A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis. >> citations
Genet Res Int. 2012 ;2012 :543286 22567391
Sequence Analysis of Inducible Prophage phIS3501 Integrated into the Haemolysin II Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646.
UMR1319 Micalis, CRJ Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Bat. 440, Domaine de Vilvert, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France.
Diarrheic food poisoning by bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group is mostly due to several toxins encoded in the genomes. One of them, cytotoxin K, was recently identified as responsible for severe necrotic syndromes. Cytotoxin K is similar to a class of proteins encoded by genes usually annotated as haemolysin II (hlyII) in the majority of genomes of the B. cereus group. The partially sequenced genome of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ATCC35646 contains several potentially induced prophages, one of them integrated into the hlyII gene. We determined the complete sequence and established the genomic organization of this prophage-designated phIS3501. During induction of excision of this prophage with mitomycin C, intact hlyII gene is formed, thus providing to cells a genetic ability to synthesize the active toxin. Therefore, this prophage, upon its excision, can be implicated in the regulation of synthesis of the active toxin and thus in the virulence of bacterial host. A generality of selection for such systems in bacterial pathogens is indicated by the similarity of this genetic arrangement to that of Staphylococcus aureus β-haemolysin.
BMC Microbiol. 2012 ;12 :33 22416675
Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
BACKGROUND Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. RESULTS The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. CONCLUSIONS LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.
A novel bacteriophage Tail-Associated Muralytic Enzyme (TAME) from Phage K and its development into a potent antistaphylococcal protein.
Vivek Daniel Paul, Sanjeev Saravanan Rajagopalan, Sudarson Sundarrajan, Shilpa E George, Jiya Y Asrani, Renjith Pillai, Ravisha Chikkamadaiah, Murali Durgaiah, Bharathi Sriram, Sriram Padmanabhan
Gangagen Biotechnologies Pvt Ltd, Raghavendra Layout, Tumkur Road, Yeshwantpur, Bangalore 560022, India.
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. However, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance limits the choice of therapeutic options for treating infections caused by this organism. Muralytic enzymes from bacteriophages have recently gained attention for their potential as antibacterial agents against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive organisms. Phage K is a polyvalent virulent phage of the Myoviridae family that is active against many Staphylococcus species. RESULTS We identified a phage K gene, designated orf56, as encoding the phage tail-associated muralytic enzyme (TAME). The gene product (ORF56) contains a C-terminal domain corresponding to cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP), which demonstrated muralytic activity on a staphylococcal cell wall substrate and was lethal to S. aureus cells. We constructed N-terminal truncated forms of ORF56 and arrived at a 16-kDa protein (Lys16) that retained antistaphylococcal activity. We then generated a chimeric gene construct encoding Lys16 and a staphylococcal cell wall-binding SH3b domain. This chimeric protein (P128) showed potent antistaphylococcal activity on global clinical isolates of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant strains. In addition, P128 was effective in decolonizing rat nares of S. aureus USA300 in an experimental model. CONCLUSIONS We identified a phage K gene that encodes a protein associated with the phage tail structure. The muralytic activity of the phage K TAME was localized to the C-terminal CHAP domain. This potent antistaphylococcal TAME was combined with an efficient Staphylococcus-specific cell-wall targeting domain SH3b, resulting in the chimeric protein P128. This protein shows bactericidal activity against globally prevalent antibiotic resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus and against the genus Staphylococcus in general. In vivo, P128 was efficacious against methicillin-resistant S. aureus in a rat nasal colonization model.
Application of a bacteriophage lysin to disrupt biofilms formed by the animal pathogen Streptococcus suis.
Xiangpeng Meng, Yibo Shi, Wenhui Ji, Xueling Meng, Jing Zhang, Hengan Wang, Chengping Lu, Jianhe Sun, Yaxian Yan
Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China.
Bacterial biofilms are crucial to the pathogenesis of many important infections and are difficult to eradicate. Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen of pigs, and here the biofilm-forming ability of 32 strains of this species was determined. Significant biofilms were completely formed by 10 of the strains after 60 h of incubation, with exopolysaccharide production in the biofilm significantly higher than that in the corresponding planktonic cultures. S. suis strain SS2-4 formed a dense biofilm, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, and in this state exhibited increased resistance to a number of antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, and rifampin) compared to that of planktonic cultures. A bacteriophage lysin, designated LySMP, was used to attack biofilms alone and in combination with antibiotics and bacteriophage. The results demonstrated that the biofilms formed by S. suis, especially strains SS2-4 and SS2-H, could be dispersed by LySMP and with >80% removal compared to a biofilm reduction by treatment with either antibiotics or bacteriophage alone of less than 20%; in addition to disruption of the biofilm structure, the S. suis cells themselves were inactivated by LySMP. The efficacy of LySMP was not dose dependent, and in combination with antibiotics, it acted synergistically to maximize dispersal of the S. suis biofilm and inactivate the released cells. These data suggest that bacteriophage lysin could form part of an effective strategy to treat S. suis infections and represents a new class of antibiofilm agents.
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine S. Luigi Gonzaga, 10043, Orbassano, Torino, Italy.
New antimicrobials able to counteract bacterial resistance are needed to maintain the control of infectious diseases. The last 40 years have seen the systematic tailoring and refinement of previously identified antibiotics, to produce a multitude of semi-synthetic derivatives that share their mechanism of action with the original molecules. The major limit of this approach is the emergence of multi- and cross-resistant bacterial strains, favoured by the selective pressure inherent to the targeting of specific enzymes. The most promising new strategies aim to the development of molecules that, targeting essential bacterial structures instead of specific enzymatic activities, achieve infection control without enforcing a selective pressure on bacteria. This review, based on the consultation of the up-to-date literature, deals with antimicrobial peptides and some antivirulence factors.
Centro de Patogénese Molecular, Unidade dos Retrovírus e Infecções Associadas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
Mycobacteriophages are dsDNA viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts. The mycobacteriophage Ms6 accomplishes lysis by producing two cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, Lysin A (LysA) that possesses a central peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) super-family conserved domain with the amidase catalytic site, that cleaves the amide bond between the N-acetylmuramic acid and L-alanine residues in the oligopeptide crosslinking chains of the peptidoglycan and Lysin B (LysB) a mycolylarabinogalactan esterase that hydrolyzes the mycolic acids from the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex. Examination of the endolysin (lysA) DNA sequence revealed the existence of an embedded gene (lysA(241)) encoded in the same reading frame and preceded by a consensus ribosome-binding site. In the present work we show that, even though lysA is essential for Ms6 viability, phage mutants that express only the longer (Lysin(384)) or the shorter (Lysin(241)) endolysin are viable, but defective in the normal timing, progression and completion of host cell lysis. In addition, both endolysins have peptidoglycan hydrolase activity and demonstrated broad growth inhibition activity against various gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria.
BMC Microbiol. 2011 ;11 :138 21682850
Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88.
Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), Apdo, 85, 33300- Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain. email@example.com.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a food-borne pathogen and the most common cause of infections in hospitalized patients. The increase in the resistance of this pathogen to antibacterials has made necessary the development of new anti-staphylococcal agents. In this context, bacteriophage lytic enzymes such as endolysins and structural peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases have received considerable attention as possible antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria. S. aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (phiIPLA88) contains a virion-associated muralytic enzyme (HydH5) encoded by orf58, which is located in the morphogenetic module. Comparative bioinformatic analysis revealed that HydH5 significantly resembled other peptidoglycan hydrolases encoded by staphylococcal phages. The protein consists of 634 amino acid residues. Two putative lytic domains were identified: an N-terminal CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase) domain (135 amino acid residues), and a C-terminal LYZ2 (lysozyme subfamily 2) domain (147 amino acid residues). These domains were also found when a predicted three-dimensional structure of HydH5 was made which provided the basis for deletion analysis. The complete HydH5 protein and truncated proteins containing only each catalytic domain were overproduced in E. coli and purified from inclusion bodies by subsequent refolding. Truncated and full-length HydH5 proteins were all able to bind and lyse S. aureus Sa9 cells as shown by binding assays, zymogram analyses and CFU reduction analysis. HydH5 demonstrated high antibiotic activity against early exponential cells, at 45°C and in the absence of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+). Thermostability assays showed that HydH5 retained 72% of its activity after 5 min at 100°C. The virion-associated PG hydrolase HydH5 has lytic activity against S. aureus, which makes it attractive as antimicrobial for food biopreservation and anti-staphylococcal therapy.
Microb Biotechnol. 2011 Apr 27;: 21535426
Domain shuffling and module engineering of Listeria phage endolysins for enhanced lytic activity and binding affinity.
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, ETH Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 7, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
Bacteriophage endolysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases employed by the virus to lyse the host at the end of its multiplication phase. They have found many uses in biotechnology; not only as antimicrobials, but also for the development of novel diagnostic tools for rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria. These enzymes generally show a modular organization, consisting of N-terminal enzymatically active domains (EADs) and C-terminal cell wall-binding domains (CBDs) which specifically target the enzymes to their substrate in the bacterial cell envelope. In this work, we used individual functional modules of Listeria phage endolysins to create fusion proteins with novel and optimized properties for labelling and lysis of Listeria cells. Chimaeras consisting of individual EAD and CBD modules from PlyPSA and Ply118 endolysins with different binding specificity and catalytic activity showed swapped properties. EAD118-CBDPSA fusion proteins exhibited up to threefold higher lytic activity than the parental endolysins. Recombineering different CBD domains targeting various Listeria cell surfaces into novel heterologous tandem proteins provided them with extended recognition and binding properties, as demonstrated by fluorescent GFP-tagged CBD fusions. It was also possible to combine the binding specificities of different single CBDs in heterologous tandem CBD constructs such as CBD500-P35 and CBDP35-500, which were then able to recognize the majority of Listeria strains. Duplication of CBD500 increased the equilibrium cell wall binding affinity by approximately 50-fold, and the enzyme featuring tandem CBD modules showed increased activity at higher ionic strength. Our results demonstrate that modular engineering of endolysins is a powerful approach for the rational design and optimization of desired functional properties of these proteins.
Department of Biological Sciences; Cork Institute of Technology; Bishopstown, Cork.
With the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriophage endolysins (lysins) represent a very promising novel alternative class of antibacterial in the fight against infectious disease. Lysins are phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases which, when applied exogenously (as purified recombinant proteins) to Gram-positive bacteria, bring about rapid lysis and death of the bacterial cell. A number of studies have recently demonstrated the strong potential of these enzymes in human and veterinary medicine to control and treat pathogens on mucosal surfaces and in systemic infections. They also have potential in diagnostics and detection, bio-defence, elimination of food pathogens and control of phytopathogens. This review discusses the extensive research on recombinant bacteriophage lysins in the context of antibacterials, and looks forward to future development and potential.
iNtRON Biotechnology, Inc., Room 703, JungAng Induspia V, 138-6, Sangdaewon-dong, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 462-120, Republic of Korea.
In spite of the high degree of amino acid sequence similarity between the newly discovered phage endolysin SAL-1 and the phage endolysin LysK, SAL-1 has an approximately 2-fold-lower MIC against several Staphylococcus aureus strains and higher bacterial cell-wall-hydrolyzing activity than LysK. The amino acid residue change contributing the most to this enhanced enzymatic activity is a change from glutamic acid to glutamine at the 114th residue.
LysGH15, a novel bacteriophage lysin, protects a murine bacteremia model efficiently against lethal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Jingmin Gu, Wei Xu, Liancheng Lei, Jing Huang, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Chongtao Du, Jing Zuo, Yang Li, Taofeng Du, Linxi Li, Wenyu Han
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Xi'an Road 5333, Changchun 130062, People's Republic of China.
Phage-coded lysin is an enzyme that destroys the cell walls of bacteria. Phage lysin could be an alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy against pathogens that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. In this study, a novel staphylococcal phage, GH15, was isolated, and the endogenous lytic enzyme (LysGH15) was expressed and purified. The lysin LysGH15 displayed a broad lytic spectrum; in vitro treatment killed a number of Staphylococcus aureus strains rapidly and completely, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In animal experiments, a single intraperitoneal injection of LysGH15 (50 μg) administered 1 h after MRSA injections at double the minimum lethal dose was sufficient to protect mice (P < 0.01). Bacteremia in unprotected mice reached colony counts of about 10(7) CFU/ml within 3.5 h after challenge, whereas the mean colony count in lysin-protected mice was less than 10(4) CFU/ml (and ultimately became undetectable). These results indicate that LysGH15 can kill S. aureus in vitro and can protect mice efficiently from bacteremia in vivo. The phage lysin LysGH15 might be an alternative treatment strategy for infections caused by MRSA.
Recombinant expression of two bacteriophage proteins that lyse clostridium perfringens and share identical sequences in the C-terminal cell wall binding domain of the molecules but are dissimilar in their N-terminal active domains.
Poultry Microbiology Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, 950 College Station Road, Athens, Georgia 30605, USA.
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins that are responsible for disease symptoms and pathogenesis in a variety of animals, humans, and poultry. The organism is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease, and C. perfringens is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens, which in the acute form can cause increased mortality among broiler flocks. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in feeds have had increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. To address this issue, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins from the genomes of bacteriophages, are identified. Two putative phage lysin genes (ply) from the clostridial phages phiCP39O and phiCP26F were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli , and the resultant proteins were purified to near homogeneity. Gene and protein sequencing revealed that the predicted and chemically determined amino acid sequences of the two recombinant proteins were homologous to N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases. The proteins were identical in the C-terminal putative cell-wall binding domain, but only 55% identical to each other in the presumptive N-terminal catalytic domain. Both recombinant lysins were capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays. The observed reduction in turbidity was correlated with up to a 3 log cfu/mL reduction in viable C. perfringens on brain-heart infusion agar plates. However, other member species of the clostridia were resistant to the lytic activity by both assays.
Systematic analysis of an amidase domain CHAP in 12 Staphylococcus aureus genomes and 44 staphylococcal phage genomes.
School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
An alternative treatment for staphylococcal infections caused by antibiotic-resistance strains is to lyse staphylococci with peptidoglycan hydrolases, for example, a cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP). Here, CHAPs were analyzed in 12 Staphylococcus aureus genomes and 44 staphylococcal phage genomes. There are 234 putative CHAP-containing proteins and only 64 non-identical CHAP sequences. These CHAPs can be classified into phage CHAPs encoded in phages/prophages and bacterial CHAPs encoded on chromosomes and plasmids. The phage CHAPs contain a sequence signature 'F-[IV]-R', and the bacterial CHAPs mainly do not. The phage CHAPs are mostly positioned at the protein N-termini whereas the bacterial CHAPs are all positioned at the C-termini. The cell wall targeting domains LysM and SH3_5 are associated with the bacterial CHAPs and the phage CHAPs, respectively. The homology modeling reveals that five of six highly conserved residues are clustered at the putative active site and are exposed to the molecular surface.
Tuberculosis Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Mayor V. R. Ramanathan Road, Chetput, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 031, India.
The overgrowth of normal flora escaping the action of sputum processing chemicals is the major problem in broth-based tuberculosis (TB) detection systems. The use of phages to control the overgrowth of normal flora in processed sputum samples has already been established. Phage lysin and its supplementation to phagebiotics for the effective control of normal flora in sputum specimens were evaluated. Crude lysin was prepared from phage host mixture using standard procedures. About 120 sputum samples processed with 4% NaOH were collected and used to evaluate the effect of lysin, phagebiotics and phagebiotics supplemented with lysin on the overgrowth of normal flora. The effect of phagebiotics and lysin on the growth and retrieval of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied by conventional methods and the luciferase reporter phage (LRP) assay. Lysin alone and phagebiotics supplemented with lysin arrested the growth of normal flora in a significantly greater number of samples than phagebiotics alone. Lysin and phagebiotics did not show any inhibitory activity on M. tuberculosis. The use of antibiotics can be replaced by lysin or phagebiotics supplemented with lysin to control the overgrowth of normal flora in processed sputum samples without hampering the viability of M. tuberculosis.
Ravindra C Pangule, Sarah J Brooks, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Sharon L Salmon, Guangyu Zhu, Dennis W Metzger, Ravi S Kane, Jonathan S Dordick
Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA.
Infection with antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the primary causes of hospitalizations and deaths. To address this issue, we have designed antimicrobial coatings incorporating carbon nanotube-enzyme conjugates that are highly effective against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Specifically, we incorporated conjugates of carbon nanotubes with lysostaphin, a cell wall degrading enzyme, into films to impart bactericidal properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We fabricated and characterized nanocomposites containing different conjugate formulations and enzyme loadings. These enzyme-based composites were highly efficient in killing MRSA (>99% within 2 h) without release of the enzyme into solution. Additionally, these films were reusable and stable under dry storage conditions for a month. Such enzyme-based film formulations may be used to prevent growth of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms on various common surfaces in hospital settings. Polymer and paint films containing such antimicrobial conjugates, in particular, could be advantageous to prevent risk of staphylococcal-specific infection and biofouling.
Center for Clinical Studies, 6655 Travis Suite 120, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
A novel spore protein, ExsM, regulates formation of the exosporium in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis and affects spore size and shape.
Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, the Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA.
Bacillus cereus spores are assembled with a series of concentric layers that protect them from a wide range of environmental stresses. The outermost layer, or exosporium, is a bag-like structure that interacts with the environment and is composed of more than 20 proteins and glycoproteins. Here, we identified a new spore protein, ExsM, from a beta-mercaptoethanol extract of B. cereus ATCC 4342 spores. Subcellular localization of an ExsM-green fluorescent protein (GFP) protein revealed a dynamic pattern of fluorescence that follows the site of formation of the exosporium around the forespore. Under scanning electron microscopy, exsM null mutant spores were smaller and rounder than wild-type spores, which had an extended exosporium (spore length for the wt, 2.40 +/- 0.56 microm, versus that for the exsM mutant, 1.66 +/- 0.38 microm [P < 0.001]). Thin-section electron microscopy revealed that exsM mutant spores were encased by a double-layer exosporium, both layers of which were composed of a basal layer and a hair-like nap. Mutant exsM spores were more resistant to lysozyme treatment and germinated with higher efficiency than wild-type spores, and they had a delay in outgrowth. Insertional mutagenesis of exsM in Bacillus anthracis DeltaSterne resulted in a partial second exosporium and in smaller spores. In all, these findings suggest that ExsM plays a critical role in the formation of the exosporium.
Analyst. 2010 Jun ;135 (6):1182-90 20498871
Recent advances in rapid and ultrasensitive biosensors for infectious agents: lesson from Bacillus anthracis diagnostic sensors.
Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea.
Here, we review the cumulative efforts to develop rapid and ultrasensitive diagnostic systems, especially for the infectious agent, Bacillus anthracis, as a model system. This Minireview focuses on demonstrating the features of various probes for target molecule detection and recent methods of signal generation within the biosensors. Also, we discuss the possibility of using peptides as next-generation probe molecules.
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS G-08, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. LWeigel@cdc.gov
An effective public health response to a deliberate release of Bacillus anthracis will require a rapid distribution of antimicrobial agents for postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. However, conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing for B. anthracis requires a 16- to 20-h incubation period. To reduce this time, we have combined a modified broth microdilution (BMD) susceptibility testing method with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The growth or inhibition of growth of B. anthracis cells incubated in 2-fold dilutions of ciprofloxacin (CIP)(0.015 to 16 microg/ml) or doxycycline (DOX)(0.06 to 64 microg/ml) was determined by comparing the fluorescence threshold cycle (C(T)) generated by target amplification from cells incubated with each drug concentration with the C(T) of the no-drug (positive growth) control. This DeltaC(T) readily differentiated susceptible and nonsusceptible strains. Among susceptible strains, the median DeltaC(T) values were > or = 7.51 cycles for CIP and > or = 7.08 cycles for DOX when drug concentrations were at or above the CLSI breakpoint for susceptibility. For CIP- and DOX-nonsusceptible strains, the DeltaC(T) was < 1.0 cycle at the breakpoint for susceptibility. When evaluated with 14 genetically and geographically diverse strains of B. anthracis, the rapid method provided the same susceptibility results as conventional methods but required less than 6 h, significantly decreasing the time required for the selection and distribution of appropriate medical countermeasures.
Peptides Panned from a Phage-Displayed Random Peptide Library are useful for the Detection of Bacillus anthracis Surrogates B. cereus 4342 and B. anthracis Sterne.
Shilpakala Sainath Rao, Ketha V K Mohan, Nga Nguyen, Bindu Abraham, Galina Abdouleva, Pei Zhang, Chintamani D Atreya
Section of Cell biology, Laboratory of Cellular Hematology.
Recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has highlighted the need for a sensitive monitoring system. Current bacterial detection tests use antibodies as bio-molecular recognition elements which have limitations with regard to time, specificity and sensitivity, creating the need for new and improved cost-effective high-affinity detection probes. In this study, we screened a commercially available bacteriophage-displayed random peptide library using B. cereus 4342 cells as bait to identify peptides that could be used for detection of Bacillus. The method enabled us to identify two 12-amino acid consensus peptide sequences that specifically bind to B. cereus 4342 and B. anthracis Sterne, the nonpathogenic surrogates of B. anthracis strain. The two Bacillus-binding peptides (named BBP-1 and BBP-2) were synthesized with biotin tag to confirm their binding by four independent detection assays. Dot blot analysis revealed that the peptides bind specifically to B. cereus 4342 and B. anthracis Sterne. Quantitative analysis of this interaction by ELISA and Fluorometry demonstrated a detection sensitivity of 10(2) colony forming units/ml (CFU/ml) by both assays. When the peptides were used in combination with Qdots, the sensitivity was enhanced further by enabling detection of even a single bacterium by fluorescence microscopy. Immunoblot analysis and protein sequencing showed that BBP-1 and BBP-2 bound to the S-layer protein of B. anthracis Sterne. Overall, our findings validate the usefulness of synthetic versions of phage-derived peptides in combination with Qdot-liquid nanocrystals as high sensitivity bioprobes for various microbial detection platforms.