Characterization of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in human subcutaneous adipocytes and search for novel functions.
U317 INSERM, IFR 31, Bat. L3, CHU Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse, France, and Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
Numerous studies have characterized semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) in rat fat cells but this oxidase is scarcely documented in human adipose tissue. Our aim was to further characterize SSAO in human adipose tissue (activity, mRNA and protein abundance) and to investigate whether SSAO activity can interplay with glucose and lipid metabolism in human adipocytes via the hydrogen peroxide it generates. Polyclonal antibodies directed against bovine lung SSAO allowed the detection of a substantial amount of immunoreactive protein (apparent molecular mass 100 kDa) in human subcutaneous adipocytes from either mammary or abdominal fat depots. A 4-kb mRNA was detected in fat depots using a cDNA probe designed from the placenta SSAO sequence. Almost all the oxidation of benzylamine found in adipose tissue homogenates was due to fat cells and was located in the adipocyte membrane fraction. The oxidation of benzylamine and methylamine were similar and totally inhibited by semicarbazide or hydralazine but resistant to pargyline. Histamine was poorly oxidized. Benzylamine and methylamine dose-dependently stimulated glucose transport in intact adipocytes. This insulin-like effect of amines did not increase in the presence of 0.1 mM vanadate but was inhibited by semicarbazide and antioxidants. Benzylamine and methylamine also exhibited antilipolytic effects, with complete inhibition of lipolysis at 1 mM. These results show that fat cells from non-obese subjects express a membrane-bound SSAO which readily oxidizes exogenous amines, generates hydrogen peroxide and exerts short-term insulin-like actions on glucose and lipid metabolism.
Other papers by authors:
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase substrates stimulate glucose transport and inhibit lipolysis in human adipocytes.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO) are widely distributed enzymes scavenging biogenic or exogenous amines and generating hydrogen peroxide. We asked whether human adipose tissue could express SSAO. Since hydrogen peroxide exhibits pharmacological insulin-like effects, we also tested whether its endogenous production by SSAO could mimic several insulin effects on adipocytes, such as stimulation of glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis. The benzylamine oxidation by human adipose tissue was inhibited by semicarbazide or hydralazine and resistant to pargyline or selegiline. It was due to an SSAO activity localized in adipocyte membranes. A protein of 100-kDa and a 4-kb mRNA corresponding to SSAO were identified in either mammary or abdominal subcutaneous fat depots. In isolated adipocytes, SSAO oxidized similarly benzylamine and methylamine that dose dependently stimulated glucose transport in a semicarbazide-sensitive manner. Antioxidants also inhibited the benzylamine and methylamine effects. Moreover, the ability of diverse substrates to be oxidized by adipocytes was correlated to their effect on glucose transport. Benzylamine and methylamine exerted antilipolytic effects with a maximum attained at 1 mM. These results show that human adipocytes express a membrane-bound SSAO that not only readily oxidizes exogenous amines and generates H(2)O(2), but that also interplays with glucose and lipid metabolism by exerting insulin-like actions. Based on these results and the fact that variations in plasma levels of the soluble form of SSAO have been previously reported in diabetes, we propose that determination of adipocyte SSAO, feasible on subcutaneous microbiopsies, could bring relevant information in pathologies such as obesity or diabetes.
INSERM U 317, IFR 31, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.
Endothelin-1 stimulates glucose transport in murine 3T3 adipocyte lineage, but not in human subcutaneous fat cells.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM U317, Institut Fédératif de Recherches 31, CHU Rangueil, 31403 Toulouse, France.
Dual action of octopamine on glucose transport into adipocytes: inhibition via beta3-adrenoceptor activation and stimulation via oxidation by amine oxidases.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Toulouse, France.
Octopamine, which is closely related to norepinephrine, acts as a neurotransmitter in invertebrates and is a trace amine with undefined properties in vertebrates. The octopaminergic receptors identified in insects are targets of various pesticides but are absent in vertebrates. We have established that octopamine stimulates fat cell lipolysis in mammals via activation of beta3-adrenoceptors (ARs), whereas this amine has been described elsewhere as an alpha2-AR agonist and as a substrate for monoamine oxidase (MAO) or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). Because we have recently reported that amine oxidase substrates promote glucose transport in rat and human adipocytes, the in vitro octopamine effects on lipolysis and glucose uptake were reassessed by using adipocytes from beta3-AR-deficient mice. The lipolytic effect and the counter-regulation of insulin action on glucose transport provoked by 0.1 to 1 mM octopamine or by 1 microM beta3-AR agonists found in control animals disappeared in adipocytes from beta3-AR-deficient mice. This revealed an insulin-like effect of octopamine on glucose uptake, which was dependent on its oxidation by MAO or SSAO, as was the case for tyramine and benzylamine, devoid of beta3-adrenergic agonism. Similarly, octopamine promoted glucose transport in human adipocytes and exhibited a weaker lipolytic stimulation than in rodent adipocytes. These findings indicate that, besides its lipolytic activity, octopamine exerts, at millimolar dose, dual effect on glucose transport in adipocytes: counteracting insulin action via beta3-AR activation and stimulating basal transport via its oxidation by MAO or SSAO.
U317 INSERM, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Histamine weakly stimulates lipolysis and is poorly oxidized by amine oxidases in human subcutaneous fat cells.
U317 INSERM, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France. email@example.com
U586 INSERM, IFR 31, Bat. L3, CHU Rangueil, 31403, Toulouse, France.
Effect of prolonged treatment with tyramine on glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U586, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.
The biogenic amine tyramine has been reported to stimulate in vitro glucose transport in adipocytes, cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle, and to improve in vivo glucose utilization in rats. These effects were dependent on amine oxidation, since they were blocked by inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO). We thus tested in this work whether a prolonged treatment with tyramine could improve glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. First, tyramine content of standard rodent chow was determined by HPLC and daily tyramine intake of control rats was estimated to be around 26 micromol/kg body weight. Then, tyramine was administred during 3 weeks in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 29 micromol/kg by daily i.p. injection alone or together with vanadate 0.02 micromol/kg. In another group of diabetic rats, tyramine was subcutaneously delivered at 116 micromol/kg/day by osmotic minipumps. All tyramine treatments resulted in a decrease of the hyperglycemic responses to an i.p. glucose load. Adipocytes isolated from either untreated or treated diabetic rats were sensitive to the stimulation of glucose uptake by tyramine. However, diabetic animals receiving tyramine for three weeks did not recover from their hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and glucosuria. These results show that the improvement of glucose tolerance induced by prolonged tyramine administration occurs in an insulin-depleted model and probably results from peripheral insulin-like actions of the oxidation of MAO/SSAO substrates, such as the stimulation of glucose uptake into adipocytes.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité 317, Institut Louis Bugnard Bat L3, CHU Rangueil, 31403, Toulouse, France.
Octopamine is known to exert adrenergic effects in mammals although specific octopamine receptors have been cloned only in invertebrates. It has been shown that octopamine can stimulate alpha(2)-adrenoceptors (ARs) in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human alpha(2)-ARs. More recently, we reported that octopamine stimulates lipolysis through beta(3)-rather than beta(1)-or beta(2)-AR activation in white adipocytes from different mammalian species. The present study was thus undertaken to further characterize the adrenergic properties of octopamine. For this purpose, several biological processes known to be regulated by adrenergic stimulation were studied in response to octopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and tyramine in white adipocytes from different mammals. First, octopamine was fully lipolytic in garden dormouse and Siberian hamster while tyramine was ineffective. Although being around one hundred-fold less potent that noradrenaline, octopamine was slightly more potent in these hibernators known for their high sensitivity to beta(3)-AR agonists than in rat and chiefly more active than in human adipocytes known for their limited responses to beta(3)-AR agonists. Second, octopamine reduced insulin-dependent glucose transport in rat fat cells, a response also observed with noradrenaline and selective beta(3)-AR agonists but not with beta(1)-or beta(2)-agonists. Third, human adipocytes, which endogenously express a high level of alpha(2)-ARs, exhibited a clear alpha(2)-adrenergic antilipolytic response to adrenaline but not to octopamine. Moreover, octopamine exhibited only a very weak affinity for the alpha(2A)-ARs labeled by [3H]RX821002 in human adipocyte membranes. In Syrian hamster adipocytes, which also possess alpha(2)-ARs, octopamine induced only a weak antilipolysis. Finally, octopamine was a substrate of fat cell amine oxidases, with an apparent affinity similar to that of noradrenaline. All these results demonstrate that octopamine, tyramine noradrenaline and adrenaline can be degraded by adipocyte amine oxidases. However these biogenic amines interact differently with adipocyte adrenoceptors: tyramine is inactive, adrenaline and noradrenaline activate both beta- and alpha(2)-ARs while octopamine activates only beta(3)-ARs and is devoid of alpha(2)-adrenergic agonism. Thus, octopamine could be considered as an endogenous selective beta(3)-AR agonist.
Alterations of lipid metabolism and gene expression in rat adipocytes during chronic olanzapine treatment.
J Minet-Ringuet, P C Even, P Valet, C Carpéné, V Visentin, D Prévot, D Daviaud, A Quignard-Boulange, D Tomé, R de Beaurepaire
 1Laboratoire de Psychopharmacologie, Centre Hospitalier Paul Guiraud, Villejuif, France  2INRA, UMR physiologie de la nutrition et du comportement alimentaire, Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grignon, Paris Cedex, France.
Although antipsychotics are established drugs in schizophrenia treatment, they are admittedly known to induce side effects favoring the onset of obesity and worsening its complications. Despite potential involvement of histamine receptor antagonism, or of other neurotransmitter systems, the mechanism by which antipsychotic drugs increase body weight is not elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic antipsychotic treatments can directly alter the regulation of two main functions of white adipose tissue: lipolysis and glucose utilization. The influence of a classical antipsychotic (haloperidol) was compared to that of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (ziprasidone). Cell size, lipolytic capacity and glucose transport activity were determined in white adipocytes of rats subjected to 5-week oral treatment with these antipsychotics. Gene expression of adipocyte proteins involved in glucose transport or fat storage and mobilization, such as glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), leptin, matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP9), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) was also evaluated. Adipocytes from chronic olanzapine-treated rats exhibited decreased lipolytic activity, lowered HSL expression and increased FAS expression. These changes were concomitant to enlarged fat deposition and adipocyte size. Alterations were observed in adipocytes from olanzapine-treated rats whereas the other antipsychotics did not induce any notable disorder. Our results therefore show evidence of an effect of chronic antipsychotic treatment on rat adipocyte metabolism. Thus, impairment of fat cell lipolysis should be considered as a side effect of certain antipsychotics, leading, along with the already documented hyperphagia, to the excessive weight gain observed in patients under prolonged treatment.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 January 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001948.
Latest similar papers:
J Physiol Biochem. 2012 May 1;: 22547093
Benzylamine antihyperglycemic effect is abolished by AOC3 gene invalidation in mice but not rescued by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase expression under the control of aP2 promoter.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1048, I2MC, CHU Rangueil, 31432, Toulouse, France.
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is a transmembrane enzyme that metabolizes primary amines from endogenous or dietary origin. SSAO is highly expressed in adipose, smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In each of these cell types, SSAO is implicated in different biological functions, such as glucose transport activation, extracellular matrix maturation and leucocyte extravasation, respectively. However, the physiological functions of SSAO and their involvement in pathogenesis remain uncompletely characterized. To better understand the role of adipose tissue SSAO, we investigated whether it was necessary and/or sufficient to produce the antihyperglycemic effect of the SSAO-substrate benzylamine, already reported in mice. Therefore, we crossed SSAO-deficient mice invalidated for AOC3 gene and transgenic mice expected to express human SSAO in an adipocyte-specific manner, under the control of aP2 promoter. The aP2-human AOC3 construct (aP2-hAOC3) was equally expressed in the adipose tissue of mice expressing or not the native murine form and almost absent in other tissues. However, the corresponding SSAO activity found in adipose tissue represented only 20 % that of control mice. As a consequence, the benzylamine antihyperglycemic effect observed during glucose tolerance test in control was abolished in AOC3-KO mice but not rescued in mice expressing aP2-hAOC3. The capacity of benzylamine or methylamine to activate glucose uptake in adipocytes exhibited parallel variations in the corresponding genotypes. Although the aP2-hAOC3 construct did not allow a total rescue of SSAO activity in adipose tissue, it could be assessed from our observations that adipocyte SSAO plays a pivotal role in the increased glucose tolerance promoted by pharmacological doses of benzylamine.
Physiol Res. 2012 Apr 5;: 22480418
Long-term activation of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase lowers circulating levels of uric acid in diabetic conditions.
INSERM U1048, équipe 3, I2MC, Bat. L4, CHU Rangueil, BP 84225, Toulouse Cedex 4, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Uric acid is involved in nitrogenous waste in animals, together with ammonia and urea. Uric acid has also antioxidant properties and is a surrogate marker of metabolic syndrome. We observed that the elevated plasma uric acid of high-fat fed mice was normalized by benzylamine treatment. Indeed, benzylamine is the reference substrate of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), an enzyme highly expressed in fat depots and vessels, which generates ammonia when catalysing oxidative deamination. Ammonia interferes with uric acid metabolism/solubility. Our aim was therefore to investigate whether the lowering action of benzylamine on uric acid was related to an improvement of diabetic complications, or was connected with SSAO-dependent ammonia production. First, we observed that benzylamine administration lowered plasma uric acid in diabetic db/db mice while it did not modify uric acid levels in normoglycemic and lean mice. In parallel, benzylamine improved the glycemic control in diabetic but not in normoglycemic mice, while plasma urea remained unaltered. Then, uric acid plasma levels were measured in mice invalidated for AOC3 gene, encoding for SSAO. These mice were unable to oxidize benzylamine but were not diabetic and exhibited unaltered plasma uric levels. Therefore, activated or abolished ammonia production by SSAO was without influence on uric acid in the context of normoglycemia. Our observations confirm that plasma uric acid increases with diabetes and can be normalized when glucose tolerance is improved. They also show that uric acid, a multifunctional metabolite at the crossroads of nitrogen waste and of antioxidant defences, can be influenced by SSAO, in a manner apparently related to changes in glucose homeostasis.
Cell Metab. 2012 Feb 8;15 (2):222-9 22326223
Khanh-Van Tran, Olga Gealekman, Andrea Frontini, Maria Cristina Zingaretti, Manrico Morroni, Antonio Giordano, Arianna Smorlesi, Jessica Perugini, Rita De Matteis, Andrea Sbarbati, Silvia Corvera, Saverio Cinti
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Adipose tissue expansion involves the enlargement of existing adipocytes, the formation of new cells from committed preadipocytes, and the coordinated development of the tissue vascular network. Here we find that murine endothelial cells (ECs) of classic white and brown fat depots share ultrastructural characteristics with pericytes, which are pluripotent and can potentially give rise to preadipocytes. Lineage tracing experiments using the VE-cadherin promoter reveal localization of reporter genes in ECs and also in preadipocytes and adipocytes of white and brown fat depots. Furthermore, capillary sprouts from human adipose tissue, which have predominantly EC characteristics, are found to express Zfp423, a recently identified marker of preadipocyte determination. In response to PPARγ activation, endothelial characteristics of sprouting cells are progressively lost, and cells form structurally and biochemically defined adipocytes. Together these data support an endothelial origin of murine and human adipocytes, suggesting a model for how adipogenesis and angiogenesis are coordinated during adipose tissue expansion.
Nature. 2011 Oct 6;478 (7367):110-3 21947005
Peter Arner, Samuel Bernard, Mehran Salehpour, Göran Possnert, Jakob Liebl, Peter Steier, Bruce A Buchholz, Mats Eriksson, Erik Arner, Hans Hauner, Thomas Skurk, Mikael Rydén, Keith N Frayn, Kirsty L Spalding
Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com
Adipose tissue mass is determined by the storage and removal of triglycerides in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about adipose lipid turnover in humans in health and pathology. To study this in vivo, here we determined lipid age by measuring (14)C derived from above ground nuclear bomb tests in adipocyte lipids. We report that during the average ten-year lifespan of human adipocytes, triglycerides are renewed six times. Lipid age is independent of adipocyte size, is very stable across a wide range of adult ages and does not differ between genders. Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. In obesity, triglyceride removal rate (lipolysis followed by oxidation) is decreased and the amount of triglycerides stored each year is increased. In contrast, both lipid removal and storage rates are decreased in non-obese patients diagnosed with the most common hereditary form of dyslipidaemia, familial combined hyperlipidaemia. Lipid removal rate is positively correlated with the capacity of adipocytes to break down triglycerides, as assessed through lipolysis, and is inversely related to insulin resistance. Our data support a mechanism in which adipocyte lipid storage and removal have different roles in health and pathology. High storage but low triglyceride removal promotes fat tissue accumulation and obesity. Reduction of both triglyceride storage and removal decreases lipid shunting through adipose tissue and thus promotes dyslipidaemia. We identify adipocyte lipid turnover as a novel target for prevention and treatment of metabolic disease.
SSAO substrates exhibiting insulin-like effects in adipocytes as a promising treatment option for metabolic disorders.
Josep Mercader, Zsuzsa Iffiú-Soltesz, Xavier Brenachot, Agota Földi, Petra Dunkel, Balázs Balogh, Camille Attané, Philippe Valet, Péter Mátyus, Christian Carpéné
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM U858 équipe 3, Université Paul Sabatier, IFR150, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rangueil, France.
Benzylamine exerts insulin-like effects in adipocytes (e.g., glucose uptake and antilipolysis) and improves glucose handling in rodents. In murine adipocytes, benzylamine mimics another insulin action: it enhances apelin expression in a manner that is blocked by the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 (SSAO/VAP-1) inhibitor semicarbazide. It is shown that in human adipocytes, benzylamine activates glucose transport, but its effects are not additive to maximal insulin stimulation. Benzylamine effects are hydrogen peroxide dependent. They can be reproduced by novel substrates, but not by benzaldehyde. Owing to the parallelism between the in vitro insulin mimicry and the in vivo improvement of glucose handling elicited by benzylamine in rodents, the SSAO/VAP-1 substrates, with stronger effects on human adipocytes than benzylamine, show promising applications for the treatment of insulin resistance.
Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue.
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM U1048, Equipe 3, 12MC, IFR 150, Bat. L4, CHU Rangueil, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.
An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery.
Increased primary amine oxidase expression and activity in white adipose tissue of obese and diabetic db-/- mice.
Université de Toulouse, UPS, Institut de Médecine Moléculaire de Rangueil (I2MC), Toulouse, France.
The major form of primary amine oxidase expressed in adipose tissue (AT) is encoded by AOC3 gene and is known as semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, identical to vascular adhesion protein-1 (SSAO/VAP-1). Exogenous substrates of SSAO/VAP-1 (e.g. benzylamine) stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes and improve glucose tolerance when injected in diabetic rodents. Numerous reports on the circulating, soluble SSAO/VAP-1 have univocally evidenced an increase in diabetic conditions. However, only scarce studies have investigated whether obesity and/or diabetes is accompanied with variations of AOC3 expression in AT. Therefore, we compared the SSAO/VAP-1 content in different fat depots of db-/- mice (lacking leptin receptor and being hyperphagic, diabetic and obese) and db+/- littermates (normoglycemic and lean). AOC3 expression was increased in perigonadal and subcutaneous AT of db-/- mice, while the maximal velocity of benzylamine oxidation (V (max), expressed as pmoles of hydrogen peroxide produced/min/mg protein) increased only in the latter. Indeed, the relative abundance of primary amine oxidase was increased in subcutaneous AT of db-/- mice at all the levels: mRNA, protein and activity. While considering the overall capacity to oxidise amines contained in each depot, there was an increase in the hypertrophic fat pads of the obese db-/- mice, irrespective of their anatomical location, as a result of their dramatically larger mass than in lean db+/- control. Such higher amount of AT-bound primary amine oxidase warrants further studies to determine whether SSAO/VAP-1 inhibition or activation may be useful in treating metabolic diseases.
Anja Rosenow, Tabiwang N Arrey, Freek G Bouwman, Jean-Paul Noben, Martin Wabitsch, Edwin C M Mariman, Michael Karas, Johan Renes
NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting different types of proteins, known as adipokines. These adipokines play important roles in homeostasis and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation leads to a change in adipokine secretion profile which is probably involved in disruption of homeostasis. Many adipokines have been identified but species differences and limitations of human adipose tissue material urged the need for better model systems. Here we used a human cell strain derived from a Simpson Golabi Behmel syndrome (SGBS) patient. SGBS cells have already been used in functional studies on adipocytes but not in a proteomic search for adipokines. In this study, 2D-MS/MS and nLC-MALDI-MS/MS were applied to investigate secretion profiles of SGBS adipokines. A total of 80 secreted proteins were identified; 6 proteins are novel adipocyte secreted proteins, 20 proteins have not been detected before in human adipose material and 23 additional proteins previously detected in visceral adipose tissue have been found here secreted by SGBS-cells of subcutaneous origin. It can be concluded that SGBS cells are both a valid human cell model for adipocyte secretion profiling and for searching for novel human (pre)adipocytes secreted proteins.
Effects of phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate on human primary adipocytes and fresh human adipose tissue.
P Palumbo, E Melchiorre, C La Torre, G Miconi, B Cinque, G Marchesani, G Zoccali, V G Zoccali, M Maione, G Macchiarelli, A R Vitale, P Leocata, M G Cifone, M Giuliani
Department of Health Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy. email@example.com
Recent studies introduced the novel concept of chemical lipolysis where phosphatidylcholine (PC), an active component of commercial preparations, plays a pivotal role. Other studies suggested that sodium deoxycholate (DOC), an excipient contained in medical preparations, could be the real active component performing an adipocytolytic action. We investigated the effects of PC and DOC on human primary adipocyte cultures and on human fresh adipose tissue. Human adipocytes isolated by Rodbell's method, were cultured onto type I collagen-coated glass coverslips, placed into 24-well tissue culture plates. Cells were incubated with or without DOC (5-7-9%), PC (5%) or DOC/PC mixture and observed under phase contrast microscope. After incubation, cells were stained with Oil Red-O and with acridine orange/ethidium bromide to observe necrotic cells with phase contrast microscope and fluorescent microscope, respectively. Histological specimens from adipose tissue biopsies were observed with phase contrast microscopy and with scanning electron microscopy. To investigate the lipid pattern variability in the different experimental conditions, culture medium obtained from the different treatments was subjected to lipid extraction and subsequently to thin layer chromatography (TLC). Microscopic observation of adipocytes showed that DOC treatment led to a detrimental morphological effect in a dose-dependent manner. PC treatment did not significantly affect adipocyte viability. On the contrary, results from experiments aimed to analyze the effects of PC/DOC combined treatment suggested a PC protective role against the DOC harmful effects on adipocytes. Results indicated that clinical effects, observed in local treatment with pharmaceutical preparation, could be due only to DOC, a detergent inducing nonspecific lysis of cell membranes following adipocyte necrosis. On the other hand, PC could likely be incorporated in the lipid bilayer, thus strongly reducing the disruptive DOC effects.
Proliferation and differentiation of human adipocyte precursor cells: differences between the preperitoneal and subcutaneous compartments.
University of Chile, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago, Chile.
Human adipocyte precursor cells (APC) have been characterized in their proliferation and differentiation potential from subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric depots, mostly from morbidly obese patients. Cells from the preperitoneal adipose compartment have not been characterized yet, least of all when obtained from normal weight subjects. The aim was to compare proliferation and differentiation of subcutaneous (SC) and preperitoneal (PP) APC derived from adipose tissue in healthy subjects with different body mass. SC and PP adipose tissue was obtained during surgery of inguinal hernias in five healthy non-obese subjects and three obese otherwise healthy men. APC, obtained by collagenase digestion, were cultured. Proliferation was assayed by cell counting and differentiation by oil red O staining and flow cytometry using Nile Red staining. Proliferation of SC was higher than PP APC. Such differences between both compartments were even higher in APC obtained from obese patients. Conversely PP APC differentiated earlier in vitro compared with SC cells. These results agree with published data on fat cell proliferation. However regarding differentiation, our data show that APC from deeper depots (in this case PP) differentiate earlier than subcutaneous APC. This is different to previous studies performed in mesenteric or omental adipose tissue.