Department of Biotechnology/Molecular Biology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Bloomfield, NJ 07003.
We identified a single amino acid mutation that abolished the bioactivity of human IFN gamma. The mutation was identified by screening a mutagenized IFN gamma expression library for molecules with altered biological activity. The mutant protein was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, and remained soluble upon purification. However, the protein was completely inactive in all IFN gamma assays investigated, exhibiting less than 0.0006% of the specific activity of native IFN gamma antiviral activity. Sequencing the plasmid DNA encoding this mutant protein showed that the histidine at position 111 of native human IFN gamma is changed to aspartic acid (IFN gamma/H111D). Other mutations at this site showed that only hydrophobic amino acids at position 111 maintain significant, though low, biological activity. Structural characterization of the IFN gamma/H111D protein by NMR as well as CD spectroscopy demonstrated that the protein has limited conformational differences from native IFN gamma. Models of the X-ray crystal structure of human IFN gamma [Ealick, P.E., W.J. Cook, S. Vijay-Kumar, M. Carson, T.L. Nagabhushan, P.P. Trotta and C.E. Bugg (1991) Science, 252, 698-702] suggest that this histidine residue is located at a severe 55 degrees bend in the C-terminal F helix. We conclude that H111 lies within or affects the receptor binding domain of human IFN gamma.
Structural analysis of IL-10 and Type I interferon family members and their complexes with receptor.
Department of Microbiology and Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA.
Sequence and functional analysis of a homolog of interleukin-10 encoded by the parapoxvirus orf virus.
The Health Research Council Virus Research Unit and Center for Gene Research, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Orf virus is a large DNA virus and is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. Orf virus infects the epithelium of sheep and goats and is transmissible to humans. Recently we discovered a gene in orf virus that encodes a polypeptide with remarkable homology to mammalian interleukin (IL-10) and viral encoded IL-10s of herpes viruses. The predicted polypeptide sequence shows high levels of amino acid identity to IL-10 of sheep (80%), cattle (75%), humans (67%) and mice (64%), as well as IL-10-like proteins of Epstein-Barr virus (63%) and equine herpes virus (67%). The C-terminal region, comprising two-thirds of the orf virus protein, is identical to ovine IL-10 which suggests that this gene has been captured from its host sheep during the evolution of orf virus. In contrast the N-terminal region shows little homology with cellular IL10s and in this respect resembles other viral IL-10s. IL-10 is a pleiotrophic cytokine that can exert either immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects on many cell types. IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with inhibitory effects on non-specific immunity in particular macrophage function and Thl effector function. Our studies so far, indicate, that the functional activities of orf virus IL-10 are the same as ovine IL-10. Orf virus IL-10 stimulates mouse thymocyte proliferation and inhibits cytokine synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-activated ovine macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and keratinocytes. Infection of sheep with an IL-10 deletion mutant of orf virus has shown that interferon-gamma levels are higher in tissue infected with the mutant virus than the parent virus. The functional activities of IL-10 and our data on orf virus IL-10 suggest a role in immune evasion.
Structural biology of cytokines, their receptors, and signaling complexes: implications for the immune and neuroendocrine circuit.
Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA. Walter@mimas.cmc.uab.edu
Other papers by authors:
Department of Biotechnology/Molecular Biology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Bloomfield, NJ 07003.
We have identified a mutation of human gamma-interferon (IFN gamma) causing a temperature-sensitive phenotype. We used a randomized oligonucleotide to mutagenize a synthetic human IFN gamma gene, then screened the resulting mutants produced in Escherichia coli for proteins with altered biological activity. One mutant protein selected for detailed characterization exhibited less than 0.3% of the specific biological activity of native IFN gamma in an antiviral activity assay performed at 37 degrees C. However, the protein bound the human IFN gamma receptor with native efficiency at 4 degrees C. Sequencing the plasmid DNA encoding this protein showed that the mutation changed the lysine residue at amino acid 43 to glutamic acid (IFN gamma/K43E). Site-specific mutagenesis at amino acid 43 showed that this protein's phenotype resulted from positioning a negative charge at position 43. Structural characterization of IFN gamma/K43E using CD demonstrated that the protein had native conformation at 25 degrees C, but assumed an altered conformation at 37 degrees C. IFN gamma/K43E in this altered conformation bound poorly to the IFN gamma receptor at 37 degrees C, providing a rationale for the mutant's decreased antiviral activity.
An active covalently linked dimer of human interferon-gamma. Subunit orientation in the native protein.
Department of Biotechnology/Molecular Biology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Bloomfield, New Jersey 07003.
We have constructed and expressed a covalently linked head to tail dimer of human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in which two monomers are joined head to tail via a rigid peptide hinge using genetic engineering techniques. The hinge was derived from the human immunoglobin IgA1 sequence (Hallewell, R.A., Laria, I., Tabrizi, A., Carlin, G., Getzoff, E.D., Tainer, J.A., Cousens, L.S., and Mullenbach, G.T.(1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5260-5268). Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that the polypeptide produced by this construction migrates as a 30,000 polypeptide species. The protein elutes as a single species by molecular sieve chromatography under native conditions. The covalently linked dimer exhibits one-half the antiviral activity of native dimeric IFN-gamma; receptor binding assays show the covalently linked dimer binds to the IFN-gamma receptor with one-half the avidity of native IFN-gamma. This difference is not due to conformational differences between the two molecules, as the aromatic region of the NMR spectrum of the purified covalently linked dimer is identical with that of the wild type protein. From these data, we suggest that human IFN-gamma associates in a head to tail dimer in its active configuration. Regions of IFN-gamma are contiguous with the amino and carboxyl termini and are obscured by the hinge peptide in the covalently linked dimer. Our studies demonstrate that these regions may be important for receptor-ligand interaction.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA. email@example.com
We have purified a protease with characteristics of TNFalpha convertase from bovine spleen membranes. Peptide sequencing of the purified protein identified it as ADAM 10 (Genbank accession no. Z21961). This metalloprotease cleaves a recombinant proTNFalpha substrate to mature TNFalpha, and can cleave a synthetic peptide substrate to yield the mature TNFalpha amino terminus in vitro. The enzyme is sensitive to a hydroxamate inhibitor of MMPs, but insensitive to phosphoramidon. In addition, cloned ADAM 10 mediates proTNFalpha processing in a processing-incompetent cell line.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07003, USA.
We have expressed active full-length human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in E. coli. Expression required co-expression with calmodulin, a particularly tight-binding cofactor. The extracts also required tetrahydrobiopterin to display activity. Specific activity of the purified recombinant iNOS was similar to iNOS purified from murine macrophages. This result indicates that no special processing events unique to eucaryotic cells are necessary for iNOS activity.
Importance of the loop connecting A and B helices of human interferon-gamma in recognition by interferon-gamma receptor.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033.
Characterization of murine-human hybrid interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) molecules suggests that substitution of the peptide connecting the A and B helices in human IFN-gamma with the murine sequence significantly blocks the protein's binding to the human interferon-gamma receptor. Mutagenesis showed that this effect is localized to the central part of this A-B loop peptide, particularly Ser20, Asp21, Val22, and Ala23. One mutant, IFN-gamma/A23E,D24E,N25K, was examined by NMR. This "EEK" mutation does not significantly alter the conformation of interferon-gamma, suggesting that the effects of these mutations are not the result of global conformational changes. The A-B loop is near histidine 111, a residue previously shown to be important in receptor-ligand interaction (Lunn, C. A., Fossetta, J., Dalgarno, D., Murgolo, N., Windsor, W., Zavodny, P. J., Narula, S. K., and Lundell, D.(1992) Protein Eng. 5, 253-257). We show that copper forms a complex between histidine 19 in the A-B loop and histidine 111. This metal complex lacks the ability to interact with the interferon-gamma receptor. These results suggest that the A-B loop contains important structural information needed for receptor-ligand binding and hence biological activity of human interferon-gamma.
Cutting edge: species specificity of the CC chemokine 6Ckine signaling through the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3: human 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXCR3 receptors.
C H Jenh, M A Cox, H Kaminski, M Zhang, H Byrnes, J Fine, D Lundell, C C Chou, S K Narula, P J Zavodny
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA. Chung-Her.Jenh@spcorp.com
The CC chemokine known as 6Ckine (SLC, Exodus-2, or TCA4) has been identified as a ligand for CCR7. Mouse 6Ckine has also been shown to signal through mouse CXCR3 and share some of the activities of IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. Nonetheless, human 6Ckine has not been shown to bind CXCR3 receptor or have angiostatic activity. In this study, we report that human 6Ckine does not induce a calcium flux in either human CXCR3 or mouse CXCR3 transfected cells, although it is an equally potent agonist as mouse 6Ckine and human macrophage inflammatory protein-3beta in human CCR7 transfected cells. Mouse 6Ckine (but not human 6Ckine) is capable of competing with radiolabeled IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 for human CXCR3. In addition, radiolabeled human 6Ckine does not bind to either human CXCR3 or mouse CXCR3. Together these data suggest that human CC chemokine 6Ckine is not a ligand for the human or mouse CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3.
A highly sensitive and specific assay using a novel human growth hormone cDNA reporter gene regulated by the human interleukin-4 inducible germline epsilon transcript promoter.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We have successfully developed a highly sensitive and specific assay system for human interleukin-4 (IL-4) regulated gene expression. It is based on a human Jijoye cell line with the germline epsilon transcript promoter joined to the human growth hormone (hGH) cDNA. The germline epsilon transcript promoter is responsive to IL-4 and involved in immunoglobulin heavy chain class switching. We cloned hGH complementary DNA (cDNA) as the reporter gene instead of using conventional hGH genomic DNA which failed to generate any IL-4 inducible clone in human Jijoye cells. The two IL-4 inducible cell lines with the hGH cDNA reporter show high signal/noise ratio for IL-4-mediated induction (60-90 fold). The response to IL-4 is dose-dependent with ED50 of 10 pM. As expected, there is no response to other human cytokines and growth factors, as well as mouse IL-4. The mutant hIL-4 antagonist hIL-4.Y124D inhibits the induction mediated by native hIL-4. These IL-4 inducible cell lines provide a sensitive, specific assay system to study IL-4-regulated gene expression, and in particular the regulation of the germline epsilon promoter.
The carboxyl-terminal region of human interferon gamma is important for biological activity: mutagenic and NMR analysis.
Department of Physical Analytical Chemistry Research and Development, Schering-Plough Research, Bloomfield, NJ 07003.
Deletion of nine amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of human IFN gamma (residues 138--146; LFRGRRASQ) resulted in a 7-fold increase in specific antiviral activity. Similar increases in receptor binding affinity were seen. Deletion of residues 136 and 137 (QM) had little additional effect, but removal of Ser135 resulted in a sharp drop in antiviral activity. Further removal of residues 133 and 134 (KR) lowered antiviral activity to 1% of the peak value. Comparison of the proton NMR spectra of selected deletions down to residue 132 showed that there was no significant change in the core protein structure. Deletions down to residue 125 had the same antiviral activity as those to 132, but changes could now be seen in the aromatic proton NMR spectrum of this shorter derivative. Substitution of the homologous murine sequence between residues 124 and 130 (human SPAAKTG; murine LPESSLR) resulted in only a small decrease in antiviral activity, further suggesting that the precise sequence in this region was not critical for activity. Ser135 was substituted with a number of other amino acids with little or no change in activity. The importance of the residues between 131 and 134 for biological activity was corroborated by mutagenesis, although some substitutions in this region were tolerated.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, USA. Chung-Her.Jenh@spcorp.com
The CXC chemokine CXCL13, known as BCA-1 (B cell-attracting chemokine 1) or BLC (B-lymphocyte chemoattractant), has been identified as an efficacious attractant selective for B lymphocytes. The chemokine receptor BLR1 (Burkitt's lymphoma receptor 1)/CXCR5 expressed by all mature B cells has to date been identified as the only known receptor for BCA-1. As the loss of the BLR1/CXCR5 receptor is sufficient to disrupt organization of follicles in spleen and Peyer's patches, BCA-1 may act as a B cell homing chemokine. Nonetheless, BCA-1 has not been tested against all known chemokine receptors. In this study, we report that human BCA-1 competes with radiolabeled interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) inducible protein 10 (IP-10) for binding to the human CXCR3 receptor expressed in Ba/F3 and 293EBNA cell lines. Furthermore, human BCA-1 is an efficacious attractant for human CXCR3 transfected cells; BCA-1-induced chemotaxis is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against human CXCR3. In these cells, as in human B lymphocytes expressing CXCR5, BCA-1 does not induce a calcium flux. Indeed, BCA-1 attenuates the calcium flux induced by IP-10. In addition, human BCA-1 is an agonist in stimulating GTP gamma S binding. Together these data suggest that human BCA-1 is a specific and functional G-protein-linked chemotactic ligand for the human CXCR3 receptor. The biological significance of this new finding is supported by our recent observation that human BCA-1 induces chemotaxis of activated T cells and the BCA-1-induced chemotaxis is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against human CXCR3.
Human interferon-inducible 10-kDa protein and human interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant are allotopic ligands for human CXCR3: differential binding to receptor states.
Department of Immunology, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA.
The human CXC chemokines IP-10 (10-kDa interferon-inducible protein), MIG (monokine induced by human interferon-gamma), and I-TAC (interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant) attract lymphocytes through activation of CXCR3. In the studies presented here, we examined interaction of these chemokines with human CXCR3 expressed in recombinant cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). IP-10, MIG, and I-TAC were agonists in stimulating [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding in recombinant cell and PBL membranes but had no effect in the absence of hCXCR3 expression.(125)I-IP-10 and (125)I-I-TAC bound hCXCR3 with high affinity, although the (125)I-I-TAC B(max) value in saturation bindings was 7- to 13-fold higher than that measured with (125)I-IP-10. Coincubation with unlabeled chemokines decreased (125)I-IP-10 binding with a single discernible affinity. However, with (125)I-I-TAC, competition with IP-10 or MIG was incomplete, and multiple binding affinities were evident. Moreover, in contrast to I-TAC, IP-10 and MIG binding IC(50) values did not increase predictably with increased (125)I-I-TAC concentration in competition bindings, suggesting that these chemokines are noncompetitive (i.e., allotopic) ligands. Uncoupling of hCXCR3 eliminated (125)I-IP-10 binding but only decreased (125)I-I-TAC binding 30 to 80%, indicating that unlike IP-10, I-TAC binds with high affinity to uncoupled (R) and coupled (R*) hCXCR3. To examine chemokine binding to R*, we tested the effect of anti-hCXCR3 antibody on I-TAC- and IP-10-stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. The antibody attenuated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding in response to IP-10 but not to I-TAC, suggesting that the two chemokines bind differently to R*. Moreover, increased occupancy of R* with a >75-fold increase in (125)I -IP-10 concentration did not increase the I-TAC binding IC(50) value, and I-TAC increased the dissociation rate of (125)I-IP-10. From these data, we conclude that the binding of IP-10 and I-TAC to the R* state of hCXCR3 is allotopic.
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Proteins. 2012 Mar ;80 (3):774-89 22113774
Novel high-affinity binders of human interferon gamma derived from albumin-binding domain of protein G.
Jawid N Ahmad, Jingjing Li, Lada Biedermannová, Milan Kuchař, Hana Sípová, Alena Semerádtová, Jiří Cerný, Hana Petroková, Pavel Mikulecký, Jiří Polínek, Ondřej Staněk, Jiří Vondrášek, Jiří Homola, Jan Malý, Radim Osička, Peter Sebo, Petr Malý
Institute of Microbiology of the ASCR, v. v. i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.
Recombinant ligands derived from small protein scaffolds show promise as robust research and diagnostic reagents and next generation protein therapeutics. Here, we derived high-affinity binders of human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) from the three helix bundle scaffold of the albumin-binding domain (ABD) of protein G from Streptococcus G148. Computational interaction energy mapping, solvent accessibility assessment, and in silico alanine scanning identified 11 residues from the albumin-binding surface of ABD as suitable for randomization. A corresponding combinatorial ABD scaffold library was synthesized and screened for hIFNγ binders using in vitro ribosome display selection, to yield recombinant ligands that exhibited K(d) values for hIFNγ from 0.2 to 10 nM. Molecular modeling, computational docking onto hIFNγ, and in vitro competition for hIFNγ binding revealed that four of the best ABD-derived ligands shared a common binding surface on hIFNγ, which differed from the site of human IFNγ receptor 1 binding. Thus, these hIFNγ ligands provide a proof of concept for design of novel recombinant binding proteins derived from the ABD scaffold.
Jeffrey W Koehler, Lesley C Dupuy, Aura R Garrison, Brett F Beitzel, Michelle J Richards, Daniel R Ripoll, Anders Wallqvist, Shia-Yen Teh, Andrew A Vaewhongs, Fakhrieh S Vojdani, Hal S Padgett, Connie S Schmaljohn
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Virology Division, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.
Type I interferons (IFNs) are potent mediators of the innate immune response to viral infection. IFNs released from infected cells bind to a receptor (IFNAR) on neighboring cells, triggering signaling cascades that limit further infection. Subtle variations in amino acids can alter IFNAR binding and signaling outcomes. We used a new gene crossbreeding method to generate hybrid, type I human IFNs with enhanced antiviral activity against four dissimilar, highly pathogenic viruses. Approximately 1400 novel IFN genes were expressed in plants, and the resultant IFN proteins were screened for antiviral activity. Comparing the gene sequences of a final set of 12 potent IFNs to those of parent genes revealed strong selection pressures at numerous amino acids. Using three-dimensional models based on a recently solved experimental structure of IFN bound to IFNAR, we show that many but not all of the amino acids that were highly selected for are predicted to improve receptor binding.
A systematic analysis of predicted phosphorylation sites within the human pregnane X receptor protein.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 66045, USA.
The pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) regulates the expression of genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter proteins in liver and intestine. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that modulate PXR activity is therefore critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Several recent studies have implicated the activation of kinase signaling pathways in the regulation of PXR biological activity, although direct evidence and molecular mechanisms are currently lacking. We therefore sought to characterize potential phosphorylation sites within the PXR protein by use of a rational, comprehensive, and systematic site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate phosphomimetic mutations (Ser/Thr --> Asp) and phospho-deficient mutations (Ser/Thr --> Ala) at 18 predicted consensus kinase recognition sequences in the human PXR protein. Here, we identify amino acid residues Ser8, Thr57, Ser208, Ser305, Ser350, and Thr408 as being critical for biological activity of the PXR protein. Mutations at positions 57 and 408 abolish ligand-inducible PXR activity. Mutations in the extreme N terminus and in the PXR ligand-binding domain at positions Ser8, Ser305, Ser350, and Thr408 decrease the ability of PXR to form heterodimers with retinoid X receptor alpha. Mutations at positions Ser208, Ser305, Ser350, and Thr408 alter PXR-protein cofactor interactions. Finally, the subcellular localization of the PXR protein is profoundly affected by mutations at position Thr408. These data suggest that PXR activity can potentially be regulated by phosphorylation at specific amino acid residues within several predicted consensus kinase recognition sequences to differentially affect PXR biological activity.
Mutation of the IFNAR-1 receptor binding site of human IFN-alpha2 generates type I IFN competitive antagonists.
Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Immunology, UMDNJRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.
Type I interferons (IFNs) are multifunctional cytokines that activate cellular responses by binding a common receptor consisting of two subunits, IFNAR-1 and IFNAR-2. Although the binding of IFNs to IFNAR-2 is well characterized, the binding to the lower affinity IFNAR-1 remains less well understood. Previous reports identified a region of human IFN-alpha2 on the B and C helices ("site 1A": N65, L80, Y85, Y89) that plays a key role in binding IFNAR-1 and contributes strongly to differential activation by various type I IFNs. The current studies demonstrate that residues on the D helix are also involved in IFNAR-1 binding. In particular, residue 120 (Arg in IFN-alpha2; Lys in IFN-alpha2/alpha1) appears to be a "hot-spot" residue: substitution by alanine significantly decreased biological activity, and the charge-reversal mutation of residue 120 to Glu caused drastic loss of antiviral and antiproliferative activity for both IFN-alpha2 and IFN-alpha2/alpha1. Mutations in residues of helix D maintained their affinity for IFNAR-2 but had decreased affinity for IFNAR-1. Single-site or multiple-site mutants in the IFNAR-1 binding site that had little or no detectable in vitro biological activity were capable of blocking in vitro antiviral and antiproliferative activity of native IFN-alpha2; i.e., they are type I IFN antagonists. These prototype IFN antagonists can be developed further for possible therapeutic use in systemic lupus erythematosus, and analogous molecules can be designed for use in animal models.
Crystal structure of Dioclea rostrata lectin: Insights into understanding the pH-dependent dimer-tetramer equilibrium and the structural basis for carbohydrate recognition in Diocleinae lectins.
T M de Oliveira, P Delatorre, B A M da Rocha, E P de Souza, K S Nascimento, G A Bezerra, Tales R Moura, R G Benevides, E H S Bezerra, F B M B Moreno, V N Freire, W F de Azevedo Jr, B S Cavada
Federal University of Ceará, Departmento Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campus do Pici s/n Caixa Postal 6043, 60455-970 Fortaleza, Brazil.
The legume lectins from the subtribe Diocleinae, often referred to as concanavalin A-like lectins, are a typical example of highly similar proteins that show distinct biological activities. The pH-dependent oligomerization that some of these lectins undergo and the relative position of amino acids within the carbohydrate-binding site are factors that have been reported to contribute to these differences in the activities of Diocleinae lectins. In the present work, we determined the amino acid sequence and the crystal structure of the lectin of Dioclea rostrata seeds (DRL), with the aim of investigating the structural bases of the different behavior displayed by this lectin in comparison to other Diocleinae lectins and determining the reason for the distinct pH-dependent dimer-tetramer equilibrium. In addition, we discovered a novel multimeric arrangement for this lectin.
Department of Pathology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 174 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China.
The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) mutation on hepatoma cells, plasmids expressing the full-length HBx or HBx deletion mutants were constructed. The biological activities in these transfectants were analyzed by a series of assays. Results showed that HBx3'-20 and HBx3'-40 amino acid deletion mutants exhibited an increase in cellular proliferation, focus formation, tumorigenicity, and invasive growth and metastasis through promotion of the cell cycle from G0/G1 to the S phase, when compared with the full-length HBx. In contrast, HBx3'-30 amino acid deletion mutant repressed cell proliferation by blocking in G1 phase. The expression of P53, p21(WAF1), p14(ARF), and MDM2 proteins was regulated by expression of HBx mutants. In conclusions, HBx variants showed different effects and functions on cell proliferation and invasion by regulation of the cell cycle progression and its associated proteins expression.
The thiazolobenzimidazole TBZE-029 inhibits enteroviral replication by targeting a short region immediately downstream motif C in the non-structural protein 2C.
Armando M De Palma, Ward Heggermont, Kjerstin Lanke, Bruno Coutard, Mirko Bergmann, Anna-Maria Monforte, Bruno Canard, Erik De Clercq, Alba Chimirri, Gerhard Pürstinger, Jacques Rohayem, Frank van Kuppeveld, Johan Neyts
Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques UMR6098 CNRS and Université de la Méditérannée, Marseille, France; Dipartimento Farmaco-Chimico, Università di Messina, Messina, Italy; Institut für Pharmazie, Abteilung Pharmazeutische Chemie, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Institut für Virologie, The Calicilab, Medizinisch-Theoretisches Zentrum, Dresden, Germany.
TBZE-029 [1-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-6-trifluoromethyl-1H,3H-thiazolo[3,4-a]benzimidazole] is a novel selective inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses. We show that TBZE-029 exerts its antiviral activity through inhibition of viral RNA replication, without affecting polyprotein processing. To identify the viral target of TBZE-029, drug-resistant coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was selected. Genotyping of resistant clones lead to the identification of 3 amino acid mutations in the non-structural protein 2C, clustered at amino acid positions 224, 227 and 229 immediately downstream of the NTPase/helicase motif C. The mutations were reintroduced, either alone or combined, in an infectious full-length CVB3 clone. In particular the mutations at positions 227 and 229 proved essential for the altered sensitivity of CVB3 to TBZE-029. Resistant virus exhibited cross-resistance to the earlier reported anti-enterovirus agents targeting 2C, namely guanidine hydrochloride, HBB and MRL-1237. The ATPase activity of 2C, however, remained unaltered in the presence of TBZE-029.
Jane Sanders, Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Jane Bolton, Anshu Bhardwaja, Paul Sanders, Nobuhiro Nakatake, Michele Evans, Jadwiga Furmaniak, Bernard Rees Smith
Objective: To study the molecular interactions between the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) and a human thyroid-stimulating monoclonal autoantibody (M22). Design: Amino acid mutations were introduced in the variable region gene sequences of M22 and the wild-type (WT) or mutated M22 Fab expressed in Escherichia coli. The ability of WT or mutated M22 Fab to inhibit binding of (125)I-TSH or (125)I-M22 to the TSHR and to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) production in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing WT TSHRs was studied. Mutated TSHRs were also used in these studies in combination with WT or mutated M22 Fab to further identify interacting residues in the TSHR-M22 complex. Main outcome: Out of 11 amino acid changes in the heavy chain (HC) of M22, 7 had an effect on M22 Fab biological activity, while in the case of 1 mutation the Fab was not expressed. In particular, stimulating activity of M22 Fab mutated at HC residues, D52, D54, and Y56 was markedly reduced. Mutation of M22 light chain (LC) D52 also reduced M22 Fab stimulating activity, while mutations at two further residues (LC D51 and LC D93) showed no effect. Reverse charge mutations at M22 HC D52 and TSHR R80 provided experimental evidence that these two residues interacted strongly with each other. Conclusion: Mutation of both the TSHR and M22 Fab has allowed identification of some residues critical for the receptor-autoantibody interaction. This approach should lead to detailed mapping of the amino acids important for M22 biological activity.
Synthesis and biological activity of nociceptin/orphanin FQ analogues substituted in position 7 or 11 with Calpha,alpha-dialkylated amino acids.
Marika Arduin, Barbara Spagnolo, Girolamo Calò, Remo Guerrini, Giacomo Carrà, Carmela Fischetti, Claudio Trapella, Erika Marzola, John McDonald, David G Lambert, Domenico Regoli, Severo Salvadori
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Biotechnology Center, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.
Previous structure-activity and NMR studies on nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) demonstrated that Aib substitution of Ala(7) and/or Ala(11) increases the peptide potency through an alpha helix structure induction mechanism. On these bases we synthesised and evaluated pharmacologically in the mouse vas deferens assay a series of N/OFQ-NH(2) analogues substituted in position 7 and 11 with Calpha,alpha-disubstituted cyclic, linear and branched amino acids. None of the 20 novel N/OFQ analogues produced better results than [Aib(7)]N/OFQ-NH(2). Thus, this substitution was combined with other chemical modifications known to modulate peptide potency and/or efficacy generating compound 21 [Nphe(1)Aib(7)Arg(14)Lys(15)]N/OFQ-NH(2)(coded as UFP-111), compound 22 [(pF)Phe(4)Aib(7)Arg(14)Lys(15)]N/OFQ-NH(2)(UFP-112) and compound 23 [Phe(1)Psi(CH(2)-NH)Gly(2)(pF)Phe(4)Aib(7)Arg(14)Lys(15)]N/OFQ-NH(2)(UFP-113). These novel peptides behaved as highly potent NOP receptor ligands showing full (UFP-112) and partial (UFP-113) agonist and pure antagonist (UFP-111) activities in a series of in vitro functional assays performed on pharmacological preparations expressing native as well as recombinant NOP receptors.
Delineation of exoenzyme S residues that mediate the interaction with 14-3-3 and its biological activity.
Department of Medical Biosciences/Pathology, Umeå University, Sweden.
14-3-3 proteins belong to a family of conserved molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells, which play an important role in a multitude of signaling pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind to phosphoserine/phosphothreonine motifs in a sequence-specific manner. More than 200 14-3-3 binding partners have been found that are involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, stress responses, cell metabolism and malignant transformation. A phosphorylation-independent interaction has been reported to occur between 14-3-3 and a C-terminal domain within exoenzyme S (ExoS), a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we have investigated the effect of amino acid mutations in this C-terminal domain of ExoS on ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and the 14-3-3 interaction. Our results suggest that leucine-428 of ExoS is the most critical residue for ExoS enzymatic activity, as cytotoxicity analysis reveals that substitution of this leucine significantly weakens the ability of ExoS to mediate cell death. Leucine-428 is also required for the ability of ExoS to modify the eukaryotic endogenous target Ras. Finally, single amino acid substitutions of positions 426-428 reduce the interaction potential of 14-3-3 with ExoS in vitro.