Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, 197 University Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA. email@example.com
Developmental deficits that affect speech perception increase the risk of language and literacy problems, which can lead to lowered academic and occupational accomplishment. Normal development and disorders of speech perception have both been linked to temporospectral auditory processing speed. Understanding the role of dynamic auditory processing in speech perception and language comprehension has led to the development of neuroplasticity-based intervention strategies aimed at ameliorating language and literacy problems and their sequelae.
Marco Zorzi, Chiara Barbiero, Andrea Facoetti, Isabella Lonciari, Marco Carrozzi, Marcella Montico, Laura Bravar, Florence George, Catherine Pech-Georgel, Johannes C Ziegler
Department of General Psychology and Center for Cognitive Science, University of Padova, 35131 Padua, Italy.
Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more-a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.
Front Psychol. 2011 ;2 :111 21687467
Relating pitch awareness to phonemic awareness in children: implications for tone-deafness and dyslexia.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA.
Language and music are complex cognitive and neural functions that rely on awareness of one's own sound productions. Information on the awareness of vocal pitch, and its relation to phonemic awareness which is crucial for learning to read, will be important for understanding the relationship between tone-deafness and developmental language disorders such as dyslexia. Here we show that phonemic awareness skills are positively correlated with pitch perception-production skills in children. Children between the ages of seven and nine were tested on pitch perception and production, phonemic awareness, and IQ. Results showed a significant positive correlation between pitch perception-production and phonemic awareness, suggesting that the relationship between musical and linguistic sound processing is intimately linked to awareness at the level of pitch and phonemes. Since tone-deafness is a pitch-related impairment and dyslexia is a deficit of phonemic awareness, we suggest that dyslexia and tone-deafness may have a shared and/or common neural basis.
Dev Sci. 2011 May ;14 (3):566-81 21477195
Yang Zhang, Tess Koerner, Sharon Miller, Zach Grice-Patil, Adam Svec, David Akbari, Liz Tusler, Edward Carney
Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of formant exaggeration. ERP waveform analysis showed significantly enhanced N250 for formant exaggeration, which was more prominent in the right hemisphere than the left. Time-frequency analysis indicated increased neural synchronization for processing formant-exaggerated speech in the delta band at frontal-central-parietal electrode sites as well as in the theta band at frontal-central sites. Minimum norm estimates further revealed a bilateral temporal-parietal-frontal neural network in the infant brain sensitive to formant exaggeration. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that formant expansion in infant-directed speech enhances neural activities for phonetic encoding and language learning.
Human Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr., Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. email@example.com
Temporal information in acoustic signals is important for the perception of environmental sounds, including speech. This review focuses on several aspects of temporal processing within human auditory cortex and its relevance for the processing of speech sounds. Periodic non-speech sounds, such as trains of acoustic clicks and bursts of amplitude-modulated noise or tones, can elicit different percepts depending on the pulse repetition rate or modulation frequency. Such sounds provide convenient methodological tools to study representation of timing information in the auditory system. At low repetition rates of up to 8-10 Hz, each individual stimulus (a single click or a sinusoidal amplitude modulation cycle) within the sequence is perceived as a separate event. As repetition rates increase up to and above approximately 40 Hz, these events blend together, giving rise first to the percept of flutter and then to pitch. The extent to which neural responses of human auditory cortex encode temporal features of acoustic stimuli is discussed within the context of these perceptual classes of periodic stimuli and their relationship to speech sounds. Evidence for neural coding of temporal information at the level of the core auditory cortex in humans suggests possible physiological counterparts to perceptual categorical boundaries for periodic acoustic stimuli. Temporal coding is less evident in auditory cortical fields beyond the core. Finally, data suggest hemispheric asymmetry in temporal cortical processing.
Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.
We introduce a new approach, the cross-phaseogram, that captures the brain's ability to discriminate between spectrotemporally dynamic speech sounds, such as stop consonants. The goal was to develop an analysis technique for auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) that taps into the sub-millisecond temporal precision of the response but does not rely on subjective identification of individual response peaks. Using the cross-phaseogram technique, we show that time-varying frequency differences in speech stimuli manifest as phase differences in ABRs. By applying this automated and objective technique to a large dataset, we found these phase differences to be less pronounced in children who perform below average on a standardized test of listening to speech in noise. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results, and the extension of the cross-phaseogram method to a wider range of stimuli and populations.
Lower-frequency event-related desynchronization: a signature of late mismatch responses to sounds, which is reduced or absent in children with specific language impairment.
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, OX1 3UD Oxford, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Poor discrimination of nonlinguistic sounds has been implicated in language-learning problems in children, but research evidence has been inconsistent. This study included 32 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 typically developing controls aged 7-16 years. Frequency discrimination thresholds were estimated in a task where participants had to distinguish a higher-frequency tone from a 1000 Hz tone. Neurophysiological responses were assessed in an oddball paradigm. Stimuli were either 1030 or 1200 Hz pure tones (deviants) presented in a series of standard 1000 Hz tones, or syllables (deviant [da] or [bi] in a series of standard /ba/). On the behavioral task, children (7- to 11-year-olds) had high thresholds, regardless of language status, but teenagers (12-16 years) with SLI had higher thresholds than their controls. Conventional analysis of electrophysiological responses showed no difference between groups for the mismatch negativity (MMN), but the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was reduced in amplitude for smaller deviants in participants with SLI. Time-frequency analysis revealed that, whereas the MMN reflected enhanced intertrial coherence in the theta frequency band, the LDN corresponded to a period of event-related desynchronization extending across a wide low-frequency band including delta, theta, and alpha. This manifested as a drop in power in those frequencies, which was marked in the controls but reduced or absent in children with SLI across all stimulus types. This provides compelling evidence for a low-level auditory perceptual impairment in SLI that affects a processing stage after initial detection of a sound change.
Visual spatial attention and speech segmentation are both impaired in preschoolers at familial risk for developmental dyslexia.
Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale e Centro di Scienze Cognitive, Università di Padova, Italy. email@example.com
Phonological skills are foundational of reading acquisition and impaired phonological processing is widely assumed to characterize dyslexic individuals. However, reading by phonological decoding also requires rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units through serial attentional orienting, and recent studies have shown that visual spatial attention is impaired in dyslexic children. Our study investigated these different neurocognitive dysfunctions, before reading acquisition, in a sample of preschoolers including children with (N=20) and without (N=67) familial risk for developmental dyslexia. Children were tested on phonological skills, rapid automatized naming, and visual spatial attention. At-risk children presented deficits in both visual spatial attention and syllabic segmentation at the group level. Moreover, the combination of visual spatial attention and syllabic segmentation scores was more reliable than either single measure for the identification of at-risk children. These findings suggest that both visuo-attentional and perisylvian-auditory dysfunctions might adversely affect reading acquisition, and may offer a new approach for early identification and remediation of developmental dyslexia.
Medical Research Council Institute of Hearing Research, Nottingham, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. email@example.com
In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to assess learning. Here, we used an identical procedure on juvenile and adult gerbils to examine the perception of amplitude modulation (AM), a stimulus feature that is an important component of most natural sounds. On average, Adult animals could detect smaller fluctuations in amplitude (i.e., smaller modulation depths) than Juveniles, indicating immature perceptual skills in Juveniles. However, the population variance was much greater for Juveniles, a few animals displaying adult-like AM detection. To determine whether immature perceptual skills facilitated learning, we compared naïve performance on the AM detection task with the amount of improvement following additional training. The amount of improvement in Adults correlated with naïve performance: those with the poorest naïve performance improved the most. In contrast, the naïve performance of Juveniles did not predict the amount of learning. Those Juveniles with immature AM detection thresholds did not display greater learning than Adults. Furthermore, for several of the Juveniles with adult-like thresholds, AM detection deteriorated with repeated testing. Thus, immature perceptual skills in young animals were not associated with greater learning.
The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties.
Justin C Wise, Rose A Sevcik, Robin D Morris, Maureen W Lovett, Maryanne Wolf, Melanie Kuhn, Beth Meisinger, Paula Schwanenflugel
Department of Psychology, P.O. Box 5010, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Other papers by authors:
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102.
J Neurophysiol. 2012 Jul 18;: 22815409
Of Bats and Men. Focus on "Sex-dependent Hemispheric Asymmetries for Processing Frequency Modulated Sounds in the Primary Auditory Cortex of the Mustached Bat."
Since the discovery by Broca in 1863 that damage to the left cerebral hemisphere in men led to disruption of language (aphasia), clinicians, scientists, educators and the public alike have been fascinated with the topic of hemispheric asymmetry. Research across remarkably diverse scientific fields has focused on better understanding which cognitive functions are lateralized to which cerebral hemisphere, whether there are differences between males and females in brain organization for these functions, whether hemispheric asymmetry is unique to humans, and how and why cerebral asymmetry evolved. That the left hemisphere (LH) is dominant for most humans for verbal processing and the right hemisphere (RH) for most nonverbal acoustic processing is a foundational tenants of our understanding of cerebral organization and asymmetry of higher cortical function. Males are more likely than females to have speech and language lateralized to the LH, are more likely to suffer long- term aphasia after damage to the LH and are more likely to have developmental language disorders. Hemispheric asymmetry, specifically as it pertains to speech and language, is among the most studied and perhaps most contentious topics in cognitive neuroscience. Impassioned debate has raged for over half a century as to whether the neural mechanisms underlying speech perception comprise a uniquely human, specialized "closed" system which is encapsulated in the LH in a "speech organ" or "speech module" or, rather, domain-general, sharing many of the same sensory, perceptual and cognitive mechanisms used by humans as well as other species for analyzing complex acoustic signals. In this issue, Washington and Kanwal (#REF) add a provocative new finding to this ongoing debate by demonstrating that, like humans, mustached bats show sex-dependent hemispheric asymmetries for processing frequency modulated (FM) sounds in the auditory cortex., similar to those in humans.
Brain Struct Funct. 2011 Dec 23;: 22193334
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, 07102, USA, email@example.com.
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE The generalization of non-linguistic auditory perceptual training to syllable discrimination was investigated in two experiments. METHODS Participants were divided into a control and training group. Both groups came for pre and post-testing sessions spaced ten days apart. Following pre- testing, the training group also participated for five consecutive days in non-linguistic auditory perceptual training. Training was adaptive and involved active sequencing of rising and falling frequency modulated sweeps for 30 minutes per day. Sweeps were passively varied in onset frequency, duration and rate of presentation. A syllable discrimination threshold (SDT) task was used as the pre and post-test measure. In experiment 1, a /ba/-/da/ syllable continuum was used. In experiment 2, the pre-test battery was expanded to include /ba/-/da/,/ba/-/wa/, and /sa/-/sta/ syllable continua and a tone sequencing task that mimicked other parameters of training. RESULTS Results of experiment 1 revealed that the training group had a significantly lowered (better) SDT following training as compared to the control group. The extent of training-driven perceptual gain was significantly correlated with pre-training performance. In experiment 2, training resulted in a significantly lowered SDT for /ba/-/da/, but not for the other syllables or the tone sequencing task. CONCLUSIONS Results showed that task-specific attention drives generalization of auditory perceptual training from non-linguistic to linguistic contexts. Furthermore, individual differences in initial perceptual performance affect the degree of generalization following training.
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. email@example.com
Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spectrotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this question include prospective longitudinal studies of genetically at-risk infants, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and studies aimed at evaluating the effects of auditory training (including musical training) on brain organization for language. Better understanding of the origins of developmental LLI will advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in language development and lead to more effective educational and intervention strategies. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com/).
What happens when 'dyslexic' subjects do not meet the criteria for dyslexia and sensorimotor tasks are too difficult even for the controls?
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, NJ 07102, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Examination of potential overlap in autism and language loci on chromosomes 2, 7, and 13 in two independent samples ascertained for specific language impairment.
Christopher W Bartlett, Judy F Flax, Mark W Logue, Brett J Smith, Veronica J Vieland, Paula Tallal, Linda M Brzustowicz
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA. email@example.com
Specific language impairment is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments essentially restricted to the domain of language and language learning skills. This contrasts with autism, which is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by multiple impairments in language, social reciprocity, narrow interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Genetic linkage studies and family data suggest that the two disorders may have genetic components in common. Two samples, from Canada and the US, selected for specific language impairment were genotyped at loci where such common genes are likely to reside. Significant evidence for linkage was previously observed at chromosome 13q21 in our Canadian sample (HLOD 3.56) and was confirmed in our US sample (HLOD 2.61). Using the posterior probability of linkage (PPL) to combine evidence for linkage across the two samples yielded a PPL over 92%. Two additional loci on chromosome 2 and 7 showed weak evidence for linkage. However, a marker in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (7q31) showed evidence for association to SLI, confirming results from another group (O'Brien et al. 2003). Our results indicate that using samples selected for components of the autism phenotype may be a useful adjunct to autism genetics.
Neural mechanisms of language-based learning impairments: insights from human populations and animal models.
University of Connecticut, USA.
The acquisition of speech perception and consequent expression of language represent fundamental aspects of human functioning. Yet roughly 7% to 8% of children who are otherwise healthy and of normal intelligence exhibit unexplained delays and impairments in acquiring these skills. Ongoing research has revealed several key features of language disability that may provide more direct insight into underlying anomalous neural functioning. For example, evidence supports a strong association between basic defects in processing rapidly changing acoustic information and emergent disruptions in speech perception, as well as cascading effects on other forms of language development (including reading). Considerable neurobiological research has thus focused on developmental factors that might deleteriously influence rapid sensory processing. Additional research focuses on mechanisms of neural plasticity, including how such brains might be "retrained" for improved processing of language. These and related findings from human clinical studies, electrophysiological studies, neuroimaging studies, and animal models are reviewed.
Judy F Flax, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Linda S Hirsch, Linda M Brzustowicz, Christopher W Bartlett, Paula Tallal
Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark 07102, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Two family aggregation studies report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments (LIs) and reading impairments (RIs). Study 1 examined the occurrence (rate) of LI and RI in children with specific language impairment (SLI probands), a matched control group, and all nuclear family members. Study 2 included a larger sample of SLI probands, as well as their nuclear and extended family members. Probands and their family members who met specific criteria were classified as language and/or reading impaired based on current testing. In Study 1, the rates of LI and RI for nuclear family members (excluding probands) were significantly higher than those for control family members. In the SLI families, affected family members were more likely to have both LI and RI than either impairment alone. In Study 2, 68% of the SLI probands also met the diagnostic classification for RI. The language and RI rates for the other family members, excluding probands, were 25% and 23% respectively, with a high degree of co-occurrence of LI and RI (46%) in affected individuals. Significant sex ratio differences were found across generations in the families of SLI probands. There were more male than female offspring in these families, and more males than females were found to have both LIs and RIs. Results demonstrate that when LIs occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with RIs. Our data are also consistent with prior findings that males show impairments more often than females.
Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI.
Elise Temple, Gayle K Deutsch, Russell A Poldrack, Steven L Miller, Paula Tallal, Michael M Merzenich, John D E Gabrieli
Program in Neuroscience, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. email@example.com
Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexplained difficulty in reading, is associated with behavioral deficits in phonological processing. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown a deficit in the neural mechanisms underlying phonological processing in children and adults with dyslexia. The present study examined whether behavioral remediation ameliorates these dysfunctional neural mechanisms in children with dyslexia. Functional MRI was performed on 20 children with dyslexia (8-12 years old) during phonological processing before and after a remediation program focused on auditory processing and oral language training. Behaviorally, training improved oral language and reading performance. Physiologically, children with dyslexia showed increased activity in multiple brain areas. Increases occurred in left temporo-parietal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus, bringing brain activation in these regions closer to that seen in normal-reading children. Increased activity was observed also in right-hemisphere frontal and temporal regions and in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Children with dyslexia showed a correlation between the magnitude of increased activation in left temporo-parietal cortex and improvement in oral language ability. These results suggest that a partial remediation of language-processing deficits, resulting in improved reading, ameliorates disrupted function in brain regions associated with phonological processing and produces additional compensatory activation in other brain regions.
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Department of Surgery, University Hospital Birmingham, East Corridor, Ground Floor, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract and its management are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The predisposing factors that led to the occurrence of these hemorrhagic instances are largely linked to the life style of the affected persons. Designing a new strategy aimed at educating the publics and improving their awareness of the problem could effectively help in eradicating this problem with no associated risks and in bringing the mortality rates down to almost zero.
Agfa HealthCare GmbH, D-53227 Bonn, Germany. Frank@Oemig.de
The paper shortly analyses the HL7 communication standards for resolving the gap between them by developing a set of ontologies reflecting the concepts and relationships which is exemplified with the incompatible HL7 versions 2.x and 3. Bridging between the different ontologies is performed by introducing a reference ontology to which a mapping is defined. The paper discusses problems and solutions which appeared during the development process.
Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. email@example.com
Forty-two children participated in a longitudinal study that investigated the relationship between their joint engagement experience when toddlers and their development of theory of mind when preschoolers. Controlling for language comprehension at 30 months, higher preschool false belief scores were associated with more time in coordinated joint engagement earlier (18-21 mo, beta=.34) and in symbol-infused joint engagement later (27-30 mo, beta=.35) in toddlerhood. Findings suggest that the early foundation of theory of mind development is laid as toddlers attend to both social-emotional and symbolic aspects of shared events.
Language processing in reading and speech perception is fast and incremental: implications for event-related potential research.
Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
An overview of language processing during reading and listening is provided. Evidence is reviewed indicating that language processing in both domains is fast and incremental. We also discuss some aspects of normal reading and listening that are often obscured in event-related potential (ERP) research. We also discuss some apparent limitations of ERP techniques, as well as some recent indications that electroencephalographic (EEG) measures can be used to probe how lexical knowledge and lexical or structural expectations can contribute to the incremental process of language comprehension.
School of Psychology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. email@example.com
A growing body of research suggests that comprehending verbal descriptions of actions relies on an internal simulation of the described action. To assess this motor resonance account of language comprehension, we first review recent developments in the literature on perception and action, with a view towards language processing. We then examine studies of language processing from an action simulation perspective. We conclude by discussing several criteria that might be helpful with regard to assessing the role of motor resonance during language comprehension.
Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Age-related differences are observed on many measures of both perceptual and cognitive processing. Indeed, strong correlations between basic measures of hearing and vision and age-related variations in intelligence have highlighted the powerful links between perception and cognition. In this paper, links between age-related differences in auditory temporal processing and slowing in cognitive processing are explored in an effort to illuminate how older adults listen to language spoken in challenging everyday conditions. Experiments in which the signal-to-noise condition is varied to equate listening difficulty for younger and older adults and experiments that simulate auditory aging in younger listeners provide evidence that at least some of the apparent age-related differences in cognitive performance during spoken language comprehension may be secondary to auditory temporal processing differences.
[Hemodynamics in the pulp of abutment teeth after their preparation for metal-ceramic denture restoration at various degree of lateral wall convergence].
Reaction of the pulp to degree-by-degree changes (from 3 to 18 degrees) in inclination of lateral walls of abutment teeth during preparation for cermet dentures was studied by the functional diagnosis methods (electroodontodiagnosis, rheodentography) in 50 patients with intact abutment teeth. Changes in dental pulp electric conductivity and hemodynamics depended on the inclination angle formed during preparation. The optimal safe angle of the lateral wall inclination was determined to be 3-12 degrees. Increase of the angle (> 12 degrees) can lead to traumatic pulpitis.
Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Palermo, Italy. email@example.com
Language in patients with Alzheimer's disease has been extensively studied, with the exception of non-literal language comprehension. However, in our speech, we often make use of expressions, which are not necessarily interpreted on a literal ground. Comprehension of metaphors and idioms was examined in 39 patients with probable early Alzheimer's disease. The results showed that the decline of figurative language is not an early symptom of dementia and can occur independently from the impairment of propositional language. It was also found that metaphors and idioms differ as far as the predominant kind of error is concerned.
Katedry i Zakładu Farmakologii Klinicznej AM we Wrocławiu.
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used and very commonly prescribed, especially in the elderly population. Many of NSAIDs are over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, which increase risk of interactions with other drugs. Types of interactions, their clinical relevance, groups of patients with increased risk of interactions and prevention methods are shortly described.
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Members of the KE family who suffer from an inherited developmental speech-and-language disorder and normal, age-matched, controls were tested on musical abilities, including perception and production of pitch and rhythm. Affected family members were not deficient in either the perception or production of pitch, whether this involved either single notes or familiar melodies. However, they were deficient in both the perception and production of rhythm in both vocal and manual modalities. It is concluded that intonation abilities are not impaired in the affected family members, whereas their timing abilities are impaired. Neither their linguistic nor oral praxic deficits can be at the root of their impairment in timing; rather, the reverse may be true.