Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
Among 141 patients suspected of having otomycosis, 76 (53.9%) were mycologically confirmed. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus sp (63.4%), Candida (35.5%) and Mucor (1.3%). Ninety-six per cent were symptom free within 2 weeks of topical application of 1% clotrimazole cream, after thorough failures in the cleaning of debri in the ear canal. Treatment failures were minimal, including recurrence (2.6%), acute otitis externa (1.3%), foreign body in the ear (1.3%) and blocking of ear by therapeutic agent (2.6%). This treatment regimen is simple, efficacious, cost effective and safe; hence it is recommended for adoption in the management of otomycosis.
Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, Haryana, India.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal agents, sex distribution and predisposing factors involved in otomycosis. METHODS: Samples from the 118 clinically suspected patients of otomycosis were collected between January 2008 and February 2009, with an age group of 6 and 75 years. Mycological examination of all the samples was done to isolate the fungal agents involved in otomycosis. RESULTS: Mycological examination has revealed the confirmation of fungal otomycosis in 78% of the suspected patients. Pruritus has been found as the most common symptom. The major predisposing factors responsible for the otomycosis have been found as the wearing of traditional customary clothes followed by itching on other body parts and swimming. It has been found to be more prevalent in females than males in the age group of 31-40 years, higher incidence occurring in the rainy season. The fungi involved in otomycosis belonged to Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. luchuensis, A. terreus, Candida albicans and Penicillium sp. Of these, A. niger followed by A. flavus were the dominant fungi. Aspergillus luchuensis as the cause of otomycosis has been reported for the first time. CONCLUSION: Finally we can say higher incidence of otomycosis may be due to high degree of humidity, warm and dusty environment. So, keeping in view the high prevalence of otomycosis in India, critical diagnosis of the causative agent by employing aseptic and proper culture techniques and susceptibility testing for proper treatment of this disease is the need of the hour.
Centro de ciências de saúde, UFPB, PB, Brazil.
Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was obtained from otitis externa samples. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus in 10 cultures, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus together in 5 cultures and Candida albicans and Candida krusei in 4 cultures. P. aeruginosa was resistant to all oils and extracts tested; extracts from A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo and R. graveolens were inactive; the essential oil from C. aromaticus and M. chamomila were active against 3 strains of S. aureus and the Candida strains; seven of the S. aureus strains were sensitive to the P. amboinicus extract; however, the oil was inactive against 4 S. aureus strains and the Candida strains were sensitive to the R. graveolens essential oil. CONCLUSION: depending on the etiological agent, some plants presented satisfactory results, however we still need more detailed studies in order to better use these plants.
McGill Auditory Sciences Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal, Qc., Canada H3H1P3.
There has been an increase in the prevalence of otomycosis in recent years. This has been linked to the extensive use of antibiotic eardrops. Treatment of otomycosis is challenging, and requires a close follow-up. We present a review of the literature on otomycosis, the topical antifungals most commonly used, and discuss their ototoxic potential. Candida albicans and Aspergillus are the most commonly identified organisms. Antifungals from the Azole class seem to be the most effective, followed by Nystatin and Tolnaftate.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
Otomycosis is a recognized clinical entity in the tropical regions of the world. However, there is scanty information on this disease in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of etiological agents of otomycosis in western Nigeria. Medical records of patients with otomycosis seen in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from 1996-2005 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Of the 5784 patients with ear diseases, 378 (6.54%) had otomycosis which consisted of 145 (38.36%) males and 233 (61.64%) females. Seventeen patients (4.50%) had recurrence within six months of treatment, 4 (1.06%) had poorly controlled plasma glucose. A significant number of our patients, 52 (13.76%), had prior topical aural antibiotic treatment following misdiagnosis. The predominant etiological agents in our series were Aspergillus niger (48.35%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (33.96%).
Suction clearance and 2% topical miconazole versus the same combination with acidic drops in the treatment of otomycosis.
Department of Otolaryngology, Shahid Beheshti Teaching Hospital, Babol Medical University, Babol, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
From April 2003 to September 2004, 59 ears from 55 patients received suction clearance and topical miconazole 2%(regimen 1) and in September 2004 to December 2005, 64 ears from 58 patients received the same combinations plus acidic drops [acetic acid 3%(v/ v) in 97% ethanol]. The mean age of patients treated with regimen 1 was 35.76+/-16 years and in regimen 2 was 37.98+/-15 years. Aspergilus sp and Candida sp were seen in 35 (59.3%) and 24 (40.7%) cases treated with regimen 1 and in 43 (67.2%) and 21 (32.8%) cases treated in regimen 2, respectively. Relapse occurred in 2 (3.4%) ears treated with regimen 1, but none in cases treated with regimen 2 (p=0.228). The findings reveal that there were no statistically significant differences between the two regimens and both may be used for the treatment of otomycosis.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, MBBS, P.O. Box 6641, Ilorin 240001, Nigeria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Little information is available about the pattern of ear diseases in the elderly population. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the pattern of ear diseases among elderly Nigerians, so as to provide an objective basis for cost-effective health care planning for the emerging geriatric population. METHODS A retrospective study of 320 patients aged 60 years or older presenting with ear diseases at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, between January 1996 and December 2001 was carried out. RESULTS Impacted cerumen was the most common ear disease, occurring in 110 (34.4%) patients of the study population. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) was the most common infectious disease, affecting 28 (8.8%) patients. Of the 88 patients with hearing loss, 63 (71.6%) had sensorineural, 20 (22.7%) had presbycusis, 1 (1.1%) had conductive, and 4 (4.6%) had mixed hearing loss. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that impacted cerumen, hearing loss, and infections (notably CSOM), are the common ear diseases among elderly Nigerians.
Randomized controlled trial on the treatment of otitis externa with one per cent silver nitrate gel.
Ear Clinic, Bamalete Lutheran Hospital, Ramotswa, Botswana. firstname.lastname@example.org
Otitis externa (OE) and especially otomycosis can be very persistent and difficult to control. In the present study the efficacy of treatment of OE with a single instillation in the ear canal of one per cent silver nitrate in three per cent hypromellose gel compared to 0.1 per cent silver nitrate gel was tested in a single-blinded randomized controlled parallel group study. The outcome measure was complete resolution of the OE after one week. Forty-four patients with refractory, bacterial as well as fungal, OE entered the study, comprising 30 ears in each treatment arm. Eight patients defaulted from follow-up, five ears in each treatment arm. A single instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel cured 23 (92 per cent) of 25 ears with OE, whereas with 0.1 per cent silver nitrate gel seven (28 per cent) of 25 ears treated were cured (Fisher-exact test, p-exact = 0.00010). In a non-controlled series of 120 ears 93.3 per cent needed only a single instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel while another five per cent were cured after a second instillation a week later. There were no adverse reactions. OE can be treated effectively with instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel and is particularly useful in recalcitrant otomycosis. The treatment method saves both cost and time.
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Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
OBJECTIVE To determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic micro-organisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in our environment. DESIGN A retrospective study of ear discharges from patients presenting consecutively with chronic suppurative otitis media. SETTINGS University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, a major referral centre in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Bacterial isolates and their sensitivity patterns. SUBJECTS Three hundred and seventy five patients aged between eight months and 70 years referred to the ear, nose, and throat clinic of The University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital were enrolled in the study. RESULTS About 95.5% and 4.5% of the specimens were culture positive and negative respectively. The commonest bacterial aetiologic agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0%) and Proteus spp (21.8%). Peak prevalence of 30.5% occurred among the 0-5 years age group. Seventy five per cent of isolates were gram-negative bacteria. Ofloxacin produced 100% sensitivity in both gram positive and gram-negative organisms tested. Colistin, ceftazidime and cefuroxime were highly active (80%) against the gram-negative bacteria while erythromycin and cloxacillin were very effective (80%) against the gram-positive isolates. CONCLUSION Chronic suppurative otitis media is still highly prevalent in our environment, affecting mainly children. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic isolates is different from those of other regions of Nigeria with increasing resistance recorded for some organisms. Hence, where possible and available, susceptibility tests should guide the management of CSOM in this environment, otherwise, ofloxacin if indicated and cloxacillin/erythromycin may provide relief and delay emergence of resistant strains.
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State.
The pathogenic fungi associated with ear infection among 142 patients with clinical signs of otomycosis are reported. 76(54%) were positive for at least one organism. The isolates included: Aspergillus (63.2%), Candida (35.5%), and Mucor (0.7%). Further analysis showed that Candida species comprised C. albicans (18.4%), C. tropicalis (10.5%), and C. pseudotropicalis (6.6%), while A. fumigatus (39.5%), A. niger (23.7), and Mucor (0.7%), were other significant pathogens. Males and females were almost equally affected, while the preponderance of positive patients (79%) were +21 years old. There were 7(9%) bilateral, 29(38%) left unilateral and 40(53%) right unilateral ear infections respectively. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, health implications, and preventive measures against causative agents of otomycosis, an infection grossly neglected in our environment.
West Afr J Med. ;30 (4):282-7 22669834
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Awareness, Knowledge and Disposition to Screening among Healthcare Workers in Critical Care Units of a Nigerian Hospital.
A Fadeyi, M A Adeboye, A Fowotade, C Nwabuisi, B O Bolaji, O O Oyedepo, O O Adesiyun, T O Olanrewaju, A Aderibigbe, A K Salami, O O Desalu, A A Akanbi, A A Raheem, A Olalere
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1459, Ilorin. Email: email@example.com.
BACKGROUND Awareness level about methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is high in the western world but the status in developing countries is not well defined. OBJECTIVE To assess MRSA awareness level, knowledge and disposition to screening among critical healthcare givers (HCGs) in Nigeria. METHODS A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of HCGs in critical care units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria on MRSA and their willingness to submit to screening. RESULTS Only 103 (52.0%) of the 198 participants were aware of MRSA but all were favourably disposed to screening for the organism. Awareness was through hospital rounds 65(63.1%) and journals/ textbooks 35(34.0%), and Many, 120 (60.6%) considered MRSA as a threat in the hospital, while only 27 (13.6%) thought otherwise and 51(25.8%) were indifferent. Most HCGs, 124 (87.9%) reported that there were no MRSA control measures in their respective duty post. The age, cadre of work, and number of years in the hospital's critical care units correlated positively with awareness level. CONCLUSION Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus awareness level among the HCGs in our hospital is just a little above 50.0% with substantial proportion of them not realizing the medical implication of the organism. However, majority are well disposed to MRSA screening. Inadequate publicity is a major contributor to poor knowledge and awareness. There is need for educational intervention and sensitization programs on MRSA and other infection control techniques for HCGs in developing nations especially Nigeria.
Awareness and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers in the laboratories of two public health facilities in Nigeria.
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1459, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the level of awareness and practice of SP among laboratory workers at two tertiary public health facilities in Nigeria. METHODS A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the awareness, attitude and adherence to SP among laboratory workers. Information on the availability of safety equipment was also sought. The laboratory safety practice of respondents was assessed based on self-reported observance of basic principles of universal precautions in clinical settings. RESULTS Study participants were 130, mean age: 28.2 years (SD±6.6), number of years in hospital employment: 3.7 years (SD±2.4) and the male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Many (41.5%) were unaware and 25.4% do not observe SP. Participants attest to availability of various safety devices and equipment including hand gloves (86.2%), disinfectants (84.6%), HBV immunisation (46.2%) and post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV and HBV (79.6%). Attitude to safety is unsatisfactory as 60.0% eat and drink in the laboratory, 50.8% recap needles and 56.9% use sharps box. Even though 83.1% are willing to take PEP, only 1.5% will present self following laboratory injury. CONCLUSION This study shows the deficit in the awareness of SP among laboratory personnel and demonstrates that attitude and practice of safety rules are unsatisfactory. Training and re-training on SP is therefore desired. Counselling to induce a positive attitudinal change on HBV immunisation and PEP is similarly necessary.
West Afr J Med. ;29 (1):41-3 20496338
Department of Pathology University of Ilorin of Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Kwara State. Nigeria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas are the most common malignancies of the jaw bones. Nasal osteogenic chondrosarcoma is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE To draw attention to a rare tumour, osteogenic chondrosarcoma. METHODS A middle aged woman presented with a three month history of nasal blockade and mucopurulent discharge. She was fully clinically evaluated including anterior rhinoscopy and plain radiograph. RESULTS Detailed history, physical examination and plain radiography showed features suggestive of antrochoanal polyp with differential diagnoses of sino nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour. At emergency tracheostomy, examination under anaesthesia, meticulous nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour clearance was done. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed osteogenic chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSION Though rare, osteogenic chondrosarcoma affects nasal bones. Clinically the tumour mimicks an antro-choanal polyp and is associated with the challenge of recurrence.
West Afr J Med. ;28 (5):343-6 20383842
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans is a very important cause of fungal meningitis in immunosuppressed patients OBJECTIVE To describe a case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in an HIV/AIDS patient from the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. METHODS An 18 -year -old male student presented with cough, weight loss, and fever. He was clinically assessed and had full laboratory investigations including cerebrospinal fluid CSF and then started on chemotherapy. Both the clinical and neurological evaluation of the patient was described along with the laboratory analyses of his CSF. Outcome of how he was managed was also reported. RESULTS Cryptococcus neoformans presented as an AIDS defining fungal infection for the first time in this 18 year old undergraduate who was infected probably from transfusion of unscreened blood He had advanced HIV infection (CD4+ count of 29 cells/ul) and severe cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. He was unsuccessfully managed with fluconazole, a second choice drug for this condition, amphotericin B being not available. CONCLUSION Nigerians should have access to effective blood transfusion services at all public and private hospitals across the country. The National Essential Drug list should be expanded to include drugs such as amphotericin B which hitherto were considered exotic.
Department of ENT, Head&Neck Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin Teaching, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM/BACKGROUND Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures by the otolaryngologists in the pediatric population. The aim of this study is to evaluate parental expectation and satisfaction following tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hospital-based prospective study of all consented parents whose children had tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy over a period of 13 months (February 2008 to February 2009) using a cross-sectional method. Pre- and post-surgical questionnaire-based Interview was conducted for them and information retrieved included biodata, pre- and post-surgical symptoms on follow-up in the clinic of obstructive sleep apnoea, snoring, mouth breathing and rhinorrhea, parental expectation and satisfaction after surgery. All data were entered into statistical data using SPSS version 11 and analyzed and the results are presented in tables and figures. RESULTS A total of 29 patients had adenotonsillar surgery, who were within the age range of 1.50-14 years with a mean age of 5.50 (SD=4.06+/-0.75). M:F ratio was found to be 3:1 (22 males and 7 females). Parents were satisfied with the expected outcome in terms of symptoms post-operatively in 96.6% while only one 3.4% were not satisfied. CONCLUSION Majority of the parents (96.6%) were satisfied with the expectation of immediate resolution of symptoms; however, obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy remains an important problem to be solved to achieve total parental satisfaction in adenotonsillar operations.
Relationship between epistaxis and hypertension: a study of patients seen in the emergency units of two tertiary health institutions in Nigeria.
Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Both epistaxis and hypertension are common in the general population. OBJECTIVE This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hypertension among epistaxics, and the relationship between epistaxis and hypertension. METHODS Retrospective analysis of 62 adults comprising 31 each of males and females with a mean age of 41.4 +/- 16.6 years (range: 18-90 years) that presented in the emergency units of two tertiary health institutions seen over 11 years was done. Main outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension amongst epistaxics. Seventy-six age and sex-matched patients with bleeding from sites other than the nostrils with no record of epistaxis were selected by simple random sampling as controls. RESULTS Peak prevalence of epistaxis occurred during the months of January and March. Compared to the controls, the epistaxics had significantly higher blood pressures:(146.1 +/- 40.7 mmHg versus 123.2 +/- 16.3 mmHg systolic, P=0.001), and (91.3 +/- 24.8 mmHg versus 78.2 +/- 12.8 mmHg diastolic, P=0.001), and higher proportions of patients with previous history of hypertension (32.3% versus 7.9%; p<0.001) and family history of hypertension (12.9% versus 2.6%; p<0.02). The proportion of subjects with blood pressure elevation at presentation that remained sustained was significantly higher among the epistaxics than the nonepistaxics (87.5% versus 47.6%, chi2=8.1, P=0.005). The epistaxics had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension than the non-epistaxics (45.2% versus 13.2%, chi2=17.5, p=0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated association between epistaxis and hypertension (OR=5.4, 95% CI=2.4-12.5, P=0.001), and between epistaxis and age (OR=0.9, 95% CI=1.3-12.5, P=0.02). On multivariate analysis using logistic regression the association between epistaxis and hypertension persisted, after adjusting for age, sex, season and causes of epistaxis (OR=5.6, 95% CI=1.7-15.6, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support an association between epistaxis and hypertension in the study population.
College of Medicine, University of Ilorin/ University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE Foreign body in the ear is commonly encountered in children by primary care givers, emergency department Physicians, Pediatricians and Otolaryngologists worldwide. METHODS We reviewed cases of aural foreign bodies in children seen in our centre over a five-year period with the aim of auditing our current practice and suggesting possible improvements suited for developing countries. RESULTS Grains and seeds (27.9%), beads (19.7%), cotton wool (13.6%), paper (8.8%) and eraser (8.2%) formed the bulk of the aural foreign bodies. About 96% was removed without general anesthesia by using Jobson Horne's probe or aural dressing forceps (73.8%) under direct vision; or by syringing (22.1%). Some 4% had to be removed in the operating theatre under general anesthesia. The complications observed include bruise or laceration and bleeding from the external auditory canal (16.3%), otitis externa (6.5%) and traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane (1.7%). CONCLUSION Despite a high proportion of cases managed in the office setting, complication rates were within acceptable levels. There is need to develop practical criteria that will be beneficial to primary health care givers to determine which patients could be managed in the primary care setting with acceptable outcome.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Repeated exposure to excessive noise will eventually lead to an irreversible increase in hearing thresholds. In theory, the damage reflects both the intensity of the noise and the duration of exposure. This is not linear with respect to duration of exposure; rather, the worker may experience a disproportionate loss in the early years of exposure. METHODS A prospective study surveying workers of the production section (i.e. most noise-exposed area) of a bottling factory was carried out in December 2003 and in December 2005. A self-administered questionnaire was used to extract information about worker's demographic characteristics, drug intake, and medical and occupational history, as well as information on the use of hearing protection devices. Noise mapping of the various departments of the factory was carried out. Otological examination, tympanometry and audiometry were also carried out on selected subjects. RESULTS Eighty-four workers, 76 (90.5 per cent) men and eight (9.5 per cent) women, were studied. Their mean age was 33.0 +/- 7.6 years in 2003 and 35.0 +/- 7.6 years in 2005. The recorded noise levels in the factory production section ranged between 91.5 and 98.7 dBA. The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among workers was noted to be 64.9 and 86.9 per cent for test one (2003) and test two (2005), respectively. The degree of hearing deterioration within the two years of this study was 1.0-3.2 dB for the right ear and 1.6-3.4 dB for the left ear. This deterioration was at discrete frequencies. More than half (53.6 per cent) of the workers did not have a hearing protection device. Of the 46.4 per cent who did, only 38.5 per cent claimed to have used it regularly. INTERPRETATION These findings showed that there was a high prevalence of mild sensorineural hearing loss and significant hearing deterioration among workers, due to exposure to excessive noise over a two-year period. The study demonstrates the practical importance of serial audiometry for noise-exposed workers as a means of monitoring hearing deterioration. It is necessary to enforce existing occupational health laws in our industries in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, since it is eminently preventable.
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Otomycosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: comparative study and literature review.
Department of ENT, Victoria Hospital and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute,#716, 10th Cross, 5th Main, M.C. Layout, Vijayangar, Bangalore-560 040, Karnataka, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
A comparative clinical study was carried out that included 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompetent patients and 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation, predisposing factors, mycologic profile, and treatment outcomes were compared. Aspergillus spp were the most commonly isolated fungi in the immunocompetent group, and Candida albicans in the immunocompromised group. Bilateral involvement was more common in the immunocompromised group. All the patients were treated with topical clotrimazole ear drops. Four patients in the immunocompromised group did not respond to treatment with clotrimazole but were treated successfully with fluconazole ear drops. Three patients had a small tympanic membrane perforation due to otomycosis.
Department of Otolaryngology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, 7 Hallamshire View, Sheffield S10 5ST, UK. email@example.com
Healthy ear canal skin has an acidic pH. Evidence suggests that reacidification of the ear canal may lead to resolution of otitis externa. The pH of 15 commonly prescribed topical ear drop preparations used in the treatment of otitis externa was measured using a Jenway 3020 pH meter with temperature compensation at 37.5 °C. The pH values ranged from 2.89 to 7.83. Two-thirds of preparations tested were of acidic pH. The remaining one-third were alkaline. Reacidification of the ear canal may help in the treatment of otitis externa.
Vet Rec. 2011 Feb 19;168 (7):187 21493530
Pferdeklinik Tillysburg, Bruck bei Hausleiten 11, 4490 St Florian, Austria.
Based on the anecdotally reported eradication of a sarcoid using aciclovir cream, the curative potential of this ointment was investigated in 22 sarcoid-affected horses referred to the Equine Clinic Tillysburg, Austria, between 2006 and 2009. Sarcoid disease was diagnosed by clinical examination and bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 from intact skin and tumour tissue. As nine horses had more than one lesion, a total of 47 sarcoids were treated by daily topical application of aciclovir 5 per cent cream for a period of two to six months; in four horses, surgical tumour ablation was performed before treatment. Disease parameters, including the tumour type, number, location and size, were recorded before and after aciclovir therapy. All 47 (100 per cent) of the sarcoids responded to treatment, with complete tumour regression observed for 32 (68 per cent) lesions and no recurrences reported thus far. Incomplete resolution was observed for 15 (32 per cent) lesions, probably due to their thickness. Aciclovir is proposed to be routinely used for the treatment of mild-type sarcoids and as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in combination with surgery.
Vet Dermatol. 2010 Dec ;21 (6):613-8 20492628
Dermatology Clinic for Animals of Las Vegas, 5231 West Charleston Boulevard, Las Vegas, NV 89146, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This report describes the clinical findings, clinicopathology and treatment of otomycosis caused by Aspergillus spp. in an atopic dog affected by chronic unilateral purulent otitis externa unresponsive to topical and oral antibiotics and antifungal treatments. Cytology of otic exudate revealed neutrophils and septate fungal hyphae, and otic culture grew Aspergillus spp. and no bacteria. Treatments included allergen-specific immunotherapy, topical and oral antifungal therapy and anti-inflammatory steroid therapy. Final resolution occurred after treatment of the underlying hypersensitivity disorder, administration of topical ketoconazole and debridement of infectious ear exudate. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi may, as in humans, occur in dogs with ear canals compromised by pre-existing allergic or bacterial otitis, and possibly previous antibiotic therapy. Antifungal medications provided clinical improvement, but the key to successful treatment was the restoration of the normal physiology of the external auditory canal.
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067 Dresden, Germany.
Aspergillus and Candida spp are the most frequently isolated fungi in patients with otomycosis. The diagnosis of otitis externa relies on the patient's history, otoscopic examination under microscopic control, and imaging studies. Direct preparation of the specimens, particularly with optical brighteners, mycologic culture, and histologic examination, is very important and strongly recommended for the correct diagnosis. Patients with noninvasive fungal otitis externa should be treated with intense débridement and cleansing, and topical antifungals. Topical antifungals, such as clotrimazole, miconazole, bifonazole, ciclopiroxolamine, and tolnaftate, are potentially safe choices for the treatment of otomycosis, especially in patients with a perforated eardrum. The oral triazole drugs, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole are effective against Candida and Aspergillus, with good penetration of bone and the central nervous system. These drugs are essential in the treatment of patients with malignant fungal otitis externa complicated by mastoiditis and meningitis.
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Stockport NHS Foundation Trust, Stepping Hill Hospital, Poplar Grove, Hazel Grove, Stockport, UK, SK2 7JE.
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis externa is an inflammatory condition of the ear canal, with or without infection. Symptoms include ear discomfort, itchiness, discharge and impaired hearing. It is also known as 'swimmer's ear' and can usually be treated successfully with a course of ear drops. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for acute otitis externa. SEARCH STRATEGY: Our search for published and unpublished trials included the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; CENTRAL; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources. The date of the most recent search was 6 January 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials evaluating ear cleaning, topical medication or systemic therapy in the treatment of acute otitis externa were eligible.We excluded complicated acute otitis externa; otitis externa secondary to otitis media or chronic suppurative otitis media; chronic otitis externa; fungal otitis externa (otomycosis); eczematous otitis externa; viral otitis externa and furunculosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors assessed eligibility and quality. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen randomised controlled trials with a total of 3382 participants were included. Three meta-analyses were possible. The overall quality of studies was low.Topical antimicrobials containing steroids were significantly more effective than placebo drops: OR 11 (95% CI 2.00 to 60.57; one trial).In general, no clinically meaningful differences were noted in clinical cure rates between the various topical interventions reviewed. One notable exception involved a trial of high quality which showed that acetic acid was significantly less effective when compared with antibiotic/steroid drops in terms of cure rate at two and three weeks (OR 0.29 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.62) and OR 0.25 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.58) respectively).One trial of low quality comparing quinolone with non-quinolone antibiotics did not find any difference in clinical cure rate.No trials evaluated the effectiveness of ear cleaning.Only two trials evaluated steroid-only drops. One trial of low quality suggested no significant difference between steroid and antibiotic/steroid but did not report the magnitude or precision of the result. Another trial of moderate quality comparing an oral antihistamine with topical steroid against topical steroid alone found that cure rates in both groups were high and comparable (100%(15/15) and 94%(14/15) respectively at three weeks). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of high quality trials evaluating interventions for acute otitis externa. The results of this systematic review are largely based on odds ratios calculated from single trials, most of which have very broad 95% confidence intervals because of small to modest sample sizes. The findings may not be wholly generalisable to primary care for a variety of reasons; only two of the 19 trials included in the review were conducted in a primary care population setting, and in 11 of the 19 trials ear cleaning formed part of the treatment (an intervention unlikely to be available in primary care). Despite these reservations, some meaningful conclusions can be drawn from the evidence available:Topical treatments alone, as distinct from systemic ones, are effective for uncomplicated acute otitis externa. In most cases the choice of topical intervention does not appear to influence the therapeutic outcome significantly. Any observed differences in efficacy were usually minor and not consistently present at each follow-up visit. Acetic acid was effective and comparable to antibiotic/steroid at week 1. However, when treatment needed to be extended beyond this point it was less effective. In addition, patient symptoms lasted two days longer in the acetic acid group compared to antibiotic/steroid.The evidence for steroid-only drops is very limited and as yet not robust enough to allow us to reach a conclusion or provide recommendations. Further investigation is needed.Given that most topical treatments are equally effective, it would appear that in most cases the preferred choice of topical treatment may be determined by other factors, such as risk of ototoxicity, risk of contact sensitivity, risk of developing resistance, availability, cost and dosing schedule. Factors such as speed of healing and pain relief are yet to be determined for many topical treatments and may also influence this decision.Patients prescribed antibiotic/steroid drops can expect their symptoms to last for approximately six days after treatment has begun. Although patients are usually treated with topical medication for seven to 10 days it is apparent that this will undertreat some patients and overtreat others. It may be more useful when prescribing ear drops to instruct patients to use them for at least a week. If they have symptoms beyond the first week they should continue the drops until their symptoms resolve (and possibly for a few days after), for a maximum of a further seven days. Patients with persisting symptoms beyond two weeks should be considered treatment failures and alternative management initiated.
A double-blind randomised clinical trial of the treatment of otitis externa using topical steroid alone versus topical steroid-antibiotic therapy.
Academic Department of Otolaryngology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK.
The objective of the study was to determine if the addition of topical antibiotic increases the efficacy of topical steroid in controlling otitis externa. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was performed from February 2003 to April 2005 in an otolaryngology emergency clinic (acute urban teaching hospital) in the United Kingdom. Patients were followed up for 2 weeks. Forty-five adults with otitis externa based on the presence of oedema, discharge or debris in the outer ear canal were recruited. The patients were randomised to one of the two treatment groups, namely using betamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1%(Vista-Methasone) or betamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1% with neomycin sulphate 0.5%(Vista-Methasone N), and were instructed to use the trial medication at three drops three times a day for 2 weeks. Subjects' visual analogue symptom scores (blockage, pain, discharge, and itching) for otitis externa pre-treatment (day 0) and post-treatment (day 15), percentage changes in visual analogue symptom scores as a result of treatment, proportion of patients whose symptom scores failed to improve or deteriorated on treatment were analysed. The two experimental arms demonstrated statistically similar presenting symptom scores at recruitment (mean symptom scores of 19.2 for betamethasone group and 28.7 for betamethasone-neomycin group). The mean symptom score change in response to treatment was 82.8 and 47.8% in the betamethasone-neomycin and betamethasone-alone groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in median percentage symptom score change in response to treatment. All patients in the betamethasone-neomycin group showed symptom improvement but in the betamethasone alone group, five patients got worse (Fishers exact, P = 0.05). Topical antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is superior to steroid-alone treatment for symptomatic control of otitis externa.
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA.
A modified technique for performing total ear canal ablations is described. This technique requires less dissection than the standard technique and maintains a portion of the distal vertical ear canal. Subtotal ear canal ablations were performed in 18 dogs and one cat for the treatment of otitis externa or masses of the horizontal ear canal. Animals with otitis externa had minimal involvement of the distal ear canal. Dermatological problems associated with the remaining ear canal and pinnae occurred in eight animals and resolved with medical management. Normal ear carriage was maintained in all animals with erect ears. Further investigation is required before the procedure can be recommended as a treatment for otitis externa not caused by masses or anatomical abnormalities of the horizontal ear canal in dogs with pendulous ears.
Emergency Department, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Australia. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE To survey and compare the type and management of foreign bodies found in adult and paediatric ears presenting to an Australian otorhinolaryngology and a general ED. METHODS Retrospective case study with data collated from two centres. Chart reviews of a total of 330 patients presenting with aural foreign bodies to the ED of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital and the ED of The Bendigo Hospital, both situated in the state of Victoria, Australia, were surveyed for patient demographics, foreign body description and referral and removal pattern. RESULTS Two hundred and seventeen adults and 113 children were included in the study. The most common foreign bodies in children were beads, cotton tips, insects and paper, and in adults cotton tips, insects, cotton wool and silicone ear plugs. Flying insects were far more common in the Australian population than cockroaches found in surveys in other countries. Children were significantly more likely to have initially been seen by their Local Medical Officer than adults (P < 0.001) and to require a general anaesthetic for removal of the object(s)(P < 0.001). Adults were more likely to have associated otitis externa at the time of presentation (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Aural foreign bodies are a frequent presentation to the ED. Recognition of patients requiring early specialist referral is important. Adults present with a different profile of aural foreign objects to children and require different management. The use of cotton tips or cotton wool in the external ear canal and silicone ear plugs should be discouraged.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan.
An eardrop solution of beta-thujaplicin was examined for therapeutic effects on canine Malassezia-related otitis externa. Half to one ml of beta-thujaplicin solution of 100 microg/ml including DMSO 2% was injected everyday into both external ear canals of 31 cases for test-of-cure agreement. Fifteen score phases were established from the symptoms and cerumen smear biopsy findings, and score changes were recorded at least once a week. The means of the second and the third inspection day scores decreased significantly more than the previous value of each. In addition, the numbers of yeast-like organisms clearly decreased. These results suggest that beta-thujaplicin eardrops are effective for Malassezia-related otitis externa in dogs.