Comparison of hydrosonography and transvaginal ultrasonography in the detection of intracavitary pathologies in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of hydrosonography with that of transvaginal ultrasonography in detection of intracavitary pathologies in patients with history of abnormal uterine bleeding. STUDY DESIGN Prospective, randomized, and unblinded study. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 197 women (n = 130 premenopausal and n = 67 postmenopausal) aged between 23 and 71 years (mean age 45.7 +/- 8.9) presenting with a history of abnormal uterine bleeding were included into the study. Hydrosonography was carried out by experienced gynecologists, on the same setting in an outpatient clinic immediately after the performance of transvaginal sonography. The finally obtained surgical-pathologic findings were compared with the results obtained from transvaginal sonography and hydrosonography. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated for each procedure. RESULTS The surgical-pathologic examination confirmed normal physiologic endometrium in 50 (48%) of 104 women who were said to have normal endometrium on transvaginal sonography. Seventy (75%) of 93 women diagnosed of intracavitary pathologies on transvaginal sonography were confirmed by surgical-pathologic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of transvaginal sonography in the detection of intracavitary pathology were 56, 68, 75, and 48%, respectively. Surgical-pathologic results revealed intracavitary pathologies in 23 (30%) of 76 women who were said to have normal endometrium on hydrosonography. Among 121 women diagnosed of intracavitary pathologies on hydrosonography, 101 (81%) women were confirmed after histological evaluation of the surgical specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of hydrosonography in the detection of intracavitary pathology were 81, 73, 83, and 70%, respectively. Sensitivity and negative predictive value were significantly higher with hydrosonography. There were five cases of endometrial malignancy in which one of the case of malignancy was on polyp and two cases of endometrial hyperplasia with atypia which were not stated on sonographic results. CONCLUSION Hydrosonography is more accurate than transvaginal ultrasography in the detection of intracavitary pathologies in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Ahalya Premkumar, David J Venzon, Nilo Avila, Diane V Johnson, Alan T Remaley, Michele R Forman, Jennifer Eng-Wong, JoAnne Zujewski, Pamela Stratton
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of raloxifene on the ovaries, uterus, and serum hormone levels in premenopausal women. DESIGN Prospective study comparing pretreatment findings with findings for those on treatment. SETTING Government research hospital. PATIENT(S) Thirty women 35 to 47 years of age who were at high risk of breast cancer and had regular, ovulatory menstrual cycles. INTERVENTION(S) Raloxifene (60 mg) and calcium (1,200 mg) daily for 2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Sonographic evidence of ovarian stimulation (>or=2 corpora lutea, or follicular cysts of >2 cm, or single follicular cyst of >3 cm). Changes in endometrial thickness, fibroid size, hormone levels, and menstrual-cycle length. RESULT(S) Fifteen subjects developed some cycles with asymptomatic ovarian stimulation, and 9 developed benign endometrial polyps, compared with 2 subjects and 1 subject pretreatment, respectively. Uterine fibroid size was unchanged during raloxifene use in 16 subjects with fibroids. On treatment, E(2) levels increased significantly only during the follicular phase, with peak E(2) levels significantly higher in cycles showing ovarian stimulation compared with those without. Sex hormone-binding globulin increased, but levels of LH, FSH, P, DHEAS, and T did not. Endometrial thickness and cycle length were unchanged. CONCLUSION(S) Premenopausal subjects receiving raloxifene showed sonographic and hormonal evidence of ovarian stimulation. Endometrial thickness, cycle length, and fibroid size were unchanged. Benign asymptomatic endometrial polyps developed in some.
Transvaginal ultrasound and diagnostic hysteroscopy as a predictor of endometrial polyps: risk factors for premalignancy and malignancy.
Gynecology Oncology Department, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
The aim of this study is to assess accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and diagnostic hysteroscopy in diagnosing endometrial polyps and to determine premalignancy and malignancy rates in asymptomatic women. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze 438 women who underwent operative hysteroscopy in a day-care unit when endometrial polyp was suspected after TVUS and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed effects of age, previous breast cancer with tamoxifen treatment, and menopause with or without bleeding on pathologic results. The results indicate that positive predictive value of TVUS with diagnostic hysteroscopy was 79.9%. Premalignancy or malignancy occurred in 3.2% and was significantly related to menopause with abnormal bleeding (P < 0.001), which carried a 20-fold higher risk of pathology than any other group. Age was also a risk factor. It was concluded that TVUS with diagnostic hysteroscopy reliably evaluates endometrial polyps. The low incidence of endometrial tumors in asymptomatic (especially premenopausal) women suggests that their operative evaluation may not be cost effective. Larger studies are needed to support this tentative conclusion.
Other papers by authors:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kahramanmaraş Sütcüimam University, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the value of hydrosonography in screening for intracavitary pathologies in infertile patients. METHODS A total of 93 infertile women with suspected intracavitary lesions on transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) underwent hydrosonography. Specimens obtained either by dilatation and curettage or hysteroscopic resection were compared with findings on TVS and hydrosonography. RESULTS Pathology confirmed the presence of sonographically diagnosed intracavitary lesions in 40 out of 66 (60%) women. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of TVS for the detection of endometrial cavity lesions were 78%, 38%, 61%, and 59%, respectively. Forty-six out of 71 (65%) women who were found to have intracavitary lesions on hydrosonography were pathologically confirmed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of hydrosonography in the detection of endometrial cavity lesions were 90%, 40%, 65%, and 77%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Hydrosonography is a useful procedure in screening for intracavitary pathologies and allows differentiation of intracavitary, endometrial, and submucosal abnormalities.
The effect of long-term use of progesterone therapy on proliferation and apoptosis in simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term use of progesterone treatment on proliferation and apoptosis in simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. In this prospective control study, endometrial tissue samples of 19 patients with simple endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (group 1), posttreatment biopsy materials of the patients after 3 months of cyclic progesterone treatment with noretisterone for 10 days (group 2), and 18 endometrial biopsy materials of the control group (group 3) were examined for proliferative and apoptotic activities. There was a statistically significant difference between the median values of the proliferative index of the three groups (P = 0.000). The proliferative index was significantly higher in the endometrial hyperplasia group than in posttreatment group (P = 0.000). But there was no significant difference between posttreatment group and control group. The median value of apoptotic activity was significantly different between three groups (P = 0.000). Apoptotic index was highest in hyperplasia group. A significant decrease in apoptosis was observed after the progesterone treatment (P = 0.002). The lowest apoptotic activity was detected in the control group. In conclusion, 3 months of cyclic progesterone treatment reduces both proliferative and apoptotic activities in endometrial tissue with simple hyperplasia.
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
We report a case of 69-year-old woman who presented with pleural metastasis of a serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary. After chemotherapy and surgery, she had 2 years disease-free survival. After this period of time, she presented with a swollen leg, a cellulitis-like syndrome and erythematous nodules at lower abdominal wall and upper leg skin. The skin biopsy revealed metastasis of adenocarcinoma in the dermis. She died after 4 months of the diagnosis of the skin metastasis. In 20 years experience in our unit, it is the first time that we recognize a cutaneous metastasis in ovarian cancer.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
A patient with cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma was treated with chemotherapy. Fourteen months after the diagnosis of the lymphoma, an endometrial adenocarcinoma was detected as a secondary malignant tumor. The patient was treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy. Approximately 7 years after the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, vaginal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed as the third primary malignancy, and a second-line palliative radiotherapy was applied. Seven months after the last radiotherapy, postradiational sarcoma in the vagina was diagnosed. Congenital and acquired immune system disorders, viral oncogenes, and various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types were investigated. Total blood count and lymphocyte subset analysis were performed, and CD4+ lymphopenia was detected. Serologic tests were carried out for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus infection. Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen IgG was found positive. Low-risk human papillomavirus panel was detected by Hybrid Capture method in the cervical smear. The HLA investigation revealed HLA-A2, HLA-A3, HLA-B57, HLA-B35, HLA-B4, HLA-B6, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR1, HLA-DR51, HLA-DR52, HLA-DQ6(1), and HLA-DQ7(3). The patient died because of the disease.
Department of Gynecologic Oncology, SSK Ankara Maternity and Women's Health Teaching Hospital, Ankara (Turkey).
PURPOSE This retrospective multicenter study aimed to assess the survival and prognostic factors of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. METHODS The medical records of 29 patients with fallopian tube carcinoma from two centers were reviewed for age, stage, surgical intervention, relapse and survival. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 56 years (range, 37-76). Six patients were in Stage I (20.7%), eight cases in Stage II (27.6%), nine cases in Stage III (31%) and two cases in Stage IV (6.9%). Data on stage was not available in four cases (13.8). Fifteen patients underwent lymph node evaluation. The median follow-up was 29 months (range, 3-122). The median survival was 95 months with a 5-year survival rate of 69.7%. The median progression-free survival was 76 months with a 5-year survival rate of 51.8%. CONCLUSION Age, stage and lymphadenectomy were found to be significant prognostic factors on overall survival.
F Demirkiran, B Kumbak, T Bese, M Arvas, A Benian, S Aydin, H Uzun, C Sanioglu, K Aydinli, D Kösebay
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To determine cyst fluid and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in patients with ovarian masses and to investigate the efficiency of this modulator in the clinical management of cystic pelvic masses. METHODS: Needle puncture for cyst fluid aspiration were performed on 88 cystic ovarian masses intraoperatively. Forty-five patients with benign and 43 patients with malignant ovarian pathology were analyzed for cyst fluid and serum VEGF concentrations. Both cystic fluid and serum VEGF concentration were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Cyst fluid VEGF levels of malignant cysts (40.65+/-17.69 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those of benign cysts (12.53+/-6.13 ng/ml; P<0.001). Similarly, higher serum VEGF concentrations were found in patients with malignant disease (0.72+/-0.17 ng/ml) compared with benign cysts (0.33+/-0.11 ng/ml; P<0.001). A statistically significant correlation was observed between cyst fluid and serum VEGF levels in both malignant and benign cysts. For serum VEGF, at a cut-off value of 0.41 ng/ml; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 95%, 78%, 80% and 95%, respectively. No significant correlation between cyst fluid VEGF concentration and tumor stage or grade could be found. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly higher concentrations of VEGF are present in cyst fluid and serum of patients with malignant ovarian cysts compared with benign ovarian ones. There is no relation between VEGF and tumor stage or grade.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
We are presenting a prenatally diagnosed case with sirenomelia, vestigial tail and polydactyly. A 30-year-old woman at 16 weeks of gestation with dichorionic twins was admitted to the hospital. Prenatal ultrasound demonstrated fusion of the lower limbs in one member and normal femurs, tibias and fibulas, and normal vertebras in the second twin, suggesting the diagnosis of sirenomelia. The twins were delivered vaginally at 35 weeks after spontaneous onset of labor. The affected newborn died after 24 hours and postnatal examination revealed unseparated lower limbs with extreme retroversion, bilateral pes equinus, unilateral postaxial polydactyly, a vestigial tail on the sacral region, a large and wide penis and anal atresia. There is only one previous report of sirenomelia with vestigial tail in the literature. However, a large, wide penis and polydactyly have not been reported before in association with this anomaly.
Surgical management of intravenous leiomyoma with cardiac extension. Do we need total circulatory arrest?
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Acibadem Kadikoy Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com
Intravenous leiomyoma of the uterus is a histologically benign, smooth-muscle tumor and may extend through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium. Surgical treatment is mandatory and single-stage resection of the tumor has gained wide acceptance as a safe and easy procedure. We describe a single-stage surgical procedure for an intravenous leiomyoma extending to the right atrium diagnosed in a routine control after myomectomy.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
Benign cystic mesothelioma is an extremely rare peritoneal tumor. It is reported in women of childbearing [corrected] age but also in males and needs a careful [corrected] differential diagnosis between benign and malign neoplasia to choose the most [corrected] adeguate therapy. A 25-year-old female [corrected] was treated in our clinic for a gigantic cystic mass (25 x 22 x 3 cm in diameter) containing [corrected] many to [corrected] cysts of different sizes. All tumoral markers were within normal range. Surgical [corrected] treatment consisted of radical excision of the mass and the prognosis was good [corrected].
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Latest similar papers:
Diagnostic value of endometrial thickness determined by transvaginal sonography in infertile women with endometrial polyps.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.
BACKGROUND Endometrial polyps (EPs) occur in approximately 34.9% of infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is a routine, non-invasive component of fertility evaluation. Most ultrasonographic studies of EPs have focused on abnormal uterine bleeding; few have assessed EPs in infertile women. Furthermore, no studies have explored endometrial thickness and its correlation with EPs in infertile women. This study aimed to assess transvaginal sonographic assessment of endometrial thickness and its value in diagnosis and prediction of EPs in infertile women. METHODS A retrospective study on 314 infertile women was conducted from June to December 2010. After TVS, endometrial biopsies were obtained by hysteroscopy. Pathologically confirmed EPs were taken as the gold standard. RESULTS Based on recognized criteria, TVS had a sensitivity of 37.04%, specificity of 98.71%, positive predictive value of 90.91%, negative predictive value of 81.85%, and accuracy of 82.80% for diagnosing EPs. Mean endometrial thickness was significantly different in patients with and without EPs (P = 0.0001). In women in the mid and late-proliferative phase, the endometrial thickness was significantly greater in those with EPs than in those without them (P = 0.0001 and 0.024). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that endometrial thickness had a sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 38% in the diagnosis of EPs, the area under the curve being 0.64. In the mid-proliferative phase, sensitivity was up to 90.9%, the area under the curve being 0.70. CONCLUSIONS TVS is poor at detecting EPs in infertile women; however, transvaginal sonographic measurement of endometrial thickness is helpful. It is suggested that the diagnostic value of TVS for EPs in infertile women could be improved by adding the measurement of endometrial thickness to the variables that are routinely assessed.
Acta Cytol. 2012 ;56 (3):233-41 22555523
New terminology for intrauterine endometrial samples: a group study by the Japanese society of clinical cytology.
Kenji Yanoh, Yasuo Hirai, Atsuhiko Sakamoto, Daisuke Aoki, Takuya Moriya, Masamichi Hiura, Takaharu Yamawaki, Keiko Shimizu, Hiroki Nakayama, Hiroshi Sasaki, Tsutomu Tabata, Masatsugu Ueda, Yasuhiro Udagawa, Yoshiaki Norimatsu
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, JA Suzuka General Hospital, Suzuka, Japan.
Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of endometrial cytology obtained by intrauterine sample using a descriptive reporting format for endometrial cytological diagnosis. Study Design: 10,152 consecutive endometrial scrapings obtained in 13 different Japanese hospitals were analyzed. Cytological results were classified as 'negative for malignancy','atypical endometrial cells'(ATEC),'endometrial hyperplasia','atypical endometrial hyperplasia' or 'malignant tumor'. ATEC was subclassified as 'ATEC, of undetermined significance'(ATEC-US) and 'ATEC, cannot exclude atypical endometrial hyperplasia or more'(ATEC-A). Cytological results were compared with the histological diagnosis as a gold standard. When the cytological result was 'negative for malignancy' and there was no subsequent histological examination, the case was considered a true negative when the endometrium was assessed as normal on transvaginal ultrasonography and there was no abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: 1,083 cases in which histology was not performed, 557 cases of 'unsatisfactory specimen' and 76 cases of ATEC-US were excluded. In the remaining 8,436 cases, the sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting atypical endometrial hyperplasia or malignant tumors were 79.0 and 99.7, 92.9 and 98.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The current diagnostic standards for endometrial cytology in Japan were established. Specificity is satisfactory for excluding cancer or precancerous diseases.
C Iavazzo, G Vorgias, G Mastorakos, G Stefanatou, A Panoussi, A Alexiadou, S Plyta, C Lekka, N Kalinoglou, V Dertimas, T Akrivos, S Fotiou
Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Endometrial brush cytology is a widely accepted method for the detection of endometrial lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of cytological sampling using Uterobrush in the screening of endometrial pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a prospective double-blind study evaluating the efficacy of the Uterobrush method (Cooper Surgical, Trumbull, USA) in the detection of endometrial abnormalities. Endometrial cytology was performed during the period January 2009 to April 2010 in all symptomatic patients that underwent dilatation and curettage. The collected samples were firstly smeared directly onto a glassslide and consequently into Thin-Prep buffer. Cytologic features were evaluated according to the criteria of Tao. The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Uterobrush method comparing the results of cytologic and histopathologic examination. RESULTS The sample of the study consisted of 100 women aged 55.8 years (range 38-78 years) with recorded data regarding Uterobrush test and classic histologic examination. Fifty-five patients were postmenopausal. A total of 92% of the samplings were performed by trainees. Endometrial carcinoma was cytologically diagnosed in 8/9 patients, whereas endometrial polyps were diagnosed in 5/34 patients (14.7%). All the patients with simple hyperplasia were correctly diagnosed with the Uterobrush method, whereas the diagnosis of complex hyperplasia with or without atypia was correct in 85.7% and 100% of patients, respectively. Regarding endometrial carcinoma, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 88.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.9%, respectively. On the other hand, regarding endometrial polyps, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 14.7%, 100%, 100% and 69.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION Uterobrush is a reliable direct intrauterine sampling for detecting endometrial abnormalities especially endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia, but not endometrial polyps. It is a well-tolerated, easy to use method, which provides generous endometrial sampling without contamination from the endocervix or the vagina.
Diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography and transvaginal sonography as compared with hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy: a prospective study.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
AIM The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy between transvaginal sonography (TVS) and sonohysterography (SHG) versus hysteroscopy (Hys) plus endometrial biopsy (EB) to evaluate uterine cavity. METHODS One hundred and sixteen patients were enrolled. These presented with infertility and/or abnormal uterine bleeding and/or suspicious uterine cavity pathology. Women consecutively underwent during the same day, to TVS, SHG and Hys plus EB by three different operators. RESULTS TVS shows excellent specificity (95.7%) in uterine polyps detection, good sensitivity (85,7%) and specificity (89.2%) in investigating endometrial hyperplasia, and excellent NPV (92.2%) in the diagnosis of submucous myomas. Diagnostic accuracy of TVS for synechiae is not evaluable. SHG demonstrates high specificity (92.8%) in the detection of uterine polyps, and high sensitivity (92.9%) and specificity (96.8%) in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. In addition it shows high sensitivity (90%), specificity (99%), PPV (92.2%), and NPV (99%) for detection of submucous myomas. Finally, SHG shows high PPV (100%) and NPV (100%) for synechiae assessment. CONCLUSION TVS could be used as first step investigation to exclude uterine pathologies. TVS could reduce the number of diagnostic Hys normally performed in women with normal uterine cavity. Furthermore SHG should be useful to diagnose the pathologies and to decide between operative Hys in-office or resectoscopic treatment.
Comparison of transvaginal sonography and double-contrast barium enema for diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis of the posterior compartment.
Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in the preoperative detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the posterior compartment. METHODS This was a prospective study of 69 consecutive patients with results of pelvic examination or symptoms suggestive of DIE of the posterior compartment. TVS and DCBE were performed before surgery by two groups of physicians specialized in endometriosis, each blinded to the results of the other technique. Imaging data were compared with histopathologic analysis of the resected specimen (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and test accuracies were calculated for both imaging modalities. RESULTS Sixty seven of the 69 women had a nodule of DIE confirmed at laparoscopy and histopathologic examination. TVS diagnosed DIE in 57 (85%) of these patients, while DCBE revealed the presence of the lesion in 24 (36%) women. For the diagnosis of posterior DIE, TVS and DCBE had, respectively, a sensitivity of 85% and 36%, specificity of 100% and 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and 100%, negative predictive value of 17% and 4% and accuracy of 85.5% and 38%. In patients with pure bowel DIE the sensitivity was 91% and 43%, specificity was 100% and 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and 100%, negative predictive value was 29% and 6% and accuracy was 91% and 45%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS TVS has a much higher sensitivity than does DCBE in detecting the presence of posterior DIE and should thus be regarded as the imaging modality of choice when there is clinical suspicion of the disease.
Prospective comparison of biopsy results from curettage and hysteroscopy in postmenopausal uterine bleeding.
Center for Uterine, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Korea.
AIM To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy by dilatation and curettage in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective observational study conducted with 112 consecutive postmenopausal women. Biopsy by dilatation and curettage was immediately followed by hysteroscopic biopsy and the histologic results were compared. RESULTS By curettage, although performed under anesthesia, 3/3 (100%) cases of endometrial hyperplasia were reported as normal proliferative endometrium. There were two endometrial cancers (1.8%) and one case was missed as normal endometrium by curettage. Among endometrial polyps, only 3/39 (7.7%) cases were diagnosed by curettage. CONCLUSIONS In postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding, biopsy by curettage may be not reliable for evaluation of endometrial pathology.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 ;31 (1):54-8 21280995
Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of saline infusion sonohysterography, transvaginal sonography and hysteroscopy.
Gayrettepe Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey. email@example.com
We aimed to compare the accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS), saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) and hysteroscopy (HS) for uterine pathologies among infertile women. A total of 346 patients were selected for operative hysteroscopy, following SIS after TVS. SİS was performed with a Cook Soft 500 IVF catheter. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated to compare the accuracy of TVS, SIS and hysteroscopy for uterine abnormalities. SIS showed a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 100% and PPV of 100% for endometrial hyperplasia, and a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for polypoid lesions. For submucosal myoma SIS showed a sensitivity of 99% with PPV of 96%. Hysteroscopy had a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 98%, 83%, 96% and 91%, respectively for overall uterine pathologies. Finally, SIS seems to be superior to TVS, for uterine pathologies, with respect to hysteroscopy as the gold standard.
Transvaginal sonographic criteria for the diagnosis of adenomyosis based on histopathologic correlation.
Ying-Lung Sun, Chen-Bin Wang, Chung-Yuan Lee, Ting-Hung Wun, Pauly Lin, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Ching-Cheng Tseng, Chun-Hung Chen, Chih-Jen Tseng
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chia Yi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of different transvaginal sonographic criteria in the diagnosis of adenomyosis, and to determine the most useful sonographic feature by comparison with histopathologic results. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 213 consecutive patients scheduled for hysterectomy underwent preoperative transvaginal sonography in this retrospective study. The diagnosis of adenomyosis was made if one or more of the following sonographic findings were present:(1) a globular uterine configuration;(2) poor definition of the endometrial-myometrial interface;(3) sub-endometrial echogenic linear striations;(4) myometrial anterior-posterior asymmetry;(5) myometrial cysts; and (6) a heterogeneous myometrial echotexture. These sonographic findings were then compared with the histopathologic findings. RESULTS The prevalence of adenomyosis was 39.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of adenomyosis were 87.1, 60.1, 59.2, 87.5 and 70.9%, respectively. We found that subendometrial echogenic linear striations, a heterogeneous myometrial echotexture, and myometrial anterior-posterior asymmetry showed greater accuracy for the diagnosis of adenomyosis. Further evaluation of these findings showed that subendometrial echogenic linear striations had the best sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values for the diagnosis of uterine adenomyosis (91.8, 67.8 and 92.9%, respectively). The presence of a globular uterine configuration was the most specific sonographic feature (78.1%), but showed poor specificity (50.6%). CONCLUSION The presence of subendometrial echogenic linear striations, a heterogeneous myometrial echotexture, and myometrial anterior-posterior asymmetry on transvaginal ultrasonography supports the diagnosis of adenomyosis. Among the transvaginal ultrasonographic findings consistent with the diagnosis of adenomyosis, subendometrial linear striations had the highest diagnostic accuracy.
Ann Saudi Med. ;28 (3):188-91 18500186
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES We compared endometrial sampling by pipelle endometrial curette with conventional dilatation and curettage (D&C) in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. METHODS Endometrial sampling with pipelle curette was performed on 100 patients followed by formal D&C. Samples were labeled as A and B, respectively, and sent to a histopathologist who was blinded as to the method of sampling. The histopathology reports of both samples were compared, taking D&C as the gold standard. RESULTS An adequate sample was obtained in 98% of cases by pipelle and in 100% of cases by D&C. Pipelle had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 100% for diagnosing endometrial carcinoma, hyperplasia and secretory endometrium. Pipelle also had high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (100%, 98% and 100%, respectively) for hyperplasia with atypia, and low sensitivity (57%) and positive predictive value (57%), but high specificity (97%) and negative predictive value (97%) for endometritis. Similarly, for proliferative endometrium, the pipelle technique had values of 94% and 93% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Both samples labeled as inadequate for histology by pipelle were polyps on the D&C report. Difficult endotracheal intubation was encountered in two cases of D&C. No other complications of the procedure were observed. CONCLUSION The pipelle is a safe device for getting an adequate endometrial sample for histology, with a high sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperplasia and malignancy.
Comparative evaluation of perimenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding by transvaginal sonography, hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy.
Sima Mukhopadhayay, Subir Kumar Bhattacharyya, Rajendra Prasad Ganguly, Kajal Kumar Patra, Nabendu Bhattacharya, Sanyasi Charan Barman
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata.
To evaluate the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women and to achieve the greatest diagnostic accuracy with the least risk, a cross-sectional study was done among 85 patients between the ages 40 and 55 years. Transvaginal sonography, hysteroscopy and histopathological examination of endometrium were done in all the cases. Kappa statistics was calculated to show the agreement between the different investigations. Considering histopathological report to be the gold standard, for diagnosis of hyperplastic endometrium, transvaginal sonography and hysteroscopy showed fair agreement (k=0.34) and good agreement (k=0.51) and hysteroscopic diagnosis of polyp showed strong agreement (k=0.81). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for diagnosis of hyperplastic endometrium were 43.75%, 95.65%, 70% and 88% respectively whereas in polyp by transvaginal sonography they were 50%, 89.16%, 100%, 98.67% respectively; by hysteroscopy these were 50%, 95.78%, 70%, 90.36% respectively in hyperplasia and 71.43%, 100%, 100%, 94.67% respectively in polyp. Transvaginal sonography is most important for diagnosis of anatomical lesion. Hysteroscopy is most specific and sensitive for diagnosis of polyp but less specific for endometrial hyperplasia.