The noctuid Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is a major insect pest of chickpea Cicer arietinum L., pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., peanut Arachis hypogaea L., and cotton Gossypium spp., and host plant resistance is an important component for managing this pest in different crops. Because of variations in insect density and staggered flowering of the test material, it is difficult to identify cultivars with stable resistance to H. armigera across seasons and locations. To overcome these problems, we standardized the detached leaf assay to screen for resistance to this pest in chickpea, pigeonpea, peanut, and cotton under uniform insect pressure under laboratory conditions. Terminal branch (three to four fully expanded leaves) of chickpea, first fully expanded leaf of cotton, trifoliate of pigeonpea, or quadrifoliate of peanut, embedded in 3% agar-agar in a plastic cup/jar of appropriate size (250-500-ml capacity) infested with 10-20 neonate larvae can be used to screen for resistance to H. armigera. This technique keeps the leaves in a turgid condition for approximately 1 wk. The experiments can be terminated when the larvae have caused > 80% leaf damage in the susceptible check or when differences in leaf feeding between the resistant and susceptible checks are maximum. Detached leaf assay can be used as a rapid screening technique to evaluate germplasm, segregating breeding materials, and mapping populations for resistance to H. armigera in a short span of time with minimal cost, and under uniform insect infestation. It also provides useful information on antibiosis component of resistance to the target insect pest.
Detached leaf and whole plant assays for soybean aphid resistance: differential responses among resistance sources and biotypes.
Department of Entomology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA. email@example.com
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a pest of cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in North America. Recent developments in host plant resistance studies have identified at least four soybean aphid resistance genes (Rag1-4) and two soybean aphid biotypes (biotype 1 and 2), defined by differential survivability on resistant soybean. Detached soybean leaves were tested as a more rapid and practical assay to assess host plant resistance and virulence. Two susceptible lines ('Wyandot' and 'Williams 82') and two resistant lines (PI 243540 and PI 567301B) were examined. Various life history characteristics were compared among aphids on whole plants and detached leaves. Results indicated that resistance to soybean aphid was lost using detached leaves of PI 567301B but retained with PI 243540. To test for aphid virulence, net fecundities were compared among biotype 1 and biotype 2 after rearing on detached leaves of the resistant 'Jackson'(to which biotype 2 is virulent). A significant difference was detected in net fecundities among biotypes on detached leaves of Jackson and used to predict growth rates and virulence from 30 field-collected individuals of unknown virulence. No field individuals matched biotype 2 predictions, but four individuals had higher net fecundities than biotype 2 predictions (13%) and could be considered moderately virulent. The results indicated that the retention of soybean aphid resistance in detached leaves is dependent on PI and resistant source, but if resistance is retained, detached leaves could be used to determine soybean aphid virulence.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, AhMPK3 of peanut: molecular cloning, genomic organization, and heterologous expression conferring resistance against Spodoptera litura in tobacco.
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade plays a very important role in plant signal transduction mechanism. A full length cDNA of 1,514 bp length, corresponding to a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene was cloned from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on its high homology with Arabidopsis AtMPK3, the cDNA was designated as AhMPK3. It carried an open reading frame of 1,113 bp encoding a 371 amino acid polypeptide. AhMPK3 bears TEY motif in its activation loop and belongs to the A1 subgroup of MAPK family. Southern blot analysis revealed that AhMPK3 exists in two copies in peanut genome and its structural organization revealed well-conserved nature of these signaling components across different species. AhMPK3 when transiently expressed in tobacco leaves was found to localize in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing AhMPK3 exhibited enhanced resistance to first and second instar larvae of Spodoptera litura and constitutively higher transcript levels of defense response genes like PR1a, PR1b, LOX1, PI-II etc. Apart from this when wounded, transgenic plants accumulated high levels of PI-II and PR1b transcripts rapidly compared to wild type indicating the occurrence of a priming phenomenon.
Constitutive expression of a trypsin protease inhibitor confers multiple stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.
Department of Plant Science, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046, India.
Protease inhibitors have been reported to confer insect resistance in transgenic plants, except for a rice protease inhibitor that conferred drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants. We have cloned a protease inhibitor of tobacco that is expressed under treatment with ABA, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate and wounding. The cDNA codes for a six-domain serine protease inhibitor with a deduced sequence of 396 amino acids. We have generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the protease inhibitor constitutively under the 35S promoter. When analyzed in the T(2) generation, these transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to sodium chloride, variable pH and sorbitol, together with the expected resistance to the insect pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. The transgenic plants showed enhanced seed germination, root length and root-shoot ratio, significantly enhanced total chlorophyll content and reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances under stress. Under sodium chloride treatment, the transgenic plants have enhanced protease inhibitor activity. The transgenic plants exhibited a higher potassium content and an optimum Na+/K+ ratio. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic plants with constitutive protease inhibitor expression showing tolerance to a wide range variable pH in the culture medium along with other stresses.
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Influence of cytoplasmic male sterility on expression of different mechanisms of resistance in sorghum to Atherigona soccata (Diptera: Muscidae).
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, India.
Atherigona soccata (Rondani)(Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important pests of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, in Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean Europe. Exploitation of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) for hybrid production has resulted in considerable narrowing of the genetic base and may increase the vulnerability of this crop to insect pests. Therefore, we studied the expression of different mechanisms of resistance in sorghum to A. soccata in CMS (A) and maintainer (B) lines of 12 genotypes under field and greenhouse conditions. The CMS lines of A. soccata-resistant genotypes were preferred for oviposition (78.5 versus 71.5% plants with eggs) and suffered greater deadheart incidence (47.6 versus 41.6%) than the corresponding maintainer lines, whereas such differences were not apparent in CMS lines belonging to the susceptible genotypes (92.7 versus 92.3% plants with eggs and 75.6 versus 74.6% deadhearts) under multichoice field conditions. Similar differences also were observed under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. The larval period (9.0 versus 8.8 d) and pupal mortality (18.4 versus 13.4%) were greater on maintainer lines than that on the CMS lines in the resistant group. The male and female pupal weights, fecundity, and antibiosis index were greater on the CMS than on the maintainer lines. The maintainer lines showed better recovery resistance than the CMS lines, but no such differences were observed in tiller deadhearts. The differences in susceptibility to A. soccata were greater in the A. soccata resistant CMS and maintainer lines than in the CMS and maintainer lines belonging to susceptible genotypes. Conversion of A. soccata-resistant genotypes into alternate less susceptible cytoplasmic backgrounds may be undertaken for developing sorghum hybrids with stable resistance to A. soccata.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Host plant resistance is one of the important components for minimizing the losses because of sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata (Diptera: Muscidae) attack. Therefore, we studied the constitutive and inducible biochemical mechanisms of resistance to A. soccata in a diverse array of sorghum genotypes to identify lines with diverse mechanisms of resistance to this insect. Fifteen sorghum genotypes with different levels of resistance to A. soccata were evaluated. Methanol extracts of 10-d old damaged and undamaged sorghum seedlings were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Association between peak areas of the identified and unidentified compounds with parameters measuring A. soccata resistance was determined through correlation analysis. Amounts of p-hydroxy benzaldehyde and the unidentified compounds at RTs 24.38 and 3.70 min were associated with susceptibility to A. soccata. Genotypes exhibiting resistance to A. soccata were placed in four groups, and the lines showing constitutive and/or induced resistance to A. soccata with different combinations of biochemical factors potentially could be used for increasing the levels of resistance to A. soccata in sorghum.
In vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro-proteinase activation by non-host plant protease inhibitors.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India.
We evaluated 22 different host and non-host plant protease inhibitors (PIs) for in vivo inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera gut pro- and proteinases, and their biological activity against the pod borer, H. armigera, the most important pest of agriculture and horticultural crops worldwide. In vitro activation of H. armigera gut pro-proteinases (HaGPPs) in larvae fed on non-host plant PIs showed significant in vivo inhibition of HaGPPs activation in solution as well as in gel assays. The larvae fed on diet incorporated with Datura alba ness PIs showed highest inhibition of HaGPPs, followed by Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. Non-host plant PIs from Pongamia pinnata, Mucuna pruriens, Capsicum annuum, and Nigela sativa showed maximum inhibitory potential towards HaGPs in vivo, and also exhibited moderate level of inhibition of pro-proteinases. However, some of non-host plant PIs, such as those from Penganum harmala and Solanum nigrum, and the principal host plant PIs, viz., Cicer arietinum and Cajanus cajan did not inhibit HaGPP activity. Pro-proteinase level increased with the growth of the larvae, and maximum HaGPP activity was observed in the fifth-instars. Larvae fed on diets with D. alba ness PIs showed greater inhibition of HaGPPs as compared to the larvae fed on diets with P. tetragonolobus. Low concentrations of partially purified HaGPs treated with gut extract of larvae fed on D. alba ness showed that out of 10 proteinase isoforms, HaGPs 5 and 9 were activators of pro-proteinases. Larval growth and development were significantly reduced in the larvae fed on the non-host plant PIs, of which D. alba ness resulted in highest stunted growth of H. armigera larvae. The in vivo studies indicated that non-host plant PIs were good candidates as inhibitors of the HaGPs as well as HaGPPs. The PIs from the non-host plants can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera.
Homodimeric alkaline phosphatase located at Helicoverpa armigera midgut, a putative receptor of Cry1Ac contains alpha-GalNAc in terminal glycan structure as interactive epitope.
Plant Molecular and Cellular Genetics, Bose Institute, P-1/12, C.I.T. Scheme, VII-M, Kolkata 700054, India.
Helicoverpa armigera causes massive yield loss of various crops globally. Bacillus thuringiensis coded Cry1Ac toxin is effective against the pest. Through the present investigation, an alkaline phosphatase type putative receptor of the toxin was identified in the target insect gut BBMV. Lectin-ligand immunoblot assay detected the presence of alpha-GalNAc residue at the nonreducing terminal of the glycan structure in the membrane bound HaALP protein which mediates the toxin-receptor interaction.
Assessment of the suitability of Tinopal as an enhancing adjuvant in formulations of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin.
Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India.
BACKGROUND: Biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin hold great promise for the management of a wide range of insect pests. The conidia in the biopesticide formulation require an adjuvant to protect them from photoinactivation by sunlight. The suitability of Tinopal, an optical brightener used as sunscreen for baculovirus formulations, for use with B. bassiana was assessed. The aim was to study the effect of Tinopal on the growth and photoprotection of B. bassiana, and its effect on the susceptibility of insects to B. bassiana.RESULTS: Tinopal was found to have no adverse effect on the growth of B. bassiana. It was found to confer total protection ( approximately 95% conidial germination at 10 g Tinopal L(-1)) from sunlight up to 3 h of exposure, and a better survival rate than controls even up to 4 h. Helicoverpa armigera Hübner larvae fed on diet with 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal were found to have reduced growth. The duration of the larval stage increased by 3-4 days in 1 and 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal treatments. Among the moths that emerged from larvae fed on diet with 5 g kg(-1) Tinopal, a significantly high number were malformed compared with controls. The larvae that were fed diet with Tinopal showed quicker and higher mortality and required a lower effective lethal dose (LC(50)) than the controls. Tinopal was found to have a synergistic effect with B. bassiana in causing insect mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Tinopal was found to be a suitable adjuvant for B. bassiana-based biopesticide formulations. It conferred tolerance to sunlight and caused stress in the insect, leading to a synergistic effect with B. bassiana. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
In the absence of high levels of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the cultivated germplasm of chickpea, we evaluated accessions of Cicer spp. mostly Cicer reticulatum Ladzinsky, for resistance to this important pest. Under multichoice conditions in the field, 10 accessions showed lower leaf damage and lower numbers of eggs, larvae, or both of H. armigera. Of these, IG 69960, IG 72934, and IG 72936 showed significantly lower leaf feeding than the cultivated genotypes or other accessions at the vegetative and reproductive stages. Larval weight was lower or comparable with that on C. bijugum (IG 70019) and C. judaicum (IG 70032) in C. reticulatum accessions IG 72933, IG 72934, IG 72936, and IG 72953 at the seedling stage and on IG 69960 and IG 72934 at the flowering stage. The accessions showing resistance to H. armigera in the field and laboratory conditions were placed in different groups, indicating the presence of diversity in C. reticulatum accessions for resistance to this pest. Less than seven larvae survived on IG 70020, IG 72940, IG 72948, and IG 72949, and IG 72964 compared with 12 on ICC 506. Larval and total developmental periods were prolonged by 6-15 and 3-8 d, respectively, on C. reticultatum accessions compared with those on ICCC 37. Less than five larvae pupated on the C. reticulatum accessions (except IG 72958 and ICC 17163) compared with 11 in ICCC 37. Accessions showing lower leaf feeding and adverse effects on the survival and development can be used in increasing the levels and diversifying the basis of resistance to H. armigera in chickpea.
J Econ Entomol. 2005 Feb ;98:210-6 15765685
Standardization of cage techniques to screen chickpeas for resistance to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in greenhouse and field conditions.
Because of variations in insect populations and staggered flowering of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L., genotypes, it is difficult to compare the genotypic performance across seasons and locations. We standardized a cage technique to screen chickpeas for resistance to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Leaf feeding by the larvae was significantly lower on ICC 506 than on ICCC 37 when the seedlings were infested with 20 neonates per five plants at 15 d after seedling emergence or 10 neonates per three plants at the flowering stage. Maximum differences in pod damage were observed when the plants were infested with six third-instar larvae per three plants in the greenhouse, and with eight larvae per plant under field conditions. Larval weights were significantly lower on ICC 506 than on ICCC 37 across growth stages and infestation levels. At the podding stage, percentage of reduction in grain yield was significantly greater on ICCC 37 and Annigeri than on ICCV 2 and ICC 506. The no-choice test can be used to screen segregating breeding material and mapping populations for resistance to H. armigera. It also provides useful information on antibiosis mechanism of resistance to H. armigera.
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. H.email@example.com
The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut.
Phenolic compounds on the pod-surface of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan, mediate feeding behavior of Helicoverpa armigera larvae.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom.
A methanol extract of the pod surfaces of Cajanus cajan, a feeding stimulant for fifth-instar Helicoverpa armigera, was shown to contain four main phenolic compounds. Three of these were identified as isoquercitrin, quercetin, and quercetin-3-methyl ether, by comparing UV spectra and HPLC retention times with authentic standards. The fourth compound was isolated by semipreparative HPLC and determined to be 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid (stilbene) by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Quercetin, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-methyl did not affect the selection-behavior of fifth-instar H. armigera. However, larvae were deterred from feeding on glass-fiber disks impregnated with the stilbene. Furthermore, larvae exposed to quercetin-3-methyl ether consumed significant amounts of both disks. In a binary-choice bioassay, a combination of quercetin-3-methyl ether and the stilbene on one disk and pure quercetin-3-methyl ether on the other disk resulted in increased consumption of both glass-fiber disks by larvae. In contrast, consumption was reduced if the combination was presented to larvae on one disk with purified stilbene on the other disk. Cajanus cajan cultivars that varied in their susceptibility to H. armigera were surveyed forthe presence of the four phenolic compounds. An absence of quercetin and higher concentrations of isoquercitrin than the cultivated variety characterized pod surface extracts of pod-borer-resistant cultivars. In addition, the ratio of the stilbene to quercetin-3-methyl ether was greater in the pod-borer-resistant cultivars. These findings are discussed in relation to the identification of chemical characters that can be used for crop improvement.
Latest similar papers:
Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).
Department of Entomology, Cornell University-NYSAES, 630 W. North Street, Geneva, NY 14456, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.
Mol Ecol. 2012 Apr 20;: 22515600
Gossypol-enhanced P450 gene pool contributes to cotton bollworm tolerance to a pyrethroid insecticide.
National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China.
Cotton plants accumulate phytotoxins, including gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, to resist insect herbivores and pathogens. To counteract these defensive plant secondary metabolites, cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera) elevate their production of detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Besides their tolerance to phytotoxin, cotton bollworms have quickly developed resistance to deltamethrin, a widely used pyrethroid insecticide in cotton field. However, the relationship between host plant secondary metabolites and bollworm insecticide resistance is poorly understood. Here, we show that exogenously expressed CYP6AE14, a gossypol-inducible P450 of cotton bollworm, has epoxidation activity towards aldrin, an organochlorine insecticide, indicating that gossypol-induced P450s participate in insecticide metabolism. Gossypol-ingested cotton bollworm larvae showed higher midgut P450 enzyme activities and exhibited enhanced tolerance to deltamethrin. The midgut transcripts of bollworm larvae administrated with different phytochemicals and deltamethrin were then compared by microarray analysis, which showed that gossypol and deltamethrin induced the most similar P450 expression profiles. Gossypol-induced P450s exhibited high divergence and at least five of them (CYP321A1, CYP9A12, CYP9A14, CYP6AE11 and CYP6B7) contributed to cotton bollworm tolerance to deltamethrin. Knocking down one of them, CYP9A14, by plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) rendered the larvae more sensitive to the insecticide. These data demonstrate that generalist insects can take advantage of secondary metabolites from their major host plants to elaborate defence systems against other toxic chemicals, and impairing this defence pathway by RNAi holds a potential for reducing the required dosages of agrochemicals in pest control.
Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Helicoverpa are important polyphagous agricultural insect pests and they have a worldwide distribution. In this study, we report the bacterial community structure in the midgut of fifth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera, a species prevalent in the India, China, South Asia, South East Asia, Southern & Eastern Africa and Australia. Using culturable techniques, we isolated and identified members of Bacillus firmus, Bacillus niabense, Paenibacillus jamilae, Cellulomonas variformis, Acinetobacter schindleri, Micrococcus yunnanesis, Enterobacter sp., and Enterococcus cassiliflavus in insect samples collected from host plants grown in different parts of India. Besides these the presence of Sphingomonas, Ralstonia, Delftia, Paracoccus and Bacteriodetes was determined by culture independent molecular analysis. We found that Enterobacter and Enterococcus were universally present in all our Helicoverpa samples collected from different crops and in different parts of India. The bacterial diversity varied greatly among insects that were from different host plants than those from the same host plant of different locations. This result suggested that the type of host plant greatly influences the midgut bacterial diversity of H. armigera, more than the location of the host plant. On further analyzing the leaf from which the larva was collected, it was found that the H. armigera midgut bacterial community was similar to that of the leaf phyllosphere. This finding indicates that the bacterial flora of the larval midgut is influenced by the leaf surface bacterial community of the crop on which it feeds. Additionally, we found that laboratory made media or the artificial diet is a poor bacterial source for these insects compared to a natural diet of crop plant.
J Insect Sci. 2011 ;11 :129 22235942
Solid-Stemmed Wheat Does Not Affect Overwintering Mortality of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, 5403-1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1.
Abstract The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. Host plant resistance in the form of solid-stemmed wheat cultivars is the main control strategy for C. cinctus. This study investigated the effect of novel and traditional solid wheat hosts on the overwintering mortality and cold-hardiness of C. cinctus. Field conditions from 2003-2005 showed that overwintering mortality in various wheat cultivars averaged 8% and was not related to the type of wheat cultivar. Similarly, supercooling points (-22° C) were not influenced by wheat host type. C. cintus are cold-hardy; up to 80% survive 10 days at -20° C and 10% survive 40 days. Its overwintering microhabitat near the crown area of the plant is well insulated for temperatures above -10° C and remains ∼ 20° C above ambient minima. These data suggest that winter mortality is a minor factor in the population dynamics of wheat stem sawfly, and despite clear detrimental effects on larval weight and adult fitness, solid-stemmed cultivars do not reduce the ability of larvae to survive winters.
Biotechnol Adv. ;29 (6):879-88 21802504
Aphid resistance in Brassica crops: challenges, biotechnological progress and emerging possibilities.
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, India.
Aphids,(Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) a nefarious insect pest of Brassicaceae members including major vegetable and oilseed crops have coevolved with their host plant and emerged as most economically important insect pest of crop Brassicas. Their atypical feeding mechanism and unusual reproductive biology made them intractable to control below economic threshold level of damage to the crops. To a large extent aphid infestation is controlled by spraying agrochemicals of systemic mode of action and rarely by biological control. Use of systemic insecticides is highly cost intensive as well poses bigger threat of their incorporation in dietary chain. Breeding for genetic resistance against aphids has not been possible owing to the non-availability of resistance source within the crossable germplasms and lack of knowledge of the genetics of the trait. Genetic engineering with insect resistant transgenes seems to be the only potential avenue to address this difficult-to-accomplish breeding objective. Some success had been achieved in terms of developing aphid resistant cultivars through genetic engineering however, commercial utilization of such crops are still awaited. Thus protection of crops against aphids necessarily requires more research to identify either more effective insecticidal transgenes or biological phenomenon that can usher to new mechanism of resistance. The present review is an attempt to highlight the current status and possible avenues to develop aphid resistance in Brassicaceae crops.
Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, USA. email@example.com
The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.
The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia, Australia, 4072. firstname.lastname@example.org
The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.
Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Sanju Kumari, Jennifer M Sheba, Maheshwaran Marappan, Shanmugasunderam Ponnuswamy, Suresh Seetharaman, Nagarajan Pothi, Mohankumar Subbarayalu, Raveendran Muthurajan, Senthil Natesan
Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. email@example.com
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.
Evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac-expressing Bt cotton in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China.
Fengyi Liu, Zhiping Xu, Yu Cheng Zhu, Fangneng Huang, Yanhua Wang, Huiling Li, Hua Li, Congfen Gao, Weijun Zhou, Jinliang Shen
Department of Pesticide Science, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.
BACKGROUND: Evolution of resistance threatens the continued success of transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins. One of the key factors for successful resistance management is the timely implementation of monitoring programmes to detect early changes of resistance allele frequency in field populations. F(1)/F(2) screen, dose-response bioassays and field survey were used to monitor resistance to the Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in a field population of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the primary target of transgenic Bt cotton in China.RESULTS: Field survey showed an increased trend of egg populations of H. armigera on Bt cotton in the Qiuxian area from 2003 to 2007. By using the F(2) screening procedure, the resistance allele frequency in the Qiuxian (Hebei, China) population of H. armigera collected during 2007 was estimated to be 0.075 (95% CI: 0.053-0.100), which was 12 times greater than that estimated 9 years ago. Dose-response bioassay with the field population collected from the same area showed a significant resistance level (11-fold) to Cry1Ac toxin compared to a laboratory susceptible strain.CONCLUSION: This study documented a case of field-evolved resistance in H. armigera after several years of intensive planting of Bt cotton. Proactive tactics must be adopted to prevent further increase of resistance gene frequency in the Qiuxian region. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.
ABSTRACT Severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum, group II (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) have been occurring on wheat crops in the northcentral United States and southern Canada. Evaluation of resistance to FHB is difficul, because resistance is partial and infection depends upon host plant maturity. Variance component analysis was conducted to determine how best to allocate resources among environments, replications, and subsamples (heads per plot) in FHB screening nurseries. Advanced breeding lines from the Ohio State University wheat-breeding program were evaluated in screening nurseries from 1995 to 1997. Nurseries were artificially inoculated and sprinkler-irrigated to induce FHB epidemics. Over 80% of the variation within an environment resulted from variation associated with subsampling individual heads within plots. The second greatest source of variation was due to genotype by replication interactions. Host plant maturity influenced disease ratings in 1997. The repeatability of genotype means was approximately 50% within environments. The greatest reduction in genotype standard errors was obtained through additional environments, and then replications. Because the cost of an additional environment was estimated at five times the cost of an additional replication, the most cost-effective improvement in precision was obtained through the addition of replications. Advanced breeding lines should be evaluated in at least four replications per environment. Segregating populations will require more replications.