Department of Optometry and Neuroscience, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK. email@example.com
The test charts included in the Polatest, designed by H.-J. Haase and manufactured by Zeiss, are used in Germany, Switzerland and Scandinavia for prism correction of 'associated phoria.' From clinical experience with the Polatest Haase developed a motor and sensory theory of the different stages of decompensation of 'associated phoria ' and a strategy for its prismatic correction - the MKH (Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase). The theory challenges many accepted ideas about the plasticity of the visual system and the use of prisms in the treatment of sensory abnormalities. This article, the first full description in English, describes and critically discusses the MKH.
BMC Ophthalmol. 2010 ;10 :16 20500851
A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age children with reading and writing difficulties.
Vision Science Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, UK.
Department of Physics (Optometry), School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in accommodation and binocular vision parameters during a period of 3 years and to evaluate their potential influence on the refractive changes observed over the same period of time in a population of university students in Portugal. METHODS: A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted comprising 118 young adults (34 males and 84 females; mean age: 20.6 +/- 2.3 years). Examinations consisted of subjective refraction, dissociated phoria and vergences at distance and near vision, accommodative convergence/accommodative ratio, lag of accommodation, and the negative and positive relative accommodation. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the first (2002) and the second examination (2005) relative to distance and near phoria, and break and recovery points for the base-in and base-out at distance vision. Statistically significant differences were also obtained for the blur and break points for the base-out, and for break and recovery points for the base-in at near vision. As regards accommodation parameters, we verified a statistically significant difference for all parameters measured. Comparing the baseline values of patients who suffered a myopic shift > or =0.50 D with those from patients who did not experience such a shift, we observed a statistically significant difference for the break value of the base-in at distance vision (equal to 12.2 +/- 3.6 for the group without refractive error alteration and 15.8 +/- 6.8 for the other group) and for the break value of the base-in at near vision (equal to 22.4 +/- 5.2 and 24.8 +/- 5.5 for the group without refractive error alteration and for the other group, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant changes in near heterophoria, fusional vergences, and positive relative accommodation. The break values of the base-in fusional vergence account as significant predictors of myopic shift in young adults.
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The influence of heterophoria measurements on subsequent associated phoria measurement in a refractive routine.
Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, UK.
The influence of measuring heterophoria on a subsequent associated phoria measurement was investigated in 50 subjects. After refraction, heterophoria was measured by either von Graefe's technique or Maddox rod and wing. The effect of these procedures was assessed by associated phoria measurements taken before and after the dissociated measures. It is shown that subjects with a history of unstable binocular vision are likely to have an associate phoria induced or changed by the previous dissociated phoria measurement, particularly if von Graefe's technique is employed. It is recommended that, especially for near, associated phoria should be assessed before the dissociated phoria in subjects who are regarded as having a history of unstable binocular vision.
J Anim Sci. 2012 Jul 10;: 22785163
Performance by Spring and Fall-Calving Cows Grazing with Full, Limited, or No Access to Toxic Neotyphodium Coenophialum-Infected Tall Fescue.
J D Caldwell, K P Coffey, J A Jennings, D Philipp, A N Young, J D Tucker, D S Hubbell 3rd, T Hess, M L Looper, C P West, M C Savin, M P Popp, D L Kreider, D M Hallford, C F Rosenkrans Jr
Present address: Dept. of Agriculture, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO 65101.
Replacing toxic, wild-type Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) with non-toxic, N. coenophialum- infected tall fescue (NE+) has improved cow performance, but producer acceptance of NE+ has been slow. The objective was to compare performance by spring (S) and fall-calving (F) cows grazing either E+ or NE+ at different percentages of the total pasture area. Gelbvieh × Angus crossbred cows (n = 178) were stratified by BW and age within calving season and allocated randomly to 1 of 14 groups representing 5 treatments for a 3-yr study: 1) F on 100% E+(F100); 2) S on 100% E+(S100); 3) F on 75% E+ and 25% NE+(F75); 4) S on 75% E+ and 25% NE+(S75); and 5) S on 100% NE+(SNE100). Groups allocated to F75 and S75 grazed E+ until approximately 28 d prior to breeding and weaning, then were then moved to their respective NE+ pasture area for 4 to 6 wk; those allocated to F100, S100 and SNE100 grazed their pastures throughout the entire year. Samples of tall fescue were gathered from specific cells within each pasture at the time cows were moved into that particular cell (approx. 1 sample/mo). Blood samples were collected from the cows at the start and end of the breeding season. Stocking rate for each treatment was 1 cow/ha. Forage IVDMD, CP, and total ergot alkaloid concentrations were affected (P < 0.05) by the treatment × sampling date interaction. Hay offered, cow BW and BCS at breeding, end of breeding, and at weaning were greater (P < 0.05) from F vs. S. Cow BW at weaning was greater (P < 0.05) from F75 and S75 vs. F100 and S100. The calving season × NE+% interaction affected (P < 0.05) calving rates. Preweaning calf gain, actual and adjusted weaning BW, ADG, sale price, and calf value at weaning were greater (P < 0.05) from F vs. S and from SNE100 vs. S75 except for sale price which was greater (P < 0.05) from S75 vs. SNE100. Cow concentrations of serum prolactin at breeding and serum NEFA a the end of breeding were affected (P < 0.05) by the calving season × NE+% interaction. Serum Zn and Cu concentrations from both cows and calves were affected (P < 0.05) by calving season. A fall-calving season may be more desirable for cows grazing E+, resulting in greater calving rates, cow performance, and calf BW at weaning, whereas limited access to NE+ may increase calving rates, serum prolactin and NEFA concentrations during certain times in the production cycle, particularly in spring-calving cows.
Unit of Optometry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Fitting a prism-ballasted soft toric contact lens unilaterally may potentially induce a vergence error that the subject cannot compensate. In the present study, a prism-ballasted (1.5Delta base down) soft toric contact lens was fitted in the right eye only of 10 subjects with normal binocular vision. The effect on binocular vision was evaluated by measuring vertical phoria adaptation and vertical fixation disparity adaptation. The results show that the vertical vergence error induced was well compensated and fully adapted to. However, care might be needed when fitting these lenses unilaterally in subjects with vertical phoria-related problems.
Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of nitrogen and neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen from common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.
Division of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 72701, USA.
Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often an undesirable species in field and forage crops, but visual observations suggest that livestock prefer it to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11 and August 22, 2001 and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of N and neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN) for these forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates for crabgrass with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and or-chardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) as control hays. All kinetic evaluations were conducted with 5 ruminally cannulated Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus steers (383 +/- 22.7 kg). Concentrations of N for crabgrass decreased linearly (P < or = 0.002) across sampling dates for leaf, stem, and whole-plant tissues. Conversely, percentages of the total N pool within NDIN and ADIN fractions generally increased over sampling dates in mostly linear patterns. For crabgrass, the immediately soluble portion of the total N pool (fraction A; overall mean = 54.6% of N) was greater (P < 0.001) than for all control hays. Crabgrass exhibited a more rapid N disappearance rate (overall mean = 0.093/h; expressed as a proportion disappearing/h) than that of bermudagrass (0.046/h; P < 0.001), but the disappearance rate for alfalfa N (0.223/h) was considerably faster (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass. The effective ruminal disappearance of N was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall mean = 85.4%) than for the alfalfa (83.3%), bermudagrass (72.3%), or orchardgrass (76.0%) control hays. For alfalfa, the ruminal disappearance rate of NDIN (0.150/h) was more rapid (P < 0.001) than for crabgrass (overall mean = 0.110/h); however, the disappearance rate for crabgrass was faster than that for bermudagrass (0.072/h; P < 0.001) or for orchardgrass (0.098/h; P = 0.010). Effective ruminal disappearance of NDIN was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall mean = 72.0%) than for the bermudagrass (69.0%) or alfalfa hays (50.5%), but there was no difference (P = 0.865) between crabgrass and orchardgrass (72.1%). Although crabgrass forages exhibited concentrations of total N that were comparable with those of alfalfa and rates of ruminal N disappearance that were < 50% of those for the alfalfa hay control, improvements in N use efficiency relative to alfalfa are questionable because of the excessively large Fraction A for crabgrass.
Unit of Optometry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
As part of a study on subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI), their vertical and horizontal vergence adaptation was assessed and compared with age matched controls in order to investigate whether the horizontal adaptation system can be regarded as being independent of the vertical adaptation system. Using a flashed Maddox rod technique horizontal vergence adaptation was found to be reduced in CI subjects whereas no difference could be found in vertical adaptation. These results confirm that the vertical and horizontal adaptation systems can be treated as independent mechanisms.
Unit of Optometry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com
It is well known that in convergence insufficiency (CI) prism adaptation is reduced in response to base-out (BO) prisms at near. There have also been some suggestions in the literature that adaptation is reduced at other distances as well. The present data show that in CI adaptation is not only reduced in response to BO at near, but also in response to base-in (BI) at near and for both BI and BO at distance. This raises the interesting question whether distance adaptation becomes reduced because of reduced near adaptation or whether these subjects have a generally reduced horizontal adaptation mechanism.
Ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of dry matter and fiber in growing steers for common crabgrass forages sampled on seven dates in northern Arkansas.
Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, 72701, USA.
Southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) is often viewed as an undesirable weed, largely because it encroaches upon field and forage crops, gardens, and lawns. However, visual observations of livestock grazing mixed-species pastures suggest that cattle seem to prefer crabgrass to many other summer forages. The objectives of this study were to assess the nutritive value of crabgrass sampled weekly between July 11, and August 22, 2001, and then to determine ruminal in situ disappearance kinetics of DM and NDF for these crabgrass forages. A secondary objective was to compare these kinetic estimates with those of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) control hays. All forages were evaluated in situ using five (383 +/- 22.7 kg) ruminally cannulated crossbred (Gelbvieh x Angus x Brangus) steers. Whole-plant crabgrass exhibited more rapid (P < or = 0.002) ruminal disappearance rates of DM (overall range = 0.069 to 0.084 h(-1)) than did bermudagrass (0.054 h(-1)) and orchardgrass (0.060 h(-1)) hays, but disappearance rates were slower (P < 0.001) for crabgrass than for alfalfa hay (0.143 h(-1)). Effective ruminal disappearance of DM was greater (P < 0.001) for crabgrass (overall range = 69.3 to 75.4%) than for all the control hays. Similarly, disappearance rates of NDF for crabgrass (overall range = 0.069 to 0.086 h(-1)) were more rapid (P < 0.001) than observed for bermudagrass and orchardgrass hays; however, NDF in alfalfa disappeared at a faster (P < 0.001) rate (0.107 h(-1)) than crabgrass. These results indicate that crabgrass offers greater effective ruminal degradability of DM and NDF than orchardgrass or alfalfa of moderate quality. More importantly, it potentially offers faster and more extensive ruminal disappearance than perennial warm-season grasses typically found throughout the southeastern United States, and it should likely support improved performance by ruminant livestock in this region.
Unit of Optometry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Box 8056, S-104-20 Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
In previous phoria adaptation experiments on normal subjects adaptation tends to reach only approximately 2/3 of the prism-induced phoria while clinical experience indicates that prism adaptation is usually complete. The present data show that increasing the proportion of binocular experience through the phoria-inducing prism allows adaptation to become complete. Longer periods of binocular vision give a better indication of vergence adaptation function. This is particularly important in experiments where normal and abnormal adaptive abilities are being compared.
UMIST, Manchester, UK.
Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, UMIST, Manchester, U.K.
Published experimental measurements of the ocular modulation transfer function (MTF) in the peripheral field are approximated by the expression T(f)= exp[-(f/fc)n], where T(f), f, fc, and n are modulation transfer, spatial frequency, spatial frequency constant and MTF index, respectively. It is shown that n (which describes the shape of the MTF) remains relatively constant at about 0.9 for field angles out to 40 deg but fc (which defines the spatial frequency scaling) declines steeply over this range, depending upon the pupil diameter and conditions of focus. The oblique astigmatism of the eye plays a major role in the off-axis changes in fc at field angles > or = 20 deg. The approximation may be useful in allowing the form of the degraded optical stimulus in studies of the peripheral retinal function to be evaluated.
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Cogn Sci. 2012 May 11;: 22578040
Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.
Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ-that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with low overlap; thus,"different" responses are faster for low-similarity than for high-similarity pairs. In contrast, identifying a specific difference generally requires a full structural alignment of the two images, and this alignment process is faster for high-similarity pairs. We described four experiments that demonstrate this dissociation and show that the results can be simulated using the Structure-Mapping Engine. These results pose a significant challenge for nonstructural accounts of similarity comparison and suggest that structural alignment processes play a significant role in visual comparison.
Making the narrative walk-in-real-time methodology relevant for public health intervention: towards an integrative approach.
Département d'études en loisir, culture et tourisme, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières 3351, boul. Des Forges, Pavillon ringuet, Trois-Rivières (Québec), Canada. email@example.com
The purpose of this article is to describe a novel approach for understanding the subjective experience of being a pedestrian in urban settings. In so doing, we take into account the "experience of the body in movement" as described in different theories and according to different methods, and develop a tool to allow citizens and urban planners to exchange ideas about how to make cities more walkable. Finally, we present the adaptation of the approach for use in public health and provide a rationale for its more widespread use in place and health research.
Moorfields Eye Hospital, 162 City Road, London EC1V 2PD, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
This document presents recommendations and guidelines for the use of visual electrophysiological testing in the clinical assessment of visual pathway function.
Dept of Anatomic Pathology, University of Washington Medical Center, Box 356100, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195.
The association of prolonged microscope use with the development of chronic pain syndromes has been recognized for nearly 3 decades; yet most pathologists are not well-informed about this hazard until after they develop a problem. The purpose of this article is to make pathologists aware of this risk, discuss current pathogenetic models, and encourage them to proactively integrate prevention strategies into their daily lives.
Laboratory for Innovations in Rehabilitation Technology, Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. email@example.com
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost video-capture virtual reality (VR) platform, the Sony PlayStation II EyeToy, for the rehabilitation of older adults with disabilities. This article presents three studies that were carried out to provide information about the EyeToy's potential for use in rehabilitation. The first study included the testing of healthy young adults (N = 34) and compared their experiences using the EyeToy with those using GestureTek's IREX VR system in terms of a sense of presence, level of enjoyment, control, success, and perceived exertion. The second study aimed to characterize the VR experience of healthy older adults (N = 10) and to determine the suitability and usability of the EyeToy for this population and the third study aimed to determine the feasibility of the EyeToy for use by individuals (N = 12) with stroke at different stages. The implications of these three studies for applying the system to rehabilitation are discussed.
Prismatic correction of residual esotropia of 20 prism dioptres or less after full hypermetropic correction.
Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of prismatic correction of residual esotropia <or=20 prism dioptres (PD) after full hypermetropic correction in patients with partially accommodative esotropia. METHODS Medical records of 64 patients who received prismatic correction for residual esotropia </=20 PD were reviewed. Outcomes were considered successful if patients maintained orthotropia or esophoria for at least 1 year and did not require surgery. Factors including age, sex, visual acuity, refractive errors, amount of deviation, sensory status, and the presence of amblyopia were analysed and compared between the success and failure groups. RESULTS Prismatic correction was successful in 28 of 64 patients (44%). The success group showed better results both with Worth 4-dot test (P=0.001 at distance and P=0.046 at near) and Randot stereo test (P=0.003 for dots and P=0.000 for animals). Success rate increased to 58% without amblyopia, 72 and 93% with normal fusional response at near and at distance with Worth 4 dot test respectively, and 92% with stereoacuity of 800 s of arc or better. In all patients in success group, fusion and stereoacuity improved or maintained during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Prismatic correction was successful in 44% of the patients with residual esotropia <or=20 PD and the success group showed an improved or stable sensory status with time. With a baseline fusion on Worth 4-dot test or stereopsis of 800 s of arc or better, prismatic correction could be considered as the first-line treatment.
Institute of Industrial Fermentations, Madrid, Spain.
In the present work, an exhaustive review of the main developments and applications of CE-MS for peptide analysis is given. This review includes the use of different CE separation modes, MS analyzers, capillary coatings, preconcentration techniques, on-chip applications as well as other different multidimensional strategies for peptide analysis. Key applications are critically discussed and relevant works published from January 2000 to May 2007 are summarized including information concerning the type of sample, CE-MS parameters as well as some figures of merit of the different CE-MS procedures developed for peptide analysis and peptidomics.
Urol Nurs. 2008 Feb ;28 (1):26-8 18335694
University of Iowa, Department of Urology, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Part III of this sacral nerve neuromodulation (InterStim therapy) series describes two case studies. This article coalesces all the concepts associated with InterStim therapy, including criteria for patient selection, education, surgery, programming, and return visits. The first case study describes a woman with urgency-frequency and urinary incontinence. The second case study discusses a woman with a diagnosis of urinary retention. These case studies provide the reader with successful outcomes with InterStim and its use as a viable treatment option when patients meet the selection criteria.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Instrumental vaginal delivery involves the use of the vacuum extractor or obstetric forceps to facilitate delivery of the fetus. It is associated with substantial risk of head injury, including hemorrhage, fractures, and, rarely, brain damage or fetal death. This review article describes the different types, etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical features of head trauma after instrumental birth, along with their management and prevention strategies.
[Feasibility of Prismatic Correction of Microesotropia using the Measuring and Correcting Methodology by H.-J. Haase.]
Sektion Neuroophthalmologie, Kinderophthalmologie und Schielbehandlung (Leiter: Prof. Dr. W. Lagrèze), Universitäts-Augenklinik Freiburg.
BACKGROUND:: The "Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase" is based on the assumption that a minute deviation from the orthovergence position (fixation disparity) indicates a difficulty to overcome a larger "vergence angle of rest". Objective recordings have, however, revealed that the subjective tests applied in the "Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase" can mislead to the assumption of a fixation disparity, although both eyes are aligned exactly to the fixation point. Question: How do patients with an inconspicuously small, yet objectively verified strabismus react to the "Measuring and Correcting Methodology by H.-J. Haase"? Methods: Eight patients with a microesotropia between 0.5 and 3 degrees were subjected to the "Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase. Results: In all 8 patients, the prisms determined with the Cross-, Pointer- and Rectangle Tests increased the angle of squint, without reaching a full correction: the original angle prevailed. In the Stereobalance Test, prisms did not reduce the 100 % preponderance of the non-squinting eye. The stereoscopic threshold was between 36 and 1170 arcsec in 7 out of the 8 subjects, and above 4000 arcsec in 1 subject. Conclusions:(1) In all 8 patients, prisms determined with the "Measuring and Correcting Methodology by H.-J. Haase" increased the angle of strabismus, without reaching bifoveal vision. This uniform result suggests that primary microesotropia cannot be corrected with the "Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.-J. Haase"(2) A lacking contribution of the strabismic eye to the recognition of a lateral offset between stereo objects, as determined with the Stereobalance Test, does not imply a lack of binocular stereopsis.