fetal notochord in the adult to involute, disks were surprisingly spared in all patients. Eight of 10 patients showed heterogeneous SI on all sequences. The overall SI of all lesions was isointense or slightly higher than that of muscle on T1-weighted images. All lesions exhibited high SI on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium contrast administration there was a moderate enhancement in most cases. CONCLUSIONS Although the SI on MR imaging is not specific, chordoma should be considered when a destructive lesion of a vertebral body is associated with a soft tissue mass with a collar button or mushroom appearance and dumbbell morphology, spanning several vertebral segments and sparing the disk(s).
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Eur Radiol. 2001 ;11 (6):1076-8 11419157
Department of Radiology, University Hospital, 9000 Gent, Belgium.
A rare case of idiopathic midline destructive disease is presented, which is an entity of the so-called midline granuloma syndrome. Differentiation from other granulomas, especially from Wegener's granulomatosis, is important. This report shows the MR findings in a patient with atypical clinical presentation of histopathologically proven idiopathic midline destructive disease.
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gent, Belgium.
A malignant retroperitoneal schwannoma in a patient without von Recklinghausen's disease is reported. Ossification in the tumour, shown on CT and MRI in this previously untreated patient is exceptional. MRI demonstration of spinal leptomeningeal metastases supports the hypothesis of haematogenous metastatic spread of systemic malignant tumours to the leptomeningeal spaces.
Department of Radiology, Gent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium.
Hemangiopericytomas are uncommon vascular neoplasms with rare occurrence in the head and neck region. They originate from the pericytes, which are small, oval cells encircling capillaries. Hemangiopericytomas traditionally appear in the retroperitoneum and in the capillaries of the extremities. A case of hemangiopericytoma of the parotid gland is presented. The clinical, surgical, histologic, and radiologic features are described and discussed.
Transvenous embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior cranial fossa: preliminary results.
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital of Gent, Belgium.
We report two cases of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior cranial fossa, one causing subarachnoid hemorrhage and one detected accidentally. The first case was incompletely treated by neurosurgery, and the second one was referred for endovascular therapy. Both fistulas were successfully occluded by transvenous embolization by using electrolytically detachable coils.
Imaging of the normal pontine cisternal segment of the abducens nerve, using three-dimensional constructive interference in the steady state MRI.
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital Gent, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
Our objective was to determine the visibility of the cisternal segment of the normal abducens nerve using a three-dimensional Fourier-Transform constructive interference in the steady state (3DFT-CISS) sequence. Its visibility was rated in 150 patients without clinical evidence of abducens nerve disturbance. Axial 1-mm 3DFT-CISS images were obtained (TR/TE 17/7 ms, flip angle 50 degrees, field of view 160 mm, matrix 256 x 256). The cisternal segment was seen in 79% of cases, bilaterally in 73% and unilaterally in 11% of cases; neither cisternal segment was seen in 16% of cases. Identification of Dorello's canal was often of help in detecting the point lateral to the dorsum sellae at which the nerve pierces the dura mater. Flow artifacts and vascular loops in the pontine cistern sometimes caused problems in interpretation. 3DFT-CISS MRI with 1-mm-thick sections can however be considered a reasonably reliable technique for showing the cisternal segment of the abducens nerve.
Rupture of a cervical spinal cord arteriovenous malformation: a rare complication of endovascular embolization.
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital of Gent, Belgium.
Patients suffering from a cervical spinal cord arteriovenous malformation (SCAVM) run high risk of devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage and hematomyelia. Therefore, cervical SCAVMs represent a compelling indication for surgical or endovascular therapy. The authors report on an acute life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhage from a cervical SCAVM that ruptured during an embolization procedure. Causality and therapeutic management are discussed.
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gent, De Pintelaan 185, Gent B-9000, Belgium.
We report a rare case of a young girl with an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the right aryepiglottic fold. Local disease recurrence, occurring 7 years after subtotal resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, was studied with plain radiography, CT and MRI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report illustrating the MRI characteristics of a laryngeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a child.
Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss.
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gent, Belgium. email@example.com
We present a 50-year-old man who was investigated for sensorineural hearing loss. On MRI of the brain superficial siderosis of the central nervous system was seen, while MRI of the spine revealed an ependymoma of the cauda equina. This case illustrates the importance of performing T2-weighted imaging of the brain and posterior fossa when sensorineural hearing loss is present. Spine imaging is mandatory when superficial siderosis of the brain is diagnosed without identification of a bleeding source in the brain.
Department of Radiology, University Hospital Gent, Belgium.
The case of a 12-year-old Caucasian boy, living in a non-endemic area, with two intrapulmonary masses is presented. Conventional X-rays and computed tomography images were highly suggestive of pulmonary Echinococcus disease because of the presence of pericystic emphysema in one of both masses, a finding known as the "crescent" or "meniscus" sign. This radiological feature and other highly suggestive imaging findings of pulmonary hydatid disease are presented and discussed.
Traumatic dissection of the internal carotid artery as unusual cause of hypoglossal nerve dysfunction.
Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
A dissection of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in a 50-year-old man with hypoglossal nerve dysfunction is reported. This case illustrates how non-invasive imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography, can demonstrate this unusual etiology.
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Associate Professor, Division of Clinics, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA 52803.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who regularly practiced self-manipulation of her neck who presented with shoulder and neck pain and was undergoing a vertebral artery dissection. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 42-year-old female patient sought care for left shoulder pain with a secondary complaint of left lower neck pain. Twelve days prior, she had had "the worst headache of her life," which began in her left lower cervical spine and extended to her left temporal region. The pain was sudden and severe, was described as sharp and burning, and lasted 3 hours. She reported nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: Initial history and examination suggested that the patient's head and neck pain was not musculoskeletal in origin, but vascular. She repeatedly requested that an adjustment be performed, but instead was referred to the local emergency department for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance angiogram revealed a dissection of the left vertebral artery from C6 to the C2-C3 interspace and a 3-mm dissecting pseudoaneurysm at the C3 level. She underwent stent-assisted percutaneous transluminal angioplasty combined with antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel) and experienced a good outcome. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that careful history taking and awareness of the symptoms of VAD are necessary in cases of sudden head and neck pain. More research is needed on the relationship between vertebral artery dissection and self-manipulation of the neck.
Cervical radiculopathy caused by vertebral artery loop formation : a case report and review of the literature.
Department of Neurosurgery, Busan Wooridul Spine Hospital, Busan, Korea.
Vertebral artery loop formation causing encroachment on cervical neural foramen and canal is a rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. We report a case of 61-year-old woman with vertebral artery loop formation who presented with right shoulder pain radiating to her arm for 2 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed widening of the right intervertebral foramen at the C5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiogram confirmed the vertebral artery loop formation compressing the right C6 nerve root. We had considered microdecompressive surgery, but the patient's symptoms resolved after conservative management. Clinician should keep in mind that vertebral artery loop formation is one of important causes of cervical radiculopathy. Vertebral artery should be visualized using magnetic resonance angiography in suspected case.
Acta Cardiol. 2010 Feb ;65 (1):85-7 20306896
Department of Radiology, En Chu Kong Hospital, Taiwan.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the heart is rare. We present a case of a 38-year-old woman with histologically confirmed MFHs in the left atrium, liver and bone. The patient presented with shortness of breath and right shoulder pain. A plain radiograph showed an osteolytic lesion at the neck of the humerus on the right side. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a lobulated tumour occupying the cardiac left atrium and a large heterogeneously enhancing mass in the liver and osteolytic metastasis in the thoracic spine. The patient underwent complete resection of the cardiac tumour, and histology showed a high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma--an MFH. Biopsy of the lesions on the right shoulder and in the liver also showed the same histologic diagnosis.
Radiographic assessment of sternal notch level and its significance in approaching the upper thoracic spine.
Trauma and Orthopaedics, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
In this retrospective study, we used anteroposterior plain radiographs of the neck to analyze sternal notch level in relation to the upper thoracic spine and to assess the usefulness of this relation in deciding how to approach the upper thoracic spine. We reviewed 53 patients' anteroposterior plain radiographs of the cervicothoracic spine and thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. On the plain radiographs, we drew a horizontal line joining the lower-fifth edge of the medial end of the 2 clavicles; on the midsagittal thoracic MRI scans, we drew a tangential line to the sternal notch. Then we noted the vertebral level of the 2 lines. In all cases, the horizontal line on the plain radiographs and the tangential line on the MRI scans corresponded to each other without discrepancy. We evaluated this method in a patient with a fractured T3 vertebral body, in whom a satisfactory procedure was performed using low anterior cervical spine approach. As the level of sternal notch is found to be present below the level of T2 and T3 radiologically in most cases, a low cervical approach can be contemplated in most patients with upper thoracic spine pathology depending on their sternal level as determined by preoperative radiographs. MRI scans are not needed to decide the approach, as it can be assessed with plain radiographs alone, as shown in this study.
Solitary fibrous tumor in the cervical spine with destructive vertebral involvement: a case report and review of the literature.
Koji Hashimoto, Kei Miyamoto, Hideo Hosoe, Gou Kawai, Kenta Kikuike, Kuniyasu Shimokawa, Naoki Suzuki, Masayuki Matsuo, Hirotaka Kodama, Katsuji Shimizu
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu City, Gifu, Japan. email@example.com
INTRODUCTION Recently, solitary fibrous tumors occurring in spine-related lesions have been reported. However, the destruction of vertebral bodies by this type of tumor has not been reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 71-year-old female presented with pain from a mass on the right side of her neck. Plain radiographs of the cervical spine showed collapse of the C5 vertebral body and dislocation of the C4 vertebral body. The MRI image showed a large mass surrounding C4 and C5, which had low signal intensity in the T1W image and high signal intensity in the T2W image. At first, resection of the tumor and spinal fusion was performed by anterior approach. RESULTS Histology revealed a solitary fibrous tumor with proliferating spindle cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive stains for vimentin and CD34. One year postoperatively, a local recurrence manifested extensive destruction of the C4 and C5 vertebral bodies. Then, palliative surgery with posterior cervical instrumentation and radiation therapy were performed. Because the destruction proceeded and the rods were broken 2 years after, she underwent additional occipito-cervical instrumentation. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of a solitary fibrous tumor that involves the destruction of the spinal structure. An extensive destruction of the vertebral body by the solitary fibrous tumor needs to be aware in treating this tumor with spinal involvement.
Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.
A 78-year-old man with a history of melanoma presented with a 2-week history of diplopia, pain, and intermittent blurriness in his right eye. Imaging showed a multicystic mass within the right lateral rectus muscle that was biopsy-proven metastatic melanoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of orbital metastasis from melanoma presenting as a multicystic mass intrinsic to the extraocular muscle with layering fluid-fluid levels.
Traumatic C6-7 subluxation with anomalous course of vertebral arteries treated with pedicle screw/rod fixation. Case report.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The authors report the case of a 62-year-old woman who suffered an accidental fall and complained of severe neck pain and right C-7 radiculopathy. A right C6-7 facet fracture-subluxation was diagnosed. Bone fragments impinged on the right C-7 nerve root at the neural foramen. The bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs) ascended at the anterior aspect of C-6 and C-5 and entered the transverse foramen at the C-4 level. Based on findings of anomalous VAs, the authors applied a pedicle screw (PS)/rod system to effect surgical correction of the deformity. Intraoperatively, they successfully performed reduction of the subluxation, decompression of the impinged nerve root, and minimum single-segment fusion involving the placement of a PS/rod system. After surgery, the patient's neurological deficit dramatically improved and spinal fusion was completed without any loss of deformity correction. Prior to surgery for cervical injuries, the possible presence of an abnormal VA course should be considered. Preoperative detection of anomalous VAs will affect decisions on the appropriate corrective surgery option in cases of cervical spine injuries.
Mod Rheumatol. 2004 ;14 (2):160-3 17143667
Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan. email@example.com
We describe a 43-year-old woman with grade 1 chondrosarcoma of the cervical spine who developed neuropathic arthropathy. Plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed a so-called dumbbell tumor. We suggest that this tumor was responsible for the development of neuropathic arthropathy in bilateral hip joints, the left shoulder joint, and the left first metacarpophalangeal joint. This is the first reported case of neuropathic arthropathy secondary to chondrosarcoma of the cervical spine.
Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
The case of a 30-year-old woman with multiple loose bodies in the shoulder joint is presented. The patient complained of discomfort of her right shoulder. Conventional radiographs failed to reveal any abnormality of the shoulder. On MRI numerous loose bodies were detected that resembled synovial chondromatosis. Histologically, the loose bodies were composed of a benign fibroblastic lesion with diagnostic features of fibroma of tendon sheath, each surfaced by synoviocytes. The clinicopathologic features of intra-articular fibroma of tendon sheath are reviewed. We propose using the term "synovial fibroma" for tumors with histopathologic features of fibroma of tendon sheath arising in the synovium of joints.
Department of Neurosurgery, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata-city, Japan.
We report a rare case of giant cell tumor in the atlas. A 50-year-old female presented with severe pain in her right neck and shoulder. The preoperative magnetic resonance images showed a tumor mixed with solid and cystic components in the right side of the atlas. CT scan showed that the anterior and posterior arches of the atlas were destroyed. Preoperative biopsy led to the pathological diagnosis of giant cell tumor with multinuclear giant cells and mononuclear stromal cells. A preoperative vertebral angiogram demonstrated tumor stain supplied from the muscular branches. To reduce intraoperative bleeding, the embolization of the right vertebral artery by GDC was performed before surgical removal. The tumor was subtotally removed following ligation of the right external carotid artery to reduce bleeding of tumor. We used the Olerud cervical system to prevent cervical instability after resection of the tumor. Although the symptoms disappeared completely after surgery, regrowth of tumor was observed in follow-up MRI 4 months after the operation. For this reason, local radiation therapy was performed (50 Gy). Then, the size of the tumor has not changed in the 1.5 years since the operation.