Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
A knowledge of the total content of trace metals is not enough to fully assess the environmental impact of polluted soils. For this reason, the determination of metal species in solution is important to evaluate their behaviour in the environment and their mobilization capacity. Sequential extraction procedure was used to speciate five heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn) from four contaminated soils of Southern Nigeria into six operationally defined geochemical species: water soluble, enchangeable, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxide, organic and residual. Metal recoveries were within +/- 10% of the independently determined total Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations. The highest amount of Cd (avg. 30%) in the nonresidual fractions was found in the exchangeable fraction, while Cu and Zn were significantly associated with the organic fraction. The carbonate fraction contained on average 14, 18.6, 12.6, 13 and 11% and the residual fraction contained on average 47, 18, 33, 50 and 25% of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn respectively. Assuming that mobility and bioavailability of these metals are related to the solubility of the geochemical form of the metals, and that they decrease in the order of extraction sequence, the apparent mobility and potential bioavailability for these five metals in the soil were: Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The mobility indexes of copper and nickel correlated positively and significantly with the total content of metals, while mobility indexes of cadmium and zinc correlated negatively and significantly with the total content of metals.
Environ Monit Assess. 2010 Mar 11;: 20221795
Total concentrations, fractionation and mobility of heavy metals in soils of urban area of Guwahati, India.
Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati, 781014, Assam, India.
This work describes the results of assessment of the heavy metals, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in urban soil of Guwahati City, India from 31 sites of five different land use types covering residential, commercial, industrial, public utilities, and roadside. Sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of the eight metals in exchangeable, carbonate, reducible (Fe-Mn oxide), organic and sulfide, and residual fractions. Of the eight metals, Cd and Co occur in lower concentrations (Cd << Co) in all types of land, and concentration variation from one type of land use to another is not much significant for both the metals. Ni presence is more than Co, and the concentrations show some variation depending on land use status. Average Cr and Cu concentrations are >/=100 mg/kg, but Cr has a significantly higher presence in industrial land use. The results are similar in case of Pb. The two metals, Mn and Zn have domination over the other metals, and the values are >/=300 mg/kg. Industrial and roadside soil contains much more Mn, while commercial soil is most enriched with Zn. Of the metals, Ni has the largest proportion (~42%) bound to the exchangeable fraction and Co, Cr, and Pb also have appreciable proportion bound to the same fraction. A significant amount of Co is associated with carbonates. The reducible fraction has bound considerable quantity of Mn and Zn, while most of Cu is associated with the organic and sulfide fraction. Both Cd and Pb are dominantly associated with the residual fraction. Computation of the mobility factor of the metals indicates Mn to be the most mobile metal present in the soil samples.
Pollution, fractionation, and mobility of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in garden and paddy soils from a Pb/Zn mining area.
College of Resource and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China. email@example.com
This study was conducted to investigate the pollution load index, fraction distributions, and mobility of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in garden and paddy soils collected from a Pb/Zn mine in Chenzhou City, China. The samples were analyzed using Leleyter and Probst's sequential extraction procedures. Total metal concentrations including Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn exceeded the maximum permissible limits for soils set by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, and the order of the pollution index was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu, indicating that the soils from both sites seriously suffered from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd. The sums of metal fractions were in agreement with the total contents of heavy metals. However, there were significant differences in fraction distributions of heavy metals in garden and paddy soils. The residual fractions of heavy metals were the predominant form with 43.0% for Pb, 32.3% for Cd, 33.5% for Cu, and 44.2% for Zn in garden soil, while 51.6% for Pb, 40.4% for Cd, 40.3% for Cu, and 40.9% for Zn in paddy soil. Furthermore, the proportions of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions extracted by the selected analytical methods were the lowest among all fractions. On the basis of the speciation of heavy metals, the mobility factor values of heavy metals have the following order: Cd (25.2-19.8%)> Cu (22.6-6.3%)> Zn (9.6-6.0%)> Pb (6.7-2.5%) in both contaminated soils.
Total concentrations and speciation of heavy metals in soils of the Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area, China.
Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Franklinstr. 29, 10587 Berlin, Germany.
The Shenyang Zhangshi Irrigation Area (SZIA) was used for the spreading of municipal and industrial waste water, which is an economic way of irrigating crops, recycling nutrients and water treatment. Long-term irrigation resulted in a severe metal contamination of soils. To identify the soil phases implicated in retaining the metals, sequential extractions were performed. The most predominant metal was cadmium which was mainly associated with mobile, easily soluble and easily reducible fractions. Copper was mainly associated with the residual, EDTA extractable and moderately reducible fractions. Lead was bound to organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe-oxides. Nickel and zinc were mainly associated with the residual and strongly reducible fractions. Although copper, lead, nickel and zinc concentrations were of minor importance mobile metal concentrations of these metals as well as of cadmium exceeded German trigger values for plant production and plant growth.
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture (Institute of Soil Science), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Knowledge of the total concentration of heavy metals is not enough to fully assess the environmental impact of urban soils. For this reason, the determination of metal speciation is important to evaluate their environment and the mobilization capacity. Sequential extraction technique proposed by the former European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was used to speciate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in urban soils from Guangzhou into four operationally defined fractions: HOAc extractable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual. The Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn were predominantly located in the residual fraction, Pb in the reducible fraction, and Cd and Mn within the HOAc extractable fraction. The order of Cd in each fraction was generally HOAc extractable > reducible > residual > oxidizable; Cu and Fe were residual > reducible > oxidizable > HOAc extractable; Mn was HOAc extractable > residual > reducible > oxidizable; Ni and Zn were residual > reducible > HOAc extractable > oxidizable; and Pb was reducible > residual > oxidizable > HOAc extractable. Cadmium was identified as being the most mobile of the elements, followed by Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb and Fe. Iron-Mn oxides can play an important role in binding Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn and in decreasing their proportion associated with the residual fraction in the soils. With total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Mn increase, these metals more easily release and may produce more negative effects on the urban environment.
Total contents and sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils irrigated with wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia.
Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. email@example.com
The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction. Generally, a considerable proportion of the total levels of many of the heavy metals resided in non residual fractions. The enhanced lability is generally expected to follow the order: Cd > Co > Pb > Cu > Ni > Se > V and Pb > Cd > Co > Cu > Ni > Zn in Vertisol and Fluvisol, respectively. For the similar wastewater application, the soil variables influence the status and the distribution of the associated heavy metals among the different soil fractions in the study soils. Among heavy metals that presented relatively elevated levels and with potential mobility, Co, Cu, Ni (either soil), V (Vertisol), Pb, and Zn (Fluvisol) could pose health threat through their introduction into the food chain in the wastewater irrigated soils.
Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.
This paper deals with the multivariate analysis of metal data in effluents, soil and groundwater to find the distribution and source identification of the selected metals in the three media. Samples were collected from three textile industries located in Hattar Industrial Estate, Pakistan. Metals were estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed elevated levels of Cr, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Ca, Na, K and Zn in these media, following the order: soil>effluent>water. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the data showed that the textile effluents are contaminating the soil wherein Cr and Pb were dominant toxic metals having concentrations of 5.96 mg/kg and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. Other toxic metals such as Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe, were found to have common origin in the textile effluents. The correlation study along with linear regression and PCA, supported the fact that various elevated metal concentrations emerged from the textile industrial effluents ultimately leading to contamination of the soil and groundwater in their proximity. The estimated metal levels in the water/soil system are compared with the safe limits laid down by WHO.
Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstrasse 1a, D-37213 Witzenhausen, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
Some metals are essential, others are found as contaminants in foodstuffs. There is some doubt on the antioxidant nature of foods or beverages containing phytochemicals because of cadmium and lead in foods. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental data has found an association between high fruit and vegetable intake and low cancer risk. However, these foods may also contain high amounts of carcinogenic metals, e.g., cadmium and lead shown to interfere with the repair of DNA damage. In this context, healthy and harmful effects of some nutrients are debated. As the benefits of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables are emphasized, attempts for regular mass administration of single food should be done prudently.
Ann Chim. 2004 Dec ;94 (12):961-70 15689032
Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro. email@example.com
Investigation of heavy metal contamination levels as well as their association types with substrates in petroleum-contaminated surface soil was carried out using modified sequential extraction method. In that way, remobilization capacity of metal cations, both in natural conditions and in accidents, has been studied. Moreover, partitioning of heavy metals, originating from spilt oil derivative, among surface soil substrates was estimated. Extreme contamination with lead was discovered, as well as the increased concentrations of zinc and copper. Oil-derived Pb and Zn were found to be distributed between carbonates and amorphous Fe-oxides, whereas Cu was found to be dominantly associated with amorphous Fe-oxides. Appreciable amounts of these metals were also found to be incorporated into more resistant structures. In petroleum-contaminated surface soil, substrates of cadmium are carbonates, whereas nickel has the great affinity toward hydrous Mn-oxides. Cd is proven to be the most mobile metal in oil-contaminated surface soil.
Other papers by authors:
Characterization of trace metal leachability from highway construction solid waste using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure.
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The potential risk of soil, surface and ground water contamination by trace metals leached from highway construction solid wastes is a major environmental concern. The objectives of this study were to evaluate trace metal leachability, toxicity of the leachate to aquatic organism and environmental impacts of highway construction solid waste (HCSW). Potential leachability, defined as the maximum metal pool that may become available for leaching at a constant pH 4 decreased in the following order: Zn > Ni > As > Pb > Cu. Potential metal leachability was controlled mainly by solid phase distribution of metals in wastes. The kinetics of metal release were determined using the cascade leaching test (CLT) with water at pH 4. With the exception of zinc in the first fraction, metal concentrations in all consecutive leaching fractions remained below the maximum permissible level in water for human consumption. The result of toxicity test showed that the leachates were in concentrations that did not exceed toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests. The results indicate low risk of surface and ground water contamination resulting from highway construction solid wastes.
Industrial and Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000 Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. email@example.com
We measured toxic air pollutants along Oba Akran road in Lagos to evaluate pedestrian exposure. PM10, CO, O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, noise, wind velocity and temperature were measured simultaneously with portable analyzers. Our results showed that pedestrian exposure to PM10 (with an average of 274.6 μg m(-3) for all samples) and CO (with an average of 19.27 ppm for all samples) was relatively high. CO is a traffic-related pollutant, so the influence of the local traffic emissions on CO levels is strong. The high concentration of the PM10 measured at the three environments also suggests that the traffic is a major source of ultrafine particles. The overall average concentrations for the 72-day experimental period for SO2, NO2 and O3 are 101.2, 62.5 and 0.32 ppb respectively, all of which are below the US national ambient air quality standards. Strong traffic impacts can be observed from the concentrations of some of these pollutants measured in these three environments. Most clear is a reflection of diesel truck traffic activity rich in black carbon concentrations. The diurnal variation of O3 and NO2 also showed that NO2 was depleted by photochemically formed O3 during the day and replenished at night as O3 was destroyed. A multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis) has been applied to a set of data in order to determine the contribution of different sources. It was found that the main principal components, extracted from the air pollution data, were related to gasoline combustion, oil combustion and ozone interactions.
Environ Res. 2009 Aug ;109 (6):690-6 19464676
Heavy metal burdens in patches of asphyxiated swamp areas within the Qua Iboe estuary mangrove ecosystem.
Department of Microbiology, University of Uyo, Uyo-Nigeria.
This study examined the burden of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and V in patches of asphyxiated mangrove swamp areas within Qua Iboe Estuary mangrove ecosystem by sediments and surface water analysis; in order to establish natural background levels of these metals and to assess anthropogenic influences on them. The analysis shows that the mean concentrations (mg/kg, dw) of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and V in sediments from asphyxiated and healthy mangrove ecosystems of Qua Iboe vary from 36.3-179.4, 29.2-43.2, 3.6-37.4, 39.6-93.8, 0.15-0.53 and 2.9-9.3, with the former exhibiting higher metal accumulating potential. Although heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the asphyxiated swamp were low, their accumulative effect is significant. The concentrations of Cu and Pb in surface water of this ecosystem exceeded the water quality criteria while Ni and Cr were under the maximum concentration for drinking water quality and protection of aquatic life. The values of pollution load index (PLI), which are generally greater than unity, show that the sediments and the surface water from the asphyxiated mangrove ecosystem were polluted with heavy metals, thus suggesting anthropogenic activities as a possible source of these metals. The mean concentrations of Zn, Ni and Pb exceeded the effects range-low (ERL), indicating that there may be some ecotoxicological risk to organisms living in asphyxiated mangrove sediments.
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
The present investigation provides data of some ions, namely Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, CN- and PO4(3-) on water samples of river Osun, selected rivers in the region and groundwaters. The pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH) and total carbon (IV) oxide (TCO2) have also been determined to asses the chemical status and pollution levels of these water sources. The higher values of certain parameters with respect to the acceptable standard limits for drinking water indicate the pollution in both groundwater and river water samples of the study area, and make the waters unsuitable for various applications. The high pollution river water source showed higher levels of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium ions (P < 0.05). There is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the mean concentrations of other inorganic nutrients in the high and low pollution water source types. The correlation coefficient between quality parameter pairs of river water and groundwater samples are determined and the significance of these parameters in both types of water sources are discussed.
Latest similar papers:
Effects of phytoremediation and application of organic amendment on the mobility of heavy metals in a polluted soil profile.
Fertility and Fertilizers Class, School ofAgronomy, City of Buenos Aires, Argentina. firstname.lastname@example.org
This research aims to assess the effect of the application of biosolids compost and phytoremediation on the mobility of total and biodisponibles (DTPA) fractions of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from different horizons of a superficially contaminated soil. Leaching experiment in soil columns was proposed. Treatments contemplated application of compost biosolid and phytoremediation. Two destructive samplings were performed. Total and DTPA trace metals were identified in each horizon. The overall performance of the various elements in its total and DTPA forms show greater concentration in horizon A and fewer gradients between horizons Bt and BC, thus assuming that the high content of clay in horizon Bt (62.9%) limits its movement through the horizons. In the mobile nutrients, a greater mobility was evidenced in DTPA fractions if compared to Total fractions. In the horizon A, the more mobile metals, such as Zn and Cd, evidenced a greater percentage of DTPA/Total fractions in all treatments. The application of compost with or without plant diminished the mobilization of Zn, Cu, and Cd Total, thus limiting a potential leaching to inferior horizons. However, this effect was not observed in the DTPA fraction.
Chemosphere. 2012 Jun ;88 (2):168-73 22459422
Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Protection, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland. email@example.com
Determination of seven congeners of PCBs was carried out for sewage sludge before, during and after thermophilic digestion. The overall content of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr) in sludge before and after digestion was determined. Moreover the concentration of heavy metals in particular chemical fractions of the sludge was analyzed. After the thermophilic digestion total concentration of seven PCBs was reduced by 47%, which suggests that thermophilic digestion affects PCB reduction positively. On the 10th d of the process, concentration of lower chlorinated PCBs increased, whereas those of higher chlorinated PCBs decreased. The thermophilic digestion process showed no accumulation of the studied heavy metals in the mobile fractions (exchangeable and carbonate) of the stabilized sewage sludge, except for nickel. The highest increase in zinc, copper, cadmium, and chromium concentration was observed in the organic-sulfide fraction, whereas the highest increase in lead was found in the residual fraction of the sludge. In case of nickel both fractions of organic-sulfide and exchangeable-carbonate fractions were enriched.
Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals.
Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7619, 101 Derieux Street, 2232 Williams Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. maria.HernandezSoriano@ees.kuleuven.be
The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mgC/kgsoil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb>Cu>Cd≥Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R=0.68), Cu (R=0.73) and Zn (R=0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R=0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p<0.05) for the increase of Pb (R=0.71) and Zn (R=0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil organic matter and formation of metal-organo complexes.
Chemosphere. 2012 Jan ;86 (4):383-91 22099538
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna Str. 45G, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org
The influence of multiple saponin washing on copper, cadmium and zinc removal and stability in three types of soils (loamy sand, loam, silty clay) was investigated. Distribution of metals and their mobility measured as the ratio of exchangeable form to the sum of all fractions in soils was differential. After single washing the highest efficiency of metal removal was obtained in loamy sand (82-90%) and loam (67-88%), whereas the lowest in silty clay (39-62%). In loamy sand and loam metals had higher mobility factors (44-61% Cu, 60-76% Cd, and 68-84% Zn) compared to silty clay (9% Cu, 28% Cd and 36% Zn). Triplicate washing led to increase both efficiency of metal removal and percentage content of their stable forms. In consequence, fractional patterns for metals before and after treatment changed visibly as a result of their redistribution. Based on the redistribution index, the most stable metal (mainly in residual and organic fractions) after triplicate washing was Cu in loamy sand and loam. For silty clay contaminated with Cd, effective metal removal and its stabilization required a higher number of washings.
Speciative distribution and bioavailability of metals in agricultural soils receiving industrial wastewater.
Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan. email@example.com
In order to assess the metal pollution status of agricultural lands of Mandi Bahauuddin receiving industrial wastewater, 35 top soil samples were investigated for the determination of selected metal levels, i.e., Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ca, Ni, and Pb by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy under optimum analytical conditions. The distribution of these metals in different operationally defined chemical fractions was also determined by using the sequential extraction technique. The highest mean total concentration was found for Fe while the least one was observed for Pb. All the studied metals were found to be present at levels much enhanced than national and international standards. Moreover, most of the metals were distributed principally in residual fraction with the exception of Ni which was found to be associated mainly with oxidizable fraction. The significant correlations were observed between Fe-Mn oxide-bound and residual fractions and exchangeable and oxidizable fractions for most of the metals. The highest mobility was exhibited by Ni that evidenced its enhanced bioavailability in the soil. The multivariate statistical analyses in terms of principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) revealed multiple sources for various geochemical fractions of different metals. CA also revealed that the nonresidual fractions of most of the metals were very closely associated while PCA presented a distinctive behavior of Ca in the soil. It was therefore suggested that in order to avoid the metal contamination arising from industrial wastewater, appropriate remediation strategies must be adopted.
Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.
Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Avd. Las Palmeras 4, 18100, Armilla, Spain.
Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2)+ NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.
Wild fire impact on copper, zinc, lead and cadmium distribution in soil and relation with abundance in selected plants of Lamiaceae family from Vidlic Mountain (Serbia).
University of Nis, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Department of Chemistry, Visegradska 33, Nis, Serbia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Fire has been considered as an improving factor in soil quality, but only if it is controlled. Severe wild fire occurred in the summer 2007 on the Vidlic Mountain (Serbia) overspreading a huge area of meadows and forests. Main soil characteristics and content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in different fractions obtained after sequential extraction of soil from post-fire areas and from fire non disturbed areas were studied. In four plant species of Lamiaceae family (Ajuga genevensis L., Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L., Teucrium chamaedrys L., Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench.), that grow in typical habitats of the mountain, distribution of heavy metals in aerial parts and roots was investigated too. For all samples from post-fire area cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter content are increased while rH is decreased. Fire caused slightly increased bioavailability of the observed metals but more significant rise happened in metal amounts bound to oxides and organics. The plants showed variable behavior. T. chamaedrys collected on the post-fire area contained elevated concentrations of all analyzed metals. A. alpinus showed higher phytoaccumulation for Zn and Cd, while the other two plant species for Pb and Cd in the post-fire areas.
Fractionation and mobility of cadmium and zinc in urban vegetable gardens of Kano, northern Nigeria.
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1044, Zaria, Nigeria.
Metal fractionation provides information on mobility and stability of various metal species which can be used to evaluate the movement of such metals in soils. The effect of wastewater irrigation on the fractions, spatial distribution, and mobility of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) was investigated in five urban gardens in Kano, Nigeria. Concentration of total Zn in the surface soils (0-20 cm) ranged from 121 to 207 mg kg(- 1) while Cd concentration was 0.3-2.0 mg kg(- 1). Speciation of both heavy metals into seven operationally defined fractions indicated that the most reactive forms extracted with ammonium nitrate and ammonium acetate, also considered as the bioavailable fractions, accounted for 29-42% of total Cd and 22-54% of total Zn, respectively. The weakly bound fractions of Cd and Zn reached up to 50% of the total Cd and Zn concentrations in the soils. Such high proportions of labile Cd and Zn fractions are indicative of anthropogenic origins, arising from the application of wastewater for irrigation and municipal biosolids for soil fertility improvement. Thus, given the predominance of sandy soil textures, high concentrations of labile Cd and Zn in these garden soils represent a potential hazard for the redistribution and translocation of these metals into the food chain and aquifer.
Talanta. 2011 May 15;84 (3):853-8 21482293
Study of mineralogical speciation of arsenic in soils using X ray microfluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy.
Departamento de Cristalografía, Mineralogía y Química Agrícola. Universidad de Sevilla. Ctra. de Utrera, km. 1. 4013, Sevilla, Spain.
In this paper we studied the As content in natural contaminated soils, classified as Dystric Leptosol, Chromic Luvisol, Eutric Cambisol and Mollic Leptosol. In soil samples, sieved (<2mm), total As was determined by XRF and chemical speciation by sequential extraction. As-bearing minerals were concentrated from fine sand fraction of soil (200-20 μm) using heavy liquid. In this fraction, mineralogical speciation was studied by X-ray microfluorescence, XRD with Göbbel mirror and SEM-BEI-EDX. Total As contents ranging from 61.00 to 131.00 mg kg(-1). The results of the sequential extraction showed that As was, mainly, in the residual fraction (52.51-98.76 mg kg(-1)) and in the fraction bound to iron oxyhydroxides (0-36.5 mg kg(-1)). Mapping of As with X-ray microfluorescence show strongly relationship between Fe and As. Iron (III) oxyhydroxides (FeOHs)(lepidocrocite and goethite), scorodite, angelellite, schultenite and dussertite were identified by XRD analysis as most likely mineral phases. The contents of As, Fe, Pb and Ba obtained with EDX-microprobe, confirmed the results of XRD. The results of sequential extraction and X-ray microfluorescence indicate that As is strongly bound to the soils because the identified As-bearing mineral phases are very stable at the pH conditions of studied soils. Consequently, a low mobility of As can be assumed in these soils.
Environ Monit Assess. 2011 Mar 23;: 21424912
Department of Studies in Environmental Science, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India.
Urban wastewater treatment leads to the generation of large quantities of biosolids. Accumulation of biosolids is a problem of environmental relevance due to the existence of heavy metals in the biosolids. Determination of total metal in biosolid provides information relating pollution levels. Determination of their mobilization capacity and behaviour in the environment is an important task. An experimental approach commonly used for studying the mobility, transport and bioavailability of metal in biosolids is the use of selective sequential extraction procedure. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the heavy metal properties in biosolid samples collected from urban wastewater treatment plants located at Mysore, Karnataka. Few heavy metals selected for the present study are cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc. The concentration of these metals in biosolids and their partition in different fractions are studied. The speciation of metals based on the sequential extraction scheme was carried out. The concentration of heavy metals is lower than that established by European legislation. The residual fraction has the maximum percentage of heavy metals whereas, only a small fraction of heavy metals (Fe, Zn and Cd) are extracted in the most soluble fractions, exchangeable and carbonate fractions.