Examining multicultural counseling competence and race-related attitudes among white marital and family therapists.
Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, Box 92, New York, NY 10027, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigates the relative contributions of social desirability attitudes, previous number of multicultural counseling courses taken, and racism and White racial identity attitudes together in predicting marital and family therapists' self-reported multicultural counseling competence. Results revealed that, when controlling for social desirability attitudes and the number of multicultural courses taken, racism and White racial identity attitudes in consort accounted for a significant amount of the variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence. Implications for marital and family therapy training, practice, and research are discussed.
Northcentral University, USA. email@example.com
Approximately 60% of accredited MFT master's programs now offer a single course devoted to diversity and oppression, which is noteworthy given that this is not mandated by accreditation standards. For educators and trainers seeking guidance on how to most effectively teach diversity issues and train therapists who will be culturally competent, the MFT literature does an excellent job of providing support for enhancing cultural awareness, for example, cognizance of, insight into, and knowledge about diversity issues. However, far less attention is focused on assisting educators in how to enhance cultural sensitivity, for example, attunement to, emotional resonance with, and meaningful responsiveness to the needs and feelings of others. This article presents a model for how to teach about issues of diversity in ways that promote both cultural awareness and sensitivity but with emphasis on enhancing sensitivity through the use of a series of experiential tasks.
Creating community: offering a liberation pedagogical model to facilitate diversity conversations in MFT graduate classrooms.
Debra Harris Nixon, Debra Marcelle-Coney, Maru Torres-Greggory, Edith Huntley, Carlyn Jacques, Maud Pasquet, Regina Ravachi
Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Creating a safe place for open classroom engagement on topics of multiculturalism and diversity requires intentionality and honesty. Unless all, professor and students alike, feel safe talking about related issues, the attempt will result in a politically correct exercise in futility. This article focuses on how intentional pedagogical efforts can create a classroom environment conducive to therapeutic self-reflection and result in personal and professional transformation. Offerings include personal reflections, theoretical and pedagogical ideologies and practices, a classroom paradigm as exemplar, critical redefinitions, a survey of other pedagogical endeavors, a template for multicultural instruction, and recommendations.
African American therapists working with African American families: an exploration of the strengths perspective in treatment.
School of Social Work, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Arkansas 72214, USA. email@example.com
With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.
Loudoun County, VA CSB. firstname.lastname@example.org
The number of people accessing the Internet for sexual purposes (cybersex) has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. However, little research has been conducted to determine how frequently clients present for treatment with cybersex-related issues. One hundred sixty-four clinical members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy participated in the current study, which was conducted to identify the impacts of cybersex on MFTs' practices. Most respondents report seeing clients with cybersex-related issues, with client numbers increasing over the past 2 years. Although most respondents felt prepared to diagnose and treat adults with cybersex problems, half felt unprepared to diagnose and treat children. Lastly, most respondents reported that their required college courses were not helpful in preparing them to diagnose and treat cybersex-related problems. The implications of study findings are discussed.
University of Louisiana at Monroe, USA. email@example.com
This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From two first-person perspectives, the authors illustrate the processes that facilitated the student's change, addressing the class activities, discussions, and pivotal moments of teaching and learning that promoted the student's cultural competency and helped her to resolve this personal and ethical dilemma. A set of classroom techniques (creating a safe environment, using a stance of curiosity, finding alternative learning formats, extrapolating ideas from multiple sources, and capitalizing on students' experiences outside of class) used in the case are detailed throughout the article.
Student-faculty perceptions of multicultural training in accredited marriage and family therapy programs in relation to students' self-reported competence.
Department of Education and Human Services, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although the marriage and family therapy field's recent attention to multicultural issues is laudable, there appears to be little clarity on what constitutes an effective multicultural training program and the impact of the effects of such training on trainee multicultural competence. The field continues to be challenged at different levels-training, practice, research, the setting of the standards and the work of the Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education, and the goals and strategic plan of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Board. This study focused on assessing the extent of multicultural integration at different levels of training and the relationship between such training and students' perception of their own multicultural competence.
Talking about race using critical race theory: recent trends in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
Behavioral Medicine Clinic and Counseling Associates, 1812 Sumner Ave, Aberdeen, Washington 98520, USA. email@example.com
This study uses critical race theory as an interpretive lens to critique recent race related articles in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (JMFT). Our primary goal is to contribute to and inspire dialogue about the perspectives marriage and family therapists (MFTs) are taking in relationship to race. We situate our exploration within the broader context of continuing professional education. We describe the main themes of critical race theory and use them as the conceptual framework. Analyzing 127 articles, we found that only topics related to couples and divorce occurred more frequently than race and social justice. Within the articles on race, evidence suggests that issues of race and racism are emerging as key informants of MFT practice. We point to areas for consideration in future MFT research and practice.
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QJM. 2012 Nov 5;: 23132952
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA. email@example.com
N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, an advanced glycation end product, is present in the human lens. The effects of CML formation on protein conformation and stability were studied using the recombinant gammaC-crystallin as a model. Conformational change was studied by spectroscopic measurements such as fluorescence and circular dichroism. Conformational stability was determined by unfolding with heat. The results indicated that no conformational change was observed due to CML formation, but conformational stability decreased. These observations can be explained in terms of the relatively stable structure of gamma-crystallin, especially when compared with other crystallins. The lens nucleus is rich in gamma-crystallin and its stable conformation can assist gamma-crystallin sustained insults and remain soluble.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
PURPOSE To compare the spectroscopic and unfolding properties of human lens [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin with those of [alpha]A-crystallin. METHODS Human lens [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin were cloned and measured spectroscopically. The unfolding curves in response to guanidine HCl (GdnHCl) and heat were also obtained by measuring Trp fluorescence emission intensity or emission maximum wavelength with increasing perturbation. RESULTS Very similar spectroscopic and unfolding properties were seen with [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin, but both demonstrated great differences compared with [alpha]A-crystallin. Unlike [alpha]A-crystallin,[beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin showed very little binding to Bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthalene-5,5'-disulfonic acid), a hydrophobic fluorescence probe. Both [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin were more resistant than [alpha]A-crystallin to GdnHCl-induced unfolding, but [alpha]A-crystallin was more resistant than [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin to heat induced unfolding. CONCLUSIONS It was observed that [beta]B2- and [gamma]C-crystallin showed more similar spectroscopic and unfolding properties with each other than each of them showed with [alpha]A-crystallin.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Disulfide cross-linking, one of the results of oxidative stress, has been thought to play an important role in cataractogenesis. High molecular mass (HMM) protein aggregation also contributes to cataract development, and a prevailing speculation is that disulfide cross-linking induces HMM aggregation. However, there is no direct evidence to support this speculation. Dimerization is an effect of disulfide cross-linking but cannot explain the size of HMM aggregates observed in the lens. alphaA-crystallin has two cysteine residues (Cys131 and Cys142) and we have prepared three Cys-deficient mutants, two single mutants (C131I and C142I) and one double mutant (C131I/C142I). They were subjected to H202 oxidation in an ascorbate-FeCl(3)-EDTA-H202 system. The effects of oxidation on the mutants, including changes in aggregate size and conformation, were compared with those of the wild-type alphaA-crystallin by FPLC gel filtration, absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements. The results indicated that other amino acid residues besides Cys, such as Trp and Tyr, were also oxidized by H202. Disulfide dimerization alone seems to play a less important role in HMM aggregation than does the secondary conformational change resulting from the combined effect of the oxidation of Trp and Tyr as well as Cys.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
In Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid peptides (betaA(1-40) and betaA(1-42)) are deposited on the brain cell surfaces as neurotoxic plaques. Some reports indicate that small heat shock proteins, Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin, colocalize in the plaques, but their functions are not known. Interaction between betaA and alphaB-crystallin must be determined in order to understand the role of alphaB-crystallin in betaA fibril formation. We used a pyrene (Pyr)-labeled betaA(1-40) in a fluorescence energy transfer experiment. Upon incubation together at 37 degrees C, energy transfer between Trp of alphaB-crystallin and Pyr of Pyr-labeled betaA was observed, indicating that betaA participated in subunit exchange of alphaB-crystallin, which promoted fibril formation.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. email@example.com
Alpha-crystallin high-molecular-weight (HMW) aggregates can be formed in vitro by many mechanisms, but the mechanism of in vivo aggregation has not been clearly established. HMW and LMW (low-molecular-weight) alpha-crystallins were isolated from human lenses 50-60 years of age and some spectroscopic measurements were performed. Conformational differences were suggested based on data of increased bis-ANS (4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthalene-5, 5'-disulfonic acid) and ThT (thioflavin T) fluorescence as well as increased far-UV and decreased near-UV circular dichroism (CD). These results indicated that HMW alpha-crystallin was more hydrophobic than LMW alpha-crystallin, possibly resulting from partial unfolding of alpha-crystallin. On the other hand, the increased ThT fluorescence and far-UV CD intensities indicate that an increased amount of beta-sheet conformation was involved in aggregation. These data, along with little difference in chaperone-like activity between the LMW and HMW alpha-crystallins, strongly suggest that HMW alpha-crystallin aggregates resulted from partial unfolding and disassembling-reassembling of LMW alpha-crystallin caused by posttranslational modification rather than chaperone complex formation.
RGS7 complex formation and colocalization with the Gbeta5 subunit in the adult rat brain and influence on Gbeta5gamma2-mediated PLCbeta signaling.
Neuroscience Department, Wyeth-Ayerst Research, Princeton, NJ 08543-8000, USA.
This study describes the colocalized distribution and dimeric complex formation between RGS7, a GTPase-activating protein for several heterotrimeric Galpha protein families, and the Gbeta5 subunit in the adult rat brain. Confocal dual immunofluorescence labeling studies indicated a broad regional specificity in the cellular coexpression between RGS7 and Gbeta5 within the cerebral cortical layers I and V-VI, hippocampal formation, caudate-putamen, medial habenula, most thalamic nuclei, and cerebellar molecular and granular layers. In all instances, Gbeta1-beta4 immunoreactivities exhibited no observable colocalization with RGS7, despite their widespread codistribution throughout similar neuronal networks. Coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed the selective protein-protein interaction between RGS7 and Gbeta5 within brain regions that displayed immunohistochemical colocalization. The influence of RGS7 to modulate Gbeta5gamma2-mediated phosphatidyl inositol (PI) production was examined in COS-7-cotransfected cells. In the presence of Gbeta5gamma2 only, intracellular PI accumulation was increased by 25% above basal levels; addition of RGS7 produced no significant alteration in Gbeta5gamma2-mediated PI accumulation. A similar trend was exhibited when full-length RGS7 was substituted with an RGS7 construct lacking the Gbeta5-interacting region (G protein gamma-like domain; GGL domain) or with RGS4. In conclusion, RGS7/Gbeta5 dimers occurred within most brain regions in which both proteins were cellularly coexpressed. However, an influence of RGS7 on Gbeta5gamma2-mediated PLCbeta signaling activity was not apparent, athough this was in COS-7 cell transfection studies.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE To determine which component of lens alpha-crystallin is responsible for heat-induced transition, conformational change and high molecular weight (HMW) aggregation. METHODS Recombinant alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins were used. Temperature dependent changes were probed by Trp fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. HMW aggregates were induced by heating at 62 degrees C for 1-2 h and then cooling to room temperature. The nature of HMW aggregation was studied with fluorescent probes, 4,4'-dianilino-1, 1'-binaphthalene-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) and thioflavin T (ThT). RESULTS CD and Trp fluorescence revealed that alphaB-crystallin was more susceptible than alphaA-crystallin to heat-induced conformational change and aggregation. At temperatures greater than 70 degrees C, alphaB-crystallin precipitated but alphaA-crystallin remained soluble. Both bis-ANS and ThT probes displayed increased fluorescence intensity with HMW aggregation, but the increase for bis-ANS was greater with alphaB-crystallin than with alphaA-crystallin, while the reverse was true for ThT. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that alphaB-crystallin is more susceptible than alphaA-crystallin to heat-induced conformational change and aggregation and are consistent with the notion that alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins have different biochemical and biophysical properties in spite of their high degree of homology.
Spectral contribution of the individual tryptophan of alphaB-crystallin: a study by site-directed mutagenesis.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. email@example.com
There are two tryptophan residues in the lens alphaB-crystallin, Trp9 and Trp60. We prepared two Trp --> Phe substituted mutants, W9F and W60F, for use in a spectroscopic study. The two tryptophan residues contribute to Trp fluorescence and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV CD) differently. The major difference in the near-UV CD is the contribution of 1La of Trp: it is positive in W60F but becomes negative in W9F. Further analysis of the near-UV CD shows an increased intensity in the region of 270-280 nm for W60F, suggesting that the Tyr48 is affected by the W60F mutation. It appears that Trp60 is located in a more rigid environment than Trp9, which agrees with a recent structural model in which Trp60 is in a beta-strand.
Center for Ophthalmic Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Lens alpha-crystallin is a 600-800-kDa heterogeneous oligomer protein consisting of two subunits, alphaA and alphaB. The homogeneous oligomers (alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins) have been prepared by recombinant DNA technology and shown to differ in the following biophysical/biochemical properties: hydrophobicity, chaperone-like activity, subunit exchange rate, and thermal stability. In this study, we studied their thermodynamic stability by unfolding in guanidine hydrochloride. The unfolding was probed by three spectroscopic parameters: absorbance at 235 nm, Trp fluorescence intensity at 320 nm, and far-UV circular dichroism at 223 nm. Global analysis indicated that a three-state model better describes the unfolding behavior than a two-state model, an indication that there are stable intermediates for both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins. In terms of standard free energy (DeltaG(NU)(H(2)(O))), alphaA-crystallin is slightly more stable than alphaB-crystallin. The significance of the intermediates may be related to the functioning of alpha-crystallins as chaperone-like molecules.
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Child Welfare. 2009 ;88 (3):85-102 20084819
Colorado State University, School of Social Work, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1586, USA.
Child neglect represents one of the most complex social problems in the field of child welfare. This study uses a comparative research design to analyze the out-of-home placement outcomes for children removed for neglect compared to children removed for abuse. According to the findings, children removed for neglect experienced more days in out-of-home care and were less likely to reunify than were children removed for abuse. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of racial socialization and racial identity on adjustment in Black college students. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 141 Black college students from a predominantly White university and racially diverse college. The findings suggest that racial socialization positively contributes to academic adjustment. An internalized-multicultural identity positively contributed to overall college adjustment, and pre-encounter miseducated racial identity negatively contributed. Internalized Afrocentric racial identity was negatively related to overall college adjustment. Implications for multicultural social scientists and directions for future research are discussed.
Fam Process. 2007 Jun ;46 (2):173-84 17593883
Professor, Department of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA. email@example.com
After reviewing Engel's bio-psycho-social proposal and Kandel's "principles for an integration between mind and brain," the author introduces a set of akin propositions that aim at integrating neurosciences, genetics, the mind, and the social world into a succinct set of systemic formulations focusing on interlevel interfaces, with profound implications for the training, practice, and research in the field of family processes and therapy.
Institute for Grief, Loss and Family Survival at The School of Social Work, The University og Texas at Austin,, Austin, TX, 78712, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pediatric oncology social workers are often engaged in the psychosocial care of dying children and their families. Despite their participation on the interdisciplinary team, the role for social work in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care has not been clearly defined. This survey of 131 pediatric oncology social workers identified current and best social work practices for care of children and their families at the end of life. Implications for practice, education, and research are discussed.
Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research, School of Psychology, Victoria University Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. email@example.com
Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.
School of Social Work, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Hospice social workers make distinct contributions to the care of terminally ill persons and their loved ones. This study contributes to social work's professional knowledge base by examining methods by which hospice social workers are evaluated by their supervisors as well as their clients. This article reports on a survey of 109 hospices' evaluative methods for social workers. Implications for patient care and hospice operations are discussed.
Department of Medical, Clinical, and Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. email@example.com
Correlations between scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and a number of relevant personality characteristics, i.e., intelligence, memory, social inadequacy, social desirability, and fantasy proneness, were examined in a sample of 71 delinquent boys. Analysis showed that intelligence and memory were negatively related to suggestibility scores. That is, lower memory and intelligence were associated with higher suggestibility. No significant correlations were found between suggestibility and other personality characteristics.
Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-1104, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To clarify the contribution of subjective norm to exercise intention and behavior by considering the influence of descriptive as well as injunctive social norms related to family and friends. METHODS A sample of 530 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed descriptive and injunctive social norms related to family and to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. RESULTS Friend descriptive social norm was a significant predictor of both intention (p<.05) and leisure-time exercise (p<.001). CONCLUSION Descriptive norms should be incorporated into tests of the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain.
Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educacão, Universidade do Porto, rua do Campo Alegre, 1055, P-4150 Porto, Portugal. email@example.com
The Oxford Happiness Inventory and a battery of personality measures were completed by 171 subjects. The results showed predicted positive correlations for happiness with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and sociability and negative correlations of happiness with embarrassability, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety. Four predictors (satisfaction with life, shyness, loneliness, and sociability) accounted for 58% of the variance in happiness scores. These results support previous research as well as validate the Portuguese version of the happiness inventory.
Department of Counseling Psychology and Special Education, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
Using measures of child and family functioning, this study evaluated levels of parenting stress in 880 families of children with disabilities. Results suggest that factors such as income, time available for interaction with the child, and social support predict parenting stress much better than do aspects of child functioning. Implications for intervention and for future research are discussed.