A GC-MS method for the determination of isoxsuprine in biological fluids of the horse utilizing electron impact ionization.
Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA. email@example.com
Isoxsuprine is used to treat navicular disease and other lower-limb problems in the horse. Isoxsuprine is regulated as a class 4 compound by the Association of Racing Commissioners, International (ARCI) and, thus, requires regulatory monitoring. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method utilizing electron impact ionization was developed and validated for the quantitation of isoxsuprine in equine plasma or equine urine. The method utilized robotic solid-phase extraction and tri-methyl silyl ether products of derivatization. Products were bis-trimethylsilyl (TMS) isoxsuprine and tris-TMS ritodrine, which released intense quantifier ions m/z 178 for isoxsuprine and m/z 236 for ritodrine that were products of C-C cleavage. To our knowledge, this procedure is faster and more sensitive than other methods in the literature. Concentrations in urine and plasma of isoxsuprine were determined from a calibrator curve that was generated along with unknowns. Ritodrine was used as an internal standard and was, therefore, present in all samples, standards, and blanks. Validation data was also collected. The limit of detection of isoxsuprine in plasma was determined to be 2 ng/mL, the limit of quantitation of isoxsuprine in plasma was determined to be < 5 ng/mL. The mean coefficient of determination for the calibrator curves for plasma was 0.9925 +/- 0.0052 and for calibrator curves for urine 0.9904 +/- 0.0075. The recovery efficiencies at concentrations of 50, 200, and 300 ng/mL were 76%, 73%, and 76%, respectively, in plasma and 92%, 89%, and 91% in urine.
Spectrophotometric determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride in spiked human urine and pharmaceuticals.
Kalsang Tharpa, Kanakapura Basavaiah, Hosakere Doddarevanna Revanasiddappa, Kanakapura Basavaiah Vinay
Department of Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore, India.
Two selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISX) in spiked human urine and in pharmaceuticals. The methods are based on the oxidative-coupling reaction between 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) and ISX in the presence of Ce(SO(4))(2). The novelty of the proposed reaction is the formation of two different colored chromogens at two different pHs. The resulting product at pH<1.5 is a red colored chromogen peaking at 500nm (method A) and that formed between the pH 3.85 and 4.15, is violet colored with an absorption maximum at 580nm (method B). In both the methods, absorbance of the chromogen is found to increase linearly with the concentration of ISX as is corroborated by the correlation coefficients of 0.9989 and 0.9970, and the systems obey Beer's law over the ranges of 1.4-21.0 and 1.0-15.0microgml(-1), for method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities are 1.08 x 10(4) and 1.78 x 10(4)lmol(-1)cm(-1) for method A and method B, respectively with corresponding Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0311 and 0.0190microgcm(-2). The reaction stoichiometry, in both the methods, was evaluated by the limiting logarithmic method and was found to be 1:1 (ISX:MBTH). The methods were successfully applied to the determination of ISX in spiked human urine and pharmaceutical formulation.
Vet Ther. 2006 ;7 (2):141-55 16871496
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA.
Clonidine is classified as a class 3 performance-enhancing agent by the Association of Racing Commissioners International and thus has the potential to influence the outcome of a race. In this study, the authors developed and validated a sensitive gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer method to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of clonidine in equine plasma samples after IV administration of a single dose (0.025 mg/kg) of clonidine in horses. At this dose, clonidine produced rapid and profound sedation, which cold be quickly reversed with yohimbine. Clonidine was able to produce an analgesic effect but failed to provide maximal analgesia in all horses; the limited analgesic effect persisted for about 60 minutes.
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Development of a method for the detection and confirmation of the alpha-2 agonist amitraz and its major metabolite in horse urine.
A F Lehner, C G Hughes, W Karpiesiuk, J D Harkins, L Dirikolu, J Bosken, F Camargo, J Boyles, A Troppmann, W E Woods, T Tobin
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546-0099, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Amitraz (N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-[[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)imino]methyl]-N-methyl-methanimidamide) is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used in veterinary medicine primarily as a scabicide- or acaricide-type insecticide. As an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, it also has sedative/tranquilizing properties and is, therefore, listed as an Association of Racing Commissioners International Class 3 Foreign Substance, indicating its potential to influence the outcome of horse races. We identified the principal equine metabolite of amitraz as N-2,4-dimethylphenyl-N'-methylformamidine by electrospray ionization(+)-mass spectrometry and developed a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for its detection, quantitation, and confirmation in performance horse regulation. The GC-MS method involves derivatization with t-butyldimethylsilyl groups; selected ion monitoring (SIM) of m/z 205 (quantifier ion), 278, 261, and 219 (qualifier ions); and elaboration of a calibration curve based on ion area ratios involving simultaneous SIM acquisition of an internal standard m/z 208 quantifier ion based on an in-house synthesized d(6) deuterated metabolite. The limit of detection of the method is approximately 5 ng/mL in urine and is sufficiently sensitive to detect the peak urinary metabolite at 1 h post dose, following administration of amitraz at a 75-mg/horse intravenous dose.
Detection and confirmation of ractopamine and its metabolites in horse urine after Paylean administration.
A F Lehner, C G Hughes, J D Harkins, C Nickerson, B Mollett, L Dirikolu, J Bosken, F Camargo, J Boyles, A Troppmann, W W Karpiesiuk, W E Woods, T Tobin
108 Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0099, USA. email@example.com
We have investigated the detection, confirmation, and metabolism of the beta-adrenergic agonist ractopamine administered as Paylean to the horse. A Testing Components Corporation enzyme-linked imunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for ractopamine displayed linear response between 1.0 and 100 ng/mL with an I-50 of 10 ng/mL and an effective screening limit of detection of 50 ng/mL. The kit was readily able to detect ractopamine equivalents in unhydrolyzed urine up to 24 h following a 300-mg oral dose. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation comprised glucuronidase treatment, solid-phase extraction, and trimethylsilyl derivatization, with selected-ion monitoring of ractopamine-tris(trimethylsilane)(TMS) m/z 267, 250, 179, and 502 ions. Quantitation was elaborated in comparison to a 445 Mw isoxsuprine-bis(TMS) internal standard monitored simultaneously. The instrumental limit of detection, defined as that number of ng on column for which signal-to-noise ratios for one or more diagnostic ions fell below a value of three, was 0.1 ng, corresponding to roughly 5 ng/mL in matrix. Based on the quantitation ions for ractopamine standards extracted from urine, standard curves showed a linear response for ractopamine concentrations between 10 and 100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient r > 0.99, whereas standards in the concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL were fit to a second-order regression curve with r > 0.99. The lower limit of detection for ractopamine in urine, defined as the lowest concentration at which the identity of ractopamine could be confirmed by comparison of diagnostic MS ion ratios, ranged between 25 and 50 ng/mL. Urine concentration of parent ractopamine 24 h post-dose was measured at 360 ng/mL by GC-MS after oral administration of 300 mg. Urinary metabolites were identified by electrospray ionization (+) tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and were shown to include glucuronide, methyl, and mixed methyl-glucuronide conjugates. We also considered the possibility that an unusual conjugate added 113 amu to give an observed m/z 415 [M+H] species or two times 113 amu to give an m/z 528 [M+H] species with a daughter ion mass spectrum related to the previous one. Sulfate and mixed methyl-sulfate conjugates were revealed following glucuronidase treatment, suggesting that sulfation occurs in combination with glucuronidation. We noted a paired chromatographic peak phenomenon of apparent ractopamine metabolites appearing as doublets of equivalent intensity with nearly identical mass spectra on GC-MS and concluded that this phenomenon is consistent with Paylean being a mixture of RR, RS, SR, and SS diastereomers of ractopamine. The results suggest that ELISA-based screening followed by glucuronide hydrolysis, parent drug recovery, and TMS derivatization provide an effective pathway for detection and GC-MS confirmation of ractopamine in equine urine.
A F Lehner, P Almeida, J Jacobs, J D Harkins, W Karpiesiuk, W E Woods, L Dirikolu, J M Bosken, W G Carter, J Boyles, C Holtz, T Heller, C Nattrass, M Fisher, T Tobin
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40546, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Remifentanil (4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic acid methyl ester) is a mu-opioid receptor agonist with considerable abuse potential in racing horses. The identification of its major equine urinary metabolite, 4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic+++ acid, an ester hydrolysis product of remifentanil is reported. Administration of remifentanil HCl (5 mg, intravenous) produced clear-cut locomotor responses, establishing the clinical efficacy of this dose. ELISA analysis of postadministration urine samples readily detected fentanyl equivalents in these samples. Mass spectrometric analysis, using solid-phase extraction and trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization, showed the urine samples contained parent remifentanil in low concentrations, peaking at 1 h. More significantly, a major peak was identified as representing 4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic+++ acid, arising from ester hydrolysis of remifentanil. This metabolite reached its maximal urinary concentrations at 1 h and was present at up to 10-fold greater concentrations than parent remifentanil. Base hydrolysis of remifentanil yielded a carboxylic acid with the same mass spectral characteristics as those of the equine metabolite. In summary, these data indicate that remifentanil administration results in the appearance of readily detectable amounts of 4-methoxycarbonyl-4-[(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino]-1-piperidinepropionic+++ acid in urine. On this basis, screening and confirmation tests for this equine urinary metabolite should be optimized for forensic control of remifentanil.
J M Bosken, A F Lehner, A Hunsucker, J D Harkins, W E Woods, W Karpiesiuk, W G Carter, J Boyles, M Fisher, T Tobin
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA.
Isoxsuprine is routinely recovered from enzymatically-hydrolyzed, post-administration urine samples as parent isoxsuprine in equine forensic science. However, the specific identity of the material in horse urine from which isoxsuprine is recovered has never been established, although it has long been assumed to be a glucuronide conjugate (or conjugates) of isoxsuprine. Using ESI/MS/MS positive mode as an analytical tool, urine samples collected 4-8 h after isoxsuprine administration yielded a major peak at m/z 554 that was absent from control samples and resisted fragmentation to daughter ions. Titration of this material with increasing concentrations of sodium acetate yielded m/z peaks consistent with the presence of monosodium and disodium isoxsuprine-glucuronide complexes, suggesting that the starting material was a dipotassium-isoxsuprine-glucuronide complex. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry negative mode disclosed the presence of a m/z 476 peak that declined following enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted in the concomitant appearance of peaks at m/z 300 and 175. The resulting peaks were consistent with the presence of isoxsuprine (m/z 300) and a glucuronic acid residue (m/z 175). Examination of the daughter ion spectrum of this putative isoxsuprine-glucuronide m/z 476 peak showed overlap of many peaks with those of similar spectra of authentic morphine-3- and morphine-6-glucuronides, suggesting they were derived from glucuronic acid conjugation. These data suggest that isoxsuprine occurs in post-administration urine samples as an isoxsuprine-glucuronide conjugate and also, under some circumstances, as an isoxsuprine-glucuronide-dipotassium complex.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and musculoskeletal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in Kentucky.
Department of Veterinary Bioscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. email@example.com
Injuries sustained by horses during racing have been considered as an unavoidable part of horse racing. Many factors may be associated with the musculoskeletal injuries of Thoroughbred race horses. This study surveyed the amounts of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) in injured horse's biological system (plasma) at Kentucky racetracks from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1996. During that period, there were 84 catastrophic cases (euthanized horses) and 126 noncatastrophic cases. Plasma concentrations of NSAIDs were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in injured and control horses. The possible role of anti-inflammatory agents in musculoskeletal injuries of Thoroughbred race horses was investigated by comparing the apparent concentrations of NSAIDs in injured horses to concentrations in control horses. The plasma concentrations of phenylbutazone and flunixin were higher in injured horses than in control horses. Most injured and control horses did not have a detectable level of naproxen in their plasma samples. Further studies must be carried out to determine whether horses with higher plasma concentrations of NSAIDs have an altered risk of musculoskeletal injuries compared with other horses.
Identification of lidocaine and its metabolites in post-administration equine urine by ELISA and MS/MS.
L Dirikolu, A F Lehner, W Karpiesiuk, J D Harkins, W E Woods, W G Carter, J Boyles, M Fisher, T Tobin
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that is widely used in equine medicine. It has the advantage of giving good local anesthesia and a longer duration of action than procaine. Although approved for use in horses in training by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), lidocaine is also an Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI) Class 2 drug and its detection in forensic samples can result in significant penalties. Lidocaine was observed as a monoprotonated ion at m/z 235 by ESI+ MS/MS (electrospray ionization-positive ion mode) analysis. The base peak ion at m/z 86, representing the postulated methylenediethylamino fragment [CH2N(CH2CH3)2]+, was characteristic of lidocaine and 3-hydroxylidocaine in both ESI+ and EI (electron impact-positive ion mode) mass spectrometry. In addition, we identified an ion at m/z 427 as the principal parent ion of the ion at m/z 86, consistent with the presence of a protonated analog of 3-hydroxylidocaine-glucuronide. We also sought to establish post-administration ELISA-based 'detection times' for lidocaine and lidocaine-related compounds in urine following single subcutaneous injections of various doses (10, 40, 400 mg). Our findings suggest relatively long ELISA based 'detection times' for lidocaine following higher doses of this drug.
Pyrilamine in the horse: detection and pharmacokinetics of pyrilamine and its major urinary metabolite O-desmethylpyrilamine.
Department of Veterinary Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pyrilamine is an antihistamine used in human and veterinary medicine. As antihistamines produce central nervous system effects in horses, pyrilamine has the potential to affect the performance of racehorses. In the present study, O-desmethylpyrilamine (O-DMP) was observed to be the predominant equine urinary metabolite of pyrilamine. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of pyrilamine (300 mg/horse), serum pyrilamine concentrations declined from about 280 ng/mL at 5 min postdose to about 2.5 ng/mL at 8 h postdose. After oral administration of pyrilamine (300 mg/horse), serum concentrations peaked at about 33 ng/mL at 30 min, falling to <2 ng/mL at 8 h postdose. Pyrilamine was not detected in serum samples at 24 h postdosing by either route. After i.v. injection of pyrilamine (300 mg/horse) O-DMP was recovered at a level of about 20 microg/mL at 2 h postdose thereafter declining to about 2 ng/mL at 168 h postdose. After oral administration, the O-DMP recovery peaked at about 12 microg/mL at 8 h postdose and declined to <2 ng/mL at 168 h postdose. These results show that pyrilamine is poorly bioavailable orally (18%), and can be detected by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests in urine for up to 1 week after a single administration. Care should be taken as the data suggest that the withdrawal time for pyrilamine after repeated oral administrations is likely to be at least 1 week or longer.
Equine Vet J. 2006 Nov ;38 (6):563-9 17124848
Intravenous and intratracheal administration of trimetoquinol, a fast-acting short-lived bronchodilator in horses with 'heaves'.
F C Camargo, N E Robinson, C Berney, S Eberhart, S Baker, P DeTolve, F J Derksen, J D Harkins, A F Lehner, T Tobin
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA.
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY Trimetoquinol (TMQ) is a potent beta-adrenoceptor agonist bronchodilator used in human medicine but has not been evaluated for potential use as a therapeutic agent for horses with 'heaves'. OBJECTIVES To assess the pharmacodynamics of TMQ in horses with 'heaves' to determine potential therapeutic effects. METHODS Increasing doses of TMQ were administered to horses with 'heaves' by i.v. and intratracheal (i.t.) routes. Doses ranged 0.001-0.2 microg/kg bwt i.v. and 0.01-2 microg/kg bwt i.t. Cardiac and airways effects were assessed by measurement of heart rate (HR) and maximal change in pleural pressure (deltaPplmax), respectively. Side effects of sweating, agitation and muscle trembling were scored subjectively. Duration of action to i.v.(0.2 microg/kg bwt) and i.t.(2 microg/kg bwt) TMQ was evaluated over 6 h. RESULTS Intravenous TMQ was an exceptionally potent cardiac stimulant. Heart rate increased at 0.01 microg/kg bwt, and was still increasing after administration of highest dose, 0.2 microg/kg bwt. Airway bronchodilation, measured as a decrease in deltaPplmax, also commenced at 0.01 microg/kg bwt. By the i.t. route, TMQ was 50-100-fold less potent than by i.v. Side effects included sweating, agitation and muscle trembling. Overall, the onset of HR and bronchodilator effects was rapid, within about 3 min, but effects were over at 2 h. CONCLUSION When administered i.v. and i.t., TMQ is a highly potent cardiac stimulant and a modest bronchodilator. It may not be an appropriate pharmacological agent by i.v. and i.t. routes for the alleviation of signs in horses with 'heaves'. Further studies of TMQ by oral and aerosol routes are necessary. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE In horses, TMQ is a fast-acting bronchodilator with a short duration of action. It could be used as a rescue agent during an episode of 'heaves'. The i.v. and i.t. administration of TMQ is associated with side effects, similar to those reported for all other beta-agonists. However, other routes, such as aerosol and oral, may prove useful and safe for the alleviation of bronchoconstriction typical of 'heaves'.
Ropivacaine in the horse: its pharmacological responses, urinary detection and mass spectral confirmation.
Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
This report evaluates the pharmacological responses, urinary detection and mass spectral confirmation of ropivacaine in horses. Ropivacaine, a potent local anesthetic (LA) recently introduced in human medicine, has an estimated highest no-effect dose (HNED) of about 0.4 mg/site as determined in our abaxial sesamoid block model. Apparent ropivacaine equivalents were detectable by ELISA screening using a mepivacaine ELISA test after administration of clinically effective doses. Mass spectral examination of postadministration urine samples showed no detectable parent ropivacaine, but a compound indistinguishable from authentic 3-hydroxyropivacaine was recovered from these samples. The study shows that ropivacaine is a potent LA in the horse, that clinically effective doses can be detected in postadministration samples by ELISA-based screening, and that its major post administration urinary metabolite is 3-hydroxyropivacaine.
Clenbuterol in the horse: confirmation and quantitation of serum clenbuterol by LC-MS-MS after oral and intratracheal administration.
Maxwell H Gluck Equine Research Center and the Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506, USA.
Clenbuterol is a beta2 agonist/antagonist bronchodilator, and its identification in post-race samples may lead to sanctions. The objective of this study was to develop a specific and highly sensitive serum quantitation method for clenbuterol that would allow effective regulatory control of this agent in horses. Therefore, clenbuterol-d9 was synthesized for use as an internal standard, an automated solid-phase extraction method was developed, and both were used in conjunction with a multiple reaction monitoring liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to allow unequivocal identification and quantitation of clenbuterol in 2 mL of serum at concentrations as low as 10 pg/mL. Five horses were dosed with oral clenbuterol (0.8 microg/kg, BID) for 10 days, and serum was collected for 14 days thereafter. Serum clenbuterol showed mean trough concentrations of approximately 150 pg/mL. After the last dose on day 10, serum clenbuterol reached a peak of approximately 500 pg/mL and then declined with a half-life of approximately 7 h. Serum clenbuterol declined to 30 and 10 pg/mL at 48 and 72 h after dosing, respectively. By 96 h after dosing, the concentration was below 4 pg/mL, the limit of detection for this method. Compared with previous results obtained in parallel urinary experiments, the serum-based approach was more reliable and satisfactory for regulation of the use of clenbuterol. Clenbuterol (90 microg) was also administered intratracheally to five horses. Peak serum concentrations of approximately 230 pg/mL were detected 10 min after administration, dropping to approximately 50 pg/mL within 30 min and declining much more slowly thereafter. These observations suggest that intratracheal administration of clenbuterol shortly before race time can be detected with this serum test. Traditionally, equine drug testing has been dependent on urine testing because of the small volume of serum samples and the low concentrations of drugs found therein. Using LC-MS-MS testing, it is now possible to unequivocally identify and quantitate low concentrations (10 pg/mL) of drugs in serum. Based on the utility of this approach, the speed with which new tests can be developed, and the confidence with which the findings can be applied in the forensic situation, this approach offers considerable scientific and regulatory advantages over more traditional urine testing approaches.
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Solid-phase extraction and GC-MS analysis of potentially genotoxic cleavage products of β-carotene in primary cell cultures.
Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
A validated method for the simultaneous determination of prominent volatile cleavage products (CPs) of β-carotene in cell culture media has been developed. Target CPs comprised β-ionone (β-IO), cyclocitral (CC), dihydroactinidiolide (DHA), and 1,1,6-trimethyltetraline (TMT). CPs were extracted by solid-phase extraction applying a phenyl adsorbent, eluted with 10%(v/v) tetrahydrofuran in n-hexane, and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization. Method validation addressed linearity confirmation over two application ranges and homoscedasticity testing. Recoveries from culture media were between 71.7% and 95.7% at 1.0 μg/ml. Precision of recoveries determined in intra-day (N = 5) and inter-day (N = 15) assays were <2.0% and <4.8%, respectively. Limit of detection and limit of quantification of the analysis method were <18.0 and <53.0 ng/ml for β-IO, CC, and TMT, whereas 156 and 474 ng/ml were determined for DHA, respectively. Although extractions of blank matrix proved the absence of interfering peaks, statistical comparison between slopes determined for instrumental and total method linearity revealed significant differences. The method was successfully applied in selecting an appropriate solvent for the fortification of culture media with volatile CPs, including the determination of their availability over the incubation period. For the first time, quantification of volatile CPs in treatment solutions and culture media for primary cells becomes accessible by this validated method.
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of nitrite in biological fluids without derivatization.
Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. email@example.com
We report on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantification of nitrite in biological fluids without preceding derivatization. This method is based on the solvent extraction with ethyl acetate of nitrous acid (HONO, pK(a)= 3.29), i.e., HO(14)NO and (15)N-labeled nitrous acid (HO(15)NO) which was supplied as the sodium salt of (15)N-labeled nitrite and served as the internal standard. HO(14)NO and HO(15)NO react within the injector (at 300 degrees C) of the gas chromatograph with the solvent ethyl acetate to form presumably unlabeled and (15)N-labeled acetyl nitrite, respectively. Under negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) conditions with methane as the reagent gas, these species ionize to form O(14)NO(-)(m/z 46) and O(15)NO(-)(m/z 47), respectively. Quantification is performed by selected ion monitoring of m/z 46 for nitrite and m/z 47 for the internal standard. Nitrate at concentrations up to 20 mM does not interfere with nitrite analysis in this method. The GC-MS method was validated for the quantification of nitrite in aqueous buffer, human urine (1 mL, acidification) and saliva (0.1-1 mL, acidification), and hemolysates. The method was applied in studying reactions of nitrite (0-10 mM) with oxyhemoglobin ( approximately 6 mM) in lysed human erythrocytes (100 microL aliquots, no acidification).
Measurement of urinary F(2)-isoprostanes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is confounded by interfering substances.
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital Unit, University of Western Australia and the Cardiovascular Research Center, Perth, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Analysis of F(2)-isoprostanes in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is confounded by the presence of endogenous compounds interfering with the internal standard, 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4)(m/z 573). Previous efforts to resolve the 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) from co-eluting peaks with different solid phase extractions were unsuccessful. This study has now used a highly-deuterated, d(9)-analogue of the derivatization agent N,O-Bis(trimethyl-d(9)-silyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA-d(9)) yielding trimethylsilyl ethers, but this was not successful in resolving the 15-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4) from co-eluting peaks. It was hypothesized that interfering peaks at m/z 573 could be the tetrahydro analogue of 15-F(2t)-IsoP. However, using an authentic standard showed the interfering peaks are not due to this metabolite. In subsequent experiments good resolution was shown of the 15-F(2t)-IsoP peak using 8-F(2t)-IsoP-d(4)(m/z 573) as the internal standard. These data show that care must be taken when using GC-MS for quantitation of F(2)-IsoPs to prevent interfering substances affecting the results.
Sensitive and selective method for the determination of bisphenol-A and triclosan in serum and urine as pentafluorobenzoate-derivatives using GC-ECNI/MS.
Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
The development and validation of an analytical method is presented for the determination of bisphenol-A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), two ubiquitous contaminants, in serum and urine. The glucuronidated metabolites were first turned into their free forms to determine total BPA and TCS. The determination consisted of a solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges followed by an extractive derivatization with pentafluorobenzoylchloride. The extract was then purified on 10%(w/w) acidified silica and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron-capture negative ionization mode. Monitored ions were m/z 616 and 406 for BPA and m/z 482 and 287 for TCS, respectively. Limits of quantification were 0.5 ng/mL in serum and 0.2 ng/mL in urine for BPA and 0.1 ng/mL in serum and 0.05 ng/mL in urine for TCS. Method recoveries were between 76 and 110%, while repeatability was below 20%. The method was applied on 20 serum and 20 urine samples. The detection frequency in serum was 10% and 55% for BPA and TCS, respectively. BPA and TCS could be detected in all urine samples with median concentrations of 1.25 ng BPA/mL (range 0.58-5.20 ng/mL) and 1.71 ng TCS/mL (0.18-672 ng/mL).
A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of aripiprazole in human plasma.
Center for Human Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. Shen-Nan.Lin@hsc.utah.edu
A rugged liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for accurate monitoring of steady-state plasma aripiprazole. Haloperidol-d(4) was chosen as the internal standard. ESI of aripiprazole and haloperidol-d(4) yielded abundant MH(+) ions, m/z 448 and 379, respectively. These ions were collision-dissociated to respective product ions of m/z 285 and 168. Ion-suppression experiments with blank plasma extracts showed substantial depressions of the product ions at retention times between 0.5 to 2 min, prohibiting development of a high-throughput LC-MS-MS method. A steep-gradient elution LC permitted a robust LC-ESI-MS-MS method with a 12-min analysis time. Aripiprazole was quantified from 0.2-mL aliquots of human plasma with acceptable precision and accuracy down to a lower limit of quantitation of 2 ng/mL. Aripiprazole was stable in plasma samples stored at room temperature for 24 h or exposed to three freeze-thaw cycles and in processed extracts stored at -20 degrees C for six days or on the autosampler at 10 degrees C for four days. The method has been successfully used for determinations of steady-state concentrations of aripiprazole in human subjects given daily oral doses of 15 mg. All measured concentrations were well within the quantitative range of 2 to 400 ng/mL.
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
A new, specific and sensitive GC-MS method with electron impact ionization technique was developed for quantitative analysis of ezetimibe (EZE) in human plasma. Prior to GC analysis, EZE was derivatized with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), which is a trimethyl silylating reagent. The derivatization reaction was optimized and parameters such as catalyst, derivatization time, temperature, solvent and the volume of silylating reagent were investigated. Trimethylsilyl ether derivative of EZE was determined in selected ion monitoring (SIM, mass-to-charge ratio (m/z): 326) mode. The method was validated with respect to LOD and LOQ, precision, accuracy, linearity, specificity, stability, and recovery. The LOQ and LOD were found as 15 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. The linearity of the method ranged from 15 to 250 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.9977 +/- 0.0004 (+/- S.E.M.). The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were less than 6% and accuracies (bias) for intra- and inter-day accuracy were found between -4.04 and 9.71% at four different concentration levels (15, 40, 100, 250 ng/mL). The proposed method was successfully applied to real human plasma samples for determination of total EZE.
Determination of citrulline in human plasma, red blood cells and urine by electron impact (EI) ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Carole Rougé, Clotilde Des Robert, Alexander Robins, Olivier Le Bacquer, Marie-France De La Cochetière, Dominique Darmaun
INRA, UMR Physiologie des Adaptations Nutritionnelles, University of Nantes, and CRNH (Human Nutrition Research Center), Nantes, France.
A method was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the electron impact ionization mode to quantify citrulline in plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and urine. For all three fluids, citrulline was extracted on ion exchange resins, before derivatization to its propyl-heptaflorobutyryl-ester. Assay precision (coefficient of variation, CV) was <5%, recovery% was >90% and the within- and between-day CV were <10% on 200muL of plasma and RBC, and 400muL of urine. The current method allows for the detection of 20pmol of natural citrulline in aqueous standards, and small volumes (<100muL) of biological fluids.
Validated method for the simultaneous determination of Delta(9)-THC and Delta(9)-THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.
Helena Teixeira, Alain Verstraete, Paula Proença, Francisco Corte-Real, Paula Monsanto, Duarte Nuno Vieira
A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH THC. The compounds were quantified by selected ion recording of m/z 315.31, 329.18 and 343.16 for THC, 11-OH THC and THC-COOH, respectively, and m/z 318.27 and 346.26 for the deuterated internal standards, THC-d(3) and THC-COOH-d(3), respectively. The method proved to be precise for THC and THC-COOH both in terms of intra-day and inter-day analysis, with intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) less than 6.3, 6.6 and 6.5% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.8 and 7.7% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Day-to-day CVs were less than 3.5, 4.9 and 11.3% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.2 and 6.4% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2ng/mL for THC in oral fluid and 0.5ng/mL for THC and THC-COOH and 20ng/mL for 11-OH THC, in urine and blood. Calibration curves showed a linear relationship for THC and THC-COOH in all samples (r(2)>0.999) within the range investigated. The procedure presented here has high specificity, selectivity and sensitivity. It can be regarded as an alternative method to GC-MS for the confirmation of positive immunoassay test results, and can be used as a suitable analytical tool for the quantification of THC and THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and/or blood samples.
Sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of rosiglitazone in human plasma.
J He, Y F Hu, L F Duan, Z R Tan, L S Wang, D Wang, W Zhang, Z Li, J Liu, J H Tu, Y M Yao, Hong-Hao Zhou
Pharmacogenetics Research Institute, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, 110 Xiang Ya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China.
A sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS) method for determination of rosiglitazone in human plasma has been developed. After the addition of the internal standard, plasma samples were precipitated by acetonitrile. The compounds were separated on a proC18 column using a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 M, pH 6.5) and acetonitrile (in the ratio of 47:53, v/v) as mobile phase. A Finnigan LCQdeca plus ion trap mass spectrometer connected to a Finnigan Surveyor HPLC was used to develop and validate the method. Linearity was established for the range of concentrations 1-1000 ng/ml with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) of 0.999. The intra-day accuracy for rosiglitazone ranged from 110.0 to 99.2% at low, medium and high levels. The inter-day accuracy was less than 15%. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was identified reproducible at 1.0 ng/ml with a precision of 5.7%. After validation, the method was used to study the pharmacokinetic profile of rosiglitazone in five healthy volunteers after administration of a single oral dose (4.0mg). The proposed method enabled the unambiguous evaluation and quantitation of rosiglitazone for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or drug-drug interaction studies. A possible chromatography peak (m/z 121, its parent ion m/z 344) of N-demethyl rosiglitazone was observed at 3.49 min during determining rosiglitazone. This may be also a potential method for simultaneous determination of rosiglitazone and its metabolite N-demethyl rosiglitazone concentrations in plasma.
Pasarow Analytical Neurochemical Facility, Nancy Pritzker Laboratory of Behavioral Neurochemistry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Tryptamine (TA) occurs in trace levels in the brain, but its role in the central nervous system is not clear. However, there is evidence that TA may be a neuromodulator since it binds to specific binding sites in the brain. TA was measured as a diheptafluorobutyryl derivative in rat whole brain by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization (NCI) and single ion monitoring (SIM). d(4)-TA was used as the internal standard. The ions m/z 532 and m/z 536 were monitored to identify TA and d(4)-TA, respectively and to calculate the concentration of TA in rat whole brain which was found to be 0.19 +/- 0.08 ng g(-1)(n = 8). The results confirm the earlier TA concentrations measured by GC-MS using positive electron impact ionization. However, NCI improved the signal/noise ratio of the method increasing its sensitivity for TA.