Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Catholic University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. The literature about Stevia, the occurrence of its sweeteners, their biosynthetic pathway and toxicological aspects are discussed. Injection experiments or perfusion experiments of organs are considered as not relevant for the use of Stevia or stevioside as food, and therefore these studies are not included in this review. The metabolism of stevioside is discussed in relation with the possible formation of steviol. Different mutagenicity studies as well as studies on carcinogenicity are discussed. Acute and subacute toxicity studies revealed a very low toxicity of Stevia and stevioside. Fertility and teratogenicity studies are discussed as well as the effects on the bio-availability of other nutrients in the diet. The conclusion is that Stevia and stevioside are safe when used as a sweetener. It is suited for both diabetics, and PKU patients, as well as for obese persons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar supplements in the diet. No allergic reactions to it seem to exist.
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat,, India.
Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.
Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
R S Kujur, Vishakha Singh, Mahendra Ram, Harlokesh Narayan Yadava, K K Singh, Suruchi Kumari, B K Roy
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and A.H., Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi - 834 006, India.
Jessica Ahmed, Saskia Preissner, Mathias Dunkel, Catherine L Worth, Andreas Eckert, Robert Preissner
Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Physiology, Structural Bioinformatics Group, Lindenberger Weg 80, 13125 Berlin, Germany.
A vast number of sweet tasting molecules are known, encompassing small compounds, carbohydrates, d-amino acids and large proteins. Carbohydrates play a particularly big role in human diet. The replacement of sugars in food with artificial sweeteners is common and is a general approach to prevent cavities, obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Knowledge about the molecular basis of taste may reveal new strategies to overcome diet-induced diseases. In this context, the design of safe, low-calorie sweeteners is particularly important. Here, we provide a comprehensive collection of carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners and other sweet tasting agents like proteins and peptides. Additionally, structural information and properties such as number of calories, therapeutic annotations and a sweetness-index are stored in SuperSweet. Currently, the database consists of more than 8000 sweet molecules. Moreover, the database provides a modeled 3D structure of the sweet taste receptor and binding poses of the small sweet molecules. These binding poses provide hints for the design of new sweeteners. A user-friendly graphical interface allows similarity searching, visualization of docked sweeteners into the receptor etc. A sweetener classification tree and browsing features allow quick requests to be made to the database. The database is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/sweet/.
Fermentation and Protein Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147 002, Punjab, India.
The present study was undertaken to explore the potential of stevioside in memory dysfunction of rats. Memory impairment was produced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) in animals. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to assess learning and memory. Brain acetylcholinestrase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured to assess the central cholinergic activity. The levels of brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated to assess the degree of oxidative stress. Scopolamine administration induced significant impairment of learning and memory in rats, as indicated by a marked decrease in MWM performance. Scopolamine administration also produced a significant enhancement of brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress (increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH) levels. Pretreatment of stevioside (250 mg/kg dose orally) significantly reversed scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits along with attenuation of scopolamine-induced rise in brain AChE activity and brain oxidative stress levels. It may be concluded that stevioside exerts a memory-preservative effect in cognitive deficits of rats possibly through its multiple actions.
Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA. email@example.com
Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate).
Sansom Institute, School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the clearance of isosteviol using the rat isolated perfused liver. 2. Six livers from male Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused with 15.7 mumol isosteviol in a recirculating system. Perfusate and bile samples were collected for 60 min and the liver was collected at the end of the perfusion. All samples collected were incubated with alpha-glucuronidase. Isosteviol-glucuronide was determined as equivalent isosteviol. Isosteviol concentrations were determined using a previously developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The final isosteviol liver/perfusate (L/P), bile/liver (B/L) and isosteviol-glucuronide in bile/liver (B(G)/L(G)) ratios were determined. 3. Isosteviol has a high clearance (21.4 +/- 4.8 mL/min) from the perfusate, with a short half-life (13 +/- 4 min). alpha-Glucuronidase incubation revealed that isosteviol is conjugated in the liver and excreted into the bile. There was no isosteviol-glucuronide detected in perfusate samples. The total recovery of the rat isolated perfused liver system is 74 +/- 14% and glucuronidated isosteviol accounted for 23 +/- 4% of the administered dose. 4. In conclusion, we are the first to characterize the metabolism of isosteviol using rat isolated liver perfusion. Our results strongly suggest that the liver is the main organ of isosteviol elimination and that isosteviol is glucuronidated in the liver before it is excreted into the bile.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Dec 15;: 20010904
Stevioside inhibits atherosclerosis by improving insulin signaling and antioxidant defense in obese insulin-resistant mice.
Atherosclerosis and Metabolism Unit, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Objective:Stevioside is a non-caloric natural sweetener that does not induce a glycemic response, making it attractive as sweetener to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets. Obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated its effects on insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress related to atherosclerosis in obese insulin-resistant mice.Research design:Twelve-week-old mice were treated with stevioside (10 mg kg(-1), n=14) or placebo (n=20) for 12 weeks.Results:Stevioside had no effect on weight and triglycerides, but lowered glucose and insulin. Stevioside treatment improved adipose tissue maturation, and increased glucose transport, insulin signaling and antioxidant defense in white visceral adipose tissues. Together, these increases were associated with a twofold increase of adiponectin. In addition, stevioside reduced plaque volume in the aortic arch by decreasing the macrophage, lipid and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) content of the plaque. The higher smooth muscle cell-to-macrophage ratio was indicative for a more stable plaque phenotype. The decrease in ox-LDL in the plaque was likely due to an increase in the antioxidant defense in the vascular wall, as evidenced by increased Sod1, Sod2 and Sod3. Circulating adiponectin was associated with improved insulin signaling and antioxidant defense in both the adipose tissue and the aorta of stevioside-treated mice.Conclusion:Stevioside treatment was associated with improved insulin signaling and antioxidant defense in both the adipose tissue and the vascular wall, leading to inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque development and inducing plaque stabilization.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 15 December 2009; doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.261.
Department of Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC.
Stevioside is a dietary supplement widely used as a sweetener to prevent hyperglycemic disorders. However, the action mechanisms of this substance for glucose homeostasis remain obscure. In the present study, a dose-related plasma glucose reduction was observed in Wistar rats receiving intraperitoneally injections of stevioside. Similar to the regulation of glucose metabolism by the activation of mu opioid receptors, this action of stevioside was reversed by naloxonazine under the blockade of mu opioid receptors. We also found that stevioside increased glycogen synthesis in isolated hepatocytes, which was concentration-dependently blocked by naloxonazine. Stevioside did not modify the plasma beta-endorphin levels in Wistar rats but it directly increased the phosphorylation of mu opioid receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with mu opioid receptors. Unlike morphine, chronic administration of stevioside did not induce the withdrawal signs in mice. Furthermore, stevioside by intraperitoneal injections did not influence the feeding behaviors of rats. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injections of stevioside increased the rats' food intake, which was also inhibited by pretreatment with naloxonazine. These results showed that it is difficult for stevioside to enter the brain. Stevioside has the ability to activate peripheral mu opioid receptors for lowering plasma glucose and to increase glycogen synthesis in liver. Thus, the stimulation of peripheral mu opioid receptors is responsible for the action of stevioside in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
Direct analysis of Stevia leaves for diterpene glycosides by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Ayanna U Jackson, Alessandra Tata, Chunping Wu, Richard H Perry, George Haas, Leslie West, R Graham Cooks
Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
The analysis of Stevia leaves has been demonstrated without any sample preparation using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. Direct rapid analysis was achieved using minimal amounts of sample ( approximately 0.15 cm x 0.15 cm leaf fragment). Characteristic constituents of the Stevia plant are observed in both the positive and negative ion modes including a series of diterpene 'sweet' glycosides. The presence of the glycosides was confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry analysis using collision-induced dissociation and further supported by exact mass measurements using an LTQ-Orbitrap. The analysis of both untreated and hexane-extracted dry leaves proved that DESI can be successfully used to analyze untreated leaf fragments as identical profiles were obtained from both types of samples. Characterization and semi-quantitative determination of the glycosides was achieved based on the glycoside profile within the full mass spectrum. In addition, the presence of characteristic glycosides in an all-natural commercial Stevia dietary supplement was confirmed. This study provides an example of the application of DESI to direct screening of plant materials, in this case diterpene glycosides.
Pharmaceutical Research Institute, 8 Rydygiera St., 01-793 Warsaw, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Secondary metabolites, which have vital environmental and allelopathic functions for a host, and long tradition of ethnopharmacological applications preceding modern medicinal use, often occur in their native state as glycosides. The role of sugar moiety looks completely different from plant physiology point of view and from drug discovery and development perspective. Based on a short survey of cases, in which structural modification of natural glycone (saccharide part of a low molecular weight secondary metabolite) resulted in advantageous pharmacological changes, we postulate that glycosides of natural origin can be quite promising as drug leads, based on general rules of drug design. In particular, polyfunctional sugar moieties offer ample opportunities for almost continuous changes in shape, electron density and polarity. By the same token, glycosylation of other biologically active natural products, which are not natively glycosylated, can be viewed as a tool for tune up of their activity in direction of higher efficacy and better selectivity. Despite of considerable advances towards turning enzymatic glycosylations into biotechnological processes, chemical transformations still remain more practical, particularly for synthesis of modified glycosides, both: in research laboratory and in industry.
Other papers by authors:
Pivotal Advance: Arginase-1-independent polyamine production stimulates the expression of IL-4-induced alternatively activated macrophage markers while inhibiting LPS-induced expression of inflammatory genes.
Jan Van den Bossche, Wouter H Lamers, Eleonore S Koehler, Jan M C Geuns, Leena Alhonen, Anne Uimari, Sini Pirnes-Karhu, Eva Van Overmeire, Yannick Morias, Lea Brys, Lars Vereecke, Patrick De Baetselier, Jo A Van Ginderachter
Myeloid Cell Immunology Lab, VIB-Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Building E, Level 8, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.
In macrophages, basal polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) levels are relatively low but are increased upon IL-4 stimulation. This Th2 cytokine induces Arg1 activity, which converts arginine into ornithine, and ornithine can be decarboxylated by ODC to produce putrescine, which is further converted into spermidine and spermine. Recently, we proposed polyamines as novel agents in IL-4-dependent E-cadherin regulation in AAMs. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that several, but not all, AAM markers depend on polyamines for their IL-4-induced gene and protein expression and that polyamine dependency of genes relies on the macrophage type. Remarkably, Arg1-deficient macrophages display rather enhanced IL-4-induced polyamine production, suggesting that an Arg1-independent polyamine synthesis pathway may operate in macrophages. On the other side of the macrophage activation spectrum, LPS-induced expression of several proinflammatory genes was increased significantly in polyamine-depleted CAMs. Overall, we propose Arg1 independently produced polyamines as novel regulators of the inflammatory status of the macrophage. Indeed, whereas polyamines are needed for IL-4-induced expression of several AAM mediators, they inhibit the LPS-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes in CAMs.
Laboratory of Functional Biology, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium.
The aim of this study was to determine whether steviol glycoside accumulation is under phytochrome control. The results indicate that Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants grown under short-day conditions showed precocious flowering and stagnation of steviol glycoside accumulation. Long night interruption by red LED light stimulated and sustained the vegetative growth as well as the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves. After 7 weeks of treatment, steviol glycoside content was about two-fold higher in LED-treated plants than in the short-day control group. The effects of red LED light were measured both in a greenhouse and in a phytotron, irrespective of cultivar-specific differences. Therefore, it can be concluded that a mid-night interruption by red LED light during short photoperiods provides an easy and inexpensive method to increase vegetative leaf biomass production with an increased steviol glycoside yield.
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, 81528, South Valley University, Aswan, Egypt.
A short-term experiment was designed to measure the transcript levels of downstream genes contributing to the biosynthesis of steviol glycosides. Stevia rebaudiana plants were subjected to long- and short-day conditions for different time intervals. Samples from both lower and upper leaves were collected. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the transcript levels of three UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases, UGT85C2, UGT74G1 and UGT76G1, were studied. The results were compared with the steviol glycoside contents measured in the leaves, which were quantified by reversed phase HPLC. In the same daylength condition, steviol glycoside concentration and the transcript levels of the three UGT genes were higher in upper leaves than in lower leaves. Steviol glycosides accumulated more in plants under short-day conditions. Under these conditions, a highly significant correlation was found between UGT85C2 transcription and total steviol glycoside accumulation in the upper leaves. This suggests that the glycosylation of steviol to form steviolmonoside is the rate-limiting step in the glycosylation pathway of steviol glycosides. In these upper leaves, a relatively high accumulation of rebaudioside A compared to stevioside was also observed, however, without correlation with the transcription of UGT76G1.
Alternatively activated macrophages engage in homotypic and heterotypic interactions through IL-4 and polyamine-induced E-cadherin/catenin complexes.
Jan Van den Bossche, Pieter Bogaert, Jolanda van Hengel, Christopher J Guerin, Geert Berx, Kiavash Movahedi, Rafael Van den Bergh, Anna Pereira-Fernandes, Jan M C Geuns, Hanspeter Pircher, Pierre Dorny, Johan Grooten, Patrick De Baetselier, Jo A Van Ginderachter
Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Brussels, Belgium.
Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs), triggered by IL-4 and IL-13, play a modulating role during Th2 cytokine-driven pathologies, but their molecular armament remains poorly characterized. Here, we established E-cadherin (Cdh1) as a selective marker for IL-4/IL-13-exposed mouse and human macrophages, which is STAT6-dependently induced during polarized Th2 responses associated with Taenia crassiceps helminth infections or allergic airway inflammation. The IL-4-dependent, arginase-1/ornithine decarboxylase-mediated production of polyamines is important for maximal Cdh1 induction, unveiling a novel mechanism for IL-4-dependent gene transcription. At the macrophage surface, E-cadherin forms a functional complex with the catenins that accumulates at sites of cell contact. Macrophage-specific deletion of the Cdh1 gene illustrates the implication of E-cadherin in IL-4-driven macrophage fusion and heterotypic interactions with CD103(+) and KLRG1(+) T cells. This study identifies the E-cadherin/catenin complex as a discriminative, partly polyamine-regulated feature of IL-4/IL-13-exposed alternatively activated macrophages that contributes to homotypic and heterotypic cellular interactions.
Comments to the paper by Nunes et al.(2007), Analysis of genotoxic potentiality of stevioside by comet assay, Food and Chemical Toxicology 45 (2007) 662-666.
Laboratory of Functional Biology, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B 3001 Leuven, Belgium. Jan.Geuns@bio.kuleuven.be
Stevioside (250-mg capsules) was given thrice daily for 3 days to 10 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured after nocturnal fasting, before and at different time points during the third day of the administration of stevioside. No significant differences were found between the control and the stevioside condition for blood pressure and blood biochemical parameters. The 24-hr urinary volume and urinary excretion of electrolytes were not significantly different. Likewise, no significant difference was found for mean blood glucose and insulin between control and stevioside conditions. Thus, oral stevioside is not directly effective as a hypotensive or hypoglycemic agent in healthy subjects at the dose administered in this study. Stevioside, free steviol, and steviol metabolites were analyzed in blood, feces, and urine after 3 days of stevioside administration. No uptake was found of stevioside by the gastrointestinal tract or the amounts taken up were very low and below the detection limit of the UV detector. Stomach juice did not degrade stevioside. All the stevioside reaching the colon was degraded by micro-organisms into steviol, the only metabolite found in feces. In blood plasma, no stevioside, no free steviol or other free steviol metabolites were found. However, steviol glucuronide (SV glu) was found in maximum concentrations of 33 micro g/ml (21.3 micro g steviol equivalents/ml). In urine, no stevioside or free steviol were present, but SV glu was found in amounts of up to 318 mg/24-hr urine (205 mg steviol equivalents/24 hrs). No other steviol derivatives were detected. In feces, besides free steviol, no other steviol metabolites or conjugates were detected. Steviol was excreted as SV glu in urine.
Jan M C Geuns, Marta Ledo Orriach, Rony Swennen, Guoyu Zhu, Bart Panis, Frans Compernolle, Mark Van der Auweraer
Laboratory of Functional Biology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. email@example.com
The diamines putrescine (PUT) and diaminopropane (DAP), the polyamines spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM), and the arylalkyl amines phenethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TYR), dopamine (DA), and salsolinol (SAL) were dansylated and baseline separated by LC using a Waters ODS-2 column. The dansyl derivatives were detected by fluorescence (lambda(ex): 337 nm; lambda(em): 520 nm). Besides the amine function, the phenolic OH groups of TYR, DA, and SAL were also dansylated (LC-MS, formation of N,O-didansyl [TYR] and N,O,O'-tridansyl derivatives [DA and SAL]). Calibration curves revealed response factors being appreciably lower for (N,O-didansyl) aminophenol TYR and (N,O,O'-tridansyl) DA and SAL than for N-dansylamines. However, the method is suitable as a cheap alternative to LC-MS for the simultaneous determination of polyamines and arylalkyl amines of large quantities of samples.
Jan M C Geuns, Johan Buyse, Annelies Vankeirsbilck, Elisabeth H M Temme, Frans Compernolle, Suzanne Toppet
Laboratory of Functional Biology, KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. Jan.Geuns@bio.kuleuven.be
Stevioside (250 mg capsules) was given three times daily to 10 healthy subjects. Steviol glucuronide (steviol 19-O-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid; MM, 494.58; melting point, 198-199 degrees C) was characterized in the 24 h urine as the only excretion product of oral stevioside by MS, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy. This is the first report on the unambiguous identification of steviol glucuronide in human urine.
Uptake and tissue-specific distribution of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in developing chicken embryos.
Johan Maervoet, Veerle Beck, Simon A Roelens, Adrian Covaci, Stefan Voorspoels, Jan M C Geuns, Veerle M Darras, Paul Schepens
Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. firstname.lastname@example.org
Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with high doses of individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (0.5 microg of PCB 77, 9.8 microg of PCB 153, or 10.9 microg of PCB 180) before incubation to investigate the structure-specific uptake of these compounds by the embryo and their accumulation in brain and liver tissue. In accordance with earlier publications, a gradual uptake and accumulation of these compounds was observed during the last week of embryonic development. The PCB uptake and distribution to the specific tissues did not appear to be structure dependent. Wet-weight liver PCB concentrations (18, 266, and 278 ng/g at hatching for PCB 77, PCB 153, and PCB 180, respectively) were consistently two- to fourfold higher than carcass levels (7 ng/g of PCB 77, 117 ng/g of PCB 153, and 81 ng/g of PCB 180 at hatching). Whereas liver and carcass concentrations increased exponentially between day 13 of incubation and hatching, PCB levels in brain tissue remained unaltered (range, 0.6-1.0 ng/g of PCB 77 and 8-12 ng/g of PCB 153 and PCB 180 throughout the last week of incubation). Lipid analysis of the organs suggested that the lipid composition of brain may be an important factor explaining the low PCB accumulation in this tissue.
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
A simple and highly sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) has been developed for the determination of steviol (SV) using dihydroisosteviol (DHISV) as an internal standard (IS). SV and DHISV were derivatized by reaction of the acids with 4-(bromomethyl)-7-methoxycoumarin in an aprotic solvent (DMF or acetone). The resulting ester derivatives were separated on an ODS column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm particle size) using fluorescence detection with excitation at 321 nm and emission at 391 nm. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/water (80:20 v/v) with a flow rate of 1 mL min(-)(1). A linear relationship was observed for concentrations between 0.5 and 50 microg/mL of SV, and the detection limit was 100 pg. For application of this method to samples of beer fortified with stevioside, a simple procedure for extraction of the beer with diethyl ether and derivatization in DMF was applied. Whereas beer samples spiked with SV gave a linear response over the range 0.1-15 microg/mL beer, no SV could be detected in beer samples enriched in stevioside that had been stored for over 3 years. The application of the method to plant samples involved preparation of an acid fraction containing the SV analyte, derivatization, and sample cleanup using small silica columns and thin-layer chromatography. A sensitive determination of 594 ng of steviol present in 100 mg of dry plant material was performed with high precision and accuracy.
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Atsuko Tada, Kana Takahashi, Kyoko Ishizuki, Naoki Sugimoto, Takako Suematsu, Kazunori Arifuku, Maiko Tahara, Takumi Akiyama, Yusai Ito, Takeshi Yamazaki, Hiroshi Akiyama, Yoko Kawamura
National Institute of Health Sciences.
The extract prepared from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae) contains sweet steviol glycosides, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A. Highly purified stevia extracts have become popular worldwide as a natural, low-calorie sweetener. They contain various types of steviol glycosides, and their main components are stevioside and rebaudioside A. The content of each steviol glycoside is quantified by comparing the ratios of the molecular weights and the chromatographic peak areas of the samples to those of stevioside or rebaudioside A standards of the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and other specifications. However, various commercial standard reagents of stevioside and rebaudioside A are available. Their purities are different and their exact purities are not indicated. Therefore, the measured values of stevioside and rebaudioside A contained in a sample vary according to the standard used for the quantification.In this study, we utilized an accurate method, quantitative NMR (qNMR), for determining the contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in standards, with traceability to the International System of Units (SI units). The purities of several commercial standards were determined to confirm their actual values.
Kumiko Takahashi, Yongkun Sun, Ikumi Yanagiuchi, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Miyako Komori, Tatsufumi Okino, Masaaki Kurasaki
Environmental Adaptation Science, Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
In the laboratory, using a PC12 cell system, studies have been conducted on the effects of various chemicals on apoptosis, as it is considered to be an essential part of normal development, maintenance, and defense in organisms. Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Since it is widely used as a sugar replacement, it was decided to evaluate the toxicological effects of low concentrations of stevioside on apoptosis induced by serum deprivation using the PC12 cell system. It was found that based on data from DNA electrophoresis and TUNEL signal assays stevioside enhanced apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. This enhancement was caused by increased expression of Bax and of cytochrome c released into the cytosol. These findings suggest that stevioside affects the regulation of the normal apoptotic condition. Further investigation will be needed to clarify the detailed mechanism of the enhancement due to the treatment with stevioside.
Biotechnol Adv. ;29 (6):781-91 21726623
Centre for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Institute of Technology Research and Innovation (ITRI), Deakin University, Victoria 3217, Australia. email@example.com
Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, which is commercially produced by conventional (chemical/physical) processes. This article gives an overview of the stevioside structure, various analysis technique, new technologies required and the advances achieved in recent years. An enzymatic process is established, by which the maximum efficacy and benefit of the process can be achieved. The efficiency of the enzymatic process is quite comparable to that of other physical and chemical methods. Finally, we believe that in the future, the enzyme-based extraction will ensure more cost-effective availability of stevioside, thus assisting in the development of more food-based applications.
Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extract supplementation improves lipid and carnitine profiles in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and Research Institute of Human Ecology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea.
Evaluation of steviol and its glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and commercial sweetener by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Universitá degli Studi di Milano, DiSTAM - Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche - Sezione di Nutrizione Umana, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (I), Italy.
Stevia rebaudiana leaves contain non-cariogenic and non-caloric sweeteners (steviol-glycosides) whose consumption could exert beneficial effects on human health. Steviol-glycosides are considered safe; nonetheless, studies on animals highlighted adverse effects attributed to the aglycone steviol. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two different ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography methods with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) to evaluate steviol-glycosides or steviol in Stevia leaves and commercial sweetener (Truvia((R))). Steviol-glycosides identity was preliminarily established by UV spectra comparison, molecular ion and product ions evaluation, while routine analyses were carried out in single ion reaction (SIR) monitoring their negative chloride adducts. Samples were sequentially extracted by methanol, cleaned-up by SPE cartridge and the analytes separated by UHPLC HSS C(18) column (150mmx2.1mm I.D., 1.8mum). The use of CH(2)Cl(2) added to the mobile phase as source of Cl(-) enhance sensitivity. The LLOD for stevioside, rebaudioside A, steviolbioside and steviol was 15, 50, 10 and 1ngml(-1), respectively. Assay validation demonstrated good performances in terms of accuracy (89-103%), precision (<4.3%), repeatability (<5.7%) and linearity (40-180mg/g). Stevioside (5.8+/-1.3%), rebaudioside A (1.8+/-1.2%) and rebaudioside C (1.3+/-1.4%) were the most abundant steviol-glycosides found in samples of Stevia (n=10) from southern Italy. Rebaudioside A was the main steviol-glycosides found in Truvia((R))(0.84+/-0.03%). The amounts of steviol-glycosides obtained by the UHPLC-MS method matched those given by the traditional LC-NH(2)-UV method. Steviol was found in all the leaves extract (2.7-13.2mg kg(-1)) but was not detected in Truvia((R))(<1mugkg(-1)). The proposed UHPLC-MS methods can be applied for the routine quality control of Stevia leaves and their commercial preparations.
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology, S.V.B.P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, India. email@example.com
Studies revealed that Stevia has been used throughout the world since ancient times for various purposes; for example, as a sweetener and a medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and quantify the past and current evidence for Stevia. We searched relevant papers up to 2007 in various databases. As we know that the leaves of Stevia plants have functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners, Stevia is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future. Although Stevia can be helpful to anyone, there are certain groups who are more likely to benefit from its remarkable sweetening potential. These include diabetic patients, those interested in decreasing caloric intake, and children. Stevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medicinal uses such as to lower blood sugar. Its white crystalline compound (stevioside) is the natural herbal sweetener with no calories and is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar.
An efficient microwave-assisted extraction process of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
Natural Plant Products Division, Institute of Himalyan Bioresource Technology (CSIR), Palampur-176061 (H.P), India.
INTRODUCTION Stevioside and rebaudioside-A are major low-calorie diterpene steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. They are widely used as natural sweeteners for diabetic patients, but the long extraction procedures required and the optimisation of product yield present challenging problems. OBJECTIVE To develop a rapid and effective methodology for the extraction of stevioside and rebaudioside-A from S. rebaudiana leaves and to compare yields using different extraction techniques. METHODOLOGY Dried and powdered leaves of S. rebaudiana were extracted by conventional, ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction techniques using methanol, ethanol and water as single solvents as well as in binary mixtures. Conventional cold extraction was performed at 25 degrees C for 12 h while ultrasound extraction was carried out at temperature of 35 +/- 5 degrees C for 30 min. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was carried out at a power level of 80 W for 1 min at 50 degrees C. RESULTS MAE yielded 8.64 and 2.34% of stevioside and rebaudioside-A, respectively, while conventional and ultrasound techniques yielded 6.54 and 1.20%, and 4.20 and 1.98% of stevioside and rebaudioside-A, respectively. CONCLUSION A rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction of stevioside and rebaudioside-A in optimum yields using MAE procedure. This method has the advantage of rapid extraction and fast screening of a large number of S. rebaudiana samples for assessment of planting material. MAE saves considerable time, energy and has implications in the quality assessment of stevioside and rebaudioside-A prior to their industrial production from the leaves of S. rebaudiana.
Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product - CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.).
Department of Psychobiology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Botucatu, 862 - 1 degrees andar, Edifício Ciências Biomédicas CEP 04023-062, São Paulo, S.P., Brazil.
Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity. Chronic tests carried out were: weight gain/loss and behavioral parameters in rats and in mice; estrus cycle, effects on fertility, and teratogenic studies in rats and of mutagenic features in mice, in addition to the Ames test. The following parameters were assessed in dogs: weight gain/loss, general physical conditions, water/food consumption and anatomopathological examination of the organs subsequent to the 180 days of treatment. All of the results were negative, showing that CPV administered in high doses and over a long period of time presents no toxicity, suggestive of the fact that this is an association devoid of risk for human beings. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Evaluation of supplementary stevia (Stevia rebaudiana, bertoni) leaves and stevioside in broiler diets: effects on feed intake, nutrient metabolism, blood parameters and growth performance.
Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and triiodothyronine (T(3)) but had no effect on non-esterified fatty acids. In contrast, stevioside only decreased T(3). Both the stevia leaves and stevioside diets significantly increased abdominal fat content. It is concluded that dietary enzyme growth promoters are beneficial to the broilers only during the starter stage and that inclusion of stevia leaves or stevioside has no beneficial effect on the performance of broilers.