UCSD School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 0830, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. email@example.com
The disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism are unusual in their variety of clinical presentations and in the mechanisms by which these presentations result from the fundamental mutations. In the most common of the hyperuricemic metabolic disorders, deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, the fundamental deficiency in the activity of an enzyme of purine salvage leads to enormous overactivity of de novo pathway of purine synthesis and purine overproduction. In the other hyperuricemic disorder, that of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, mutation leads not to deficient activity, but superactivity of the enzyme in an early stage of the synthetic pathway leading to overproduction. A number of disorders of purine metabolism lead to immunodeficiency; these include adenosine deaminase deficiency and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Marked susceptibility to infection is also seen in disorders of pyrimidine metabolism, classically in orotic aciduria, but also in pyrimidine nucleotide depletion syndrome. Orotic aciduria is a disorder of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, UMP synthetase deficiency, in which a single gene mutation can cause deficiency of two enzyme activities, orotic phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase which reside in a single protein. Pyrimidine degradation defects, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and dihydropyrimidinase deficiencies leading to developmental delay are detected by analysis of the urine for pyrimidines and dihydropyrimidines. The recent discovery of aminoimidazolecarboxamideriboside deficiency points up the utility of simple colorimetric tests in bringing to light disorders of metabolism. Adenylosuccinatelyase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency illustrate the same point.
Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207, USA.
A rhodamine based boronic acid linearly responds to increasing 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAr) concentrations in human urine. This method is thus an advance in detecting adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency as AICAr is a model riboside for the ADSL substrates succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside (SAICAr). ADSL deficiency is a rare but devastating disease of de novo purine synthesis in infants. Its diagnosis is also significant as it is one of the autism spectrum disorders.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2012 ;2012 :467101 22474479
Rosa Romano, Loredana Palamaro, Anna Fusco, Leucio Iannace, Stefano Maio, Ilaria Vigliano, Giuliana Giardino, Claudio Pignata
Department of Pediatrics,"Federico II" University, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are disorders of the immune system, which lead to increased susceptibility to infections. T-cell defects, which may affect T-cell development/function, are approximately 11% of reported PIDs. The pathogenic mechanisms are related to molecular alterations not only of genes selectively expressed in hematopoietic cells but also of the stromal component of the thymus that represents the primary lymphoid organ for T-cell differentiation. With this regard, the prototype of athymic disorders due to abnormal stroma is the Nude/SCID syndrome, first described in mice in 1966. In man, the DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) has long been considered the human prototype of a severe T-cell differentiation defect. More recently, the human equivalent of the murine Nude/SCID has been described, contributing to unravel important issues of the T-cell ontogeny in humans. Both mice and human diseases are due to alterations of the FOXN1, a developmentally regulated transcription factor selectively expressed in skin and thymic epithelia.
Vet Rec. 2011 Aug 20;169 (8):209 21742684
Division of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG. firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. email@example.com
The contributions of genetic influences in both rare and common epilepsies are rapidly being elucidated, and neurologists routinely consider genetic testing in the workup of numerous epilepsy syndromes. Trends in patient attitudes and developments in clinical molecular diagnostics will increase interest in, and the availability of genetic tests for, genetic evaluations of epilepsies. We review recent and planned developments in clinical genetic testing platforms, including their indications, strengths, and limitations. We discuss genome-wide microarray methods (i.e., methods to detect copy number variations), karyotypes, and sequence-based testing. We outline the general approach to genetic evaluations of epilepsy, emphasizing the importance of clinical evaluations, and provide online clinical resources. Finally, we present potential social, legal, and financial barriers to genetic evaluations, and discuss concerns regarding clinical utility and recurrence risk. This review provides a practical overview of molecular diagnostics for the neurologist in the genetic evaluation of epilepsies in 2011.
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edif. Severo Ochoa, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.
Almost all living organisms need to obtain molybdenum from the external medium to achieve essential processes for life. Activity of important enzymes such as sulfite oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and nitrate reductase is strictly dependent on the presence of Mo in its active site. Cells take up Mo in the form of the oxianion molybdate, but the molecular nature of the transporters is still not well known in eukaryotes. MOT1 is the first molybdate transporter identified in plant-type eukaryotic organisms, but it is absent in animal genomes. Here we report a molybdate transporter different from the MOT1 family, encoded by the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gene MoT2, that is also present in animals including humans. The knockdown of CrMoT2 transcription leads to the deficiency of molybdate uptake activity in Chlamydomonas. In addition, heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of MoT2 genes from Chlamydomonas and humans support the functionality of both proteins as molybdate transporters. Characterization of CrMOT2 and HsMOT2 activities showed an apparent Km of about 550 nM that, though higher than the Km reported for MOT1, still corresponds to high affinity systems. CrMoT2 transcription is activated when extracellular molybdate concentration is low but in contrast to MoT1 is not activated by nitrate. Analysis of protein databases revealed the presence of four motifs present in all the proteins with high similarity to MOT2, that label a previously undescribed family of proteins probably related to molybdate transport. Our results open the way toward the understanding of molybdate transport as part of molybdenum homeostasis and Moco biosynthesis in animals.
Division of Epidemiology, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates cereals worldwide and is a common contaminant in the Western European diet. At high doses, DON induces acute gastrointestinal toxicity; chronic, low-dose effects in humans are not well described, but immunotoxicity has been reported. In this study, 2-DE was used to identify proteomic changes in human B (RPMI1788) and T (JurkatE6.1) lymphocyte cell lines after exposure to minimally toxic concentrations (up to 500 ng/mL) for 24 h. Proteins which changed their abundance post treatment, by a greater than 1.4-fold change reproducible in three separate experiments consisting of 36 gels in total, are ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L3, proteasome subunit β type-4 and α type-6, inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2, GMP synthase, microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 1 (EB1), RNA polymerases I, II, III subunit ABC1, triosephosphate isomerase and transketolase. Flow cytometry was used to validate changes to protein expression, except for EB1. These findings provide insights as to how low-dose exposure to DON may affect human immune function and may provide mechanism-based biomarkers for DON exposure.
Dipartimento di Biologia, Unità di Biochimica, Università di Pisa, Via San Zeno, 51, 56127 Pisa, Italy. email@example.com
Brain relies on circulating nucleosides, mainly synthesised de novo in the liver, for the synthesis of nucleotides, RNA, nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, coenzymes, and pyrimidine sugar- and lipid-conjugates. Essentially, the paths of nucleoside salvage in the brain include a two step conversion of inosine and guanosine to IMP and GMP, respectively, and a one step conversion of adenosine, uridine, and cytidine, to AMP, UMP, and CMP, respectively. With the exception of IMP, the other four nucleoside monophosphates are converted to their respective triphosphates via two successive phosphorylation steps. Brain ribonucleotide reductase converts nucleoside diphosphates to their deoxy counterparts. The delicate qualitative and quantitative balance of intracellular brain nucleoside triphosphates is maintained by the relative concentrations of circulating nucleosides, the specificity and the K(m) values of the transport systems and of cytosolic and mitochondrial nucleoside kinases and 5'-nucleotidases, and the relative rates of nucleoside triphosphate extracellular release. A cross talk between extra- and intra-cellular nucleoside metabolism exists, in which released nucleoside triphosphates, utilised as neuroactive signals, are catabolised by a membrane bound ectonucleotidase cascade system to their respective nucleosides, which are uptaken into brain cytosol, and converted back to nucleoside triphosphates by the salvage enzymes. Finally, phosphorolysis of brain nucleosides generates pentose phosphates, which are utilised for nucleoside interconversion, 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate synthesis, and energy repletion. This review focuses on these aspects of brain nucleoside metabolism, with the aim of giving a comprehensive picture of the metabolic network of nucleosides in normoxic conditions, with some hints on the derangements in anoxic/ischemic conditions.
Area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system in the brain: a review of current literature.
Department of Zoology, University of West Hungary, Savaria Campus, Szombathely, Károlyi Gáspár tér 4., 9700 Hungary. firstname.lastname@example.org
Nucleosides, such as uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine, may participate in the regulation of sleep, cognition, memory and nociception, the suppression of seizures, and have also been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of some neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under pathological conditions, levels of nucleosides change extremely in the brain, indicating their participation in the pathophysiology of disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. These findings have resulted in an increasing attention to the roles of nucleosides in the central nervous system. The specific effects of nucleosides depend on the expression of their receptors and transporters in neuronal and glial cells, as well as their extracellular concentrations in the brain. A complex interlinked metabolic network and transporters of nucleosides may balance nucleoside levels in the brain tissue under normal conditions and enable the fine modulation of neuronal and glial processes via nucleoside receptor signaling mechanisms. Brain levels of nucleosides were found to vary when measured in a variety of different brain regions. In addition, nucleoside levels also depend on age and gender. Furthermore, distributions of nucleoside transporters and receptors as well as nucleoside metabolic enzyme activities demonstrate the area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system, suggesting different roles of nucleosides in functionally different brain areas. The aim of this review article is to summarize our present knowledge of the area-, age- and gender-dependent distribution of nucleoside levels, nucleoside metabolic enzyme activity, nucleoside receptors and nucleoside transporters in the brain.
Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in patients with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.
Department of Biochemistry, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey. email@example.com
Martin Welin, Jörg Günter Grossmann, Susanne Flodin, Tomas Nyman, Pål Stenmark, Lionel Trésaugues, Tetyana Kotenyova, Ida Johansson, Pär Nordlund, Lari Lehtiö
Structural Genomics Consortium, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
Human purine de novo synthesis pathway contains several multi-functional enzymes, one of which, tri-functional GART, contains three enzymatic activities in a single polypeptide chain. We have solved structures of two domains bearing separate catalytic functions: glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase and aminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase. Structures are compared with those of homologous enzymes from prokaryotes and analyzed in terms of the catalytic mechanism. We also report small angle X-ray scattering models for the full-length protein. These models are consistent with the enzyme forming a dimer through the middle domain. The protein has an approximate seesaw geometry where terminal enzyme units display high mobility owing to flexible linker segments. This resilient seesaw shape may facilitate internal substrate/product transfer or forwarding to other enzymes in the pathway.
Other papers by authors:
Lesch-nyhan variant syndrome: real-time rt-PCR for mRNA quantification in variable presentation in three affected family members.
a Department of Medicine, Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, The Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center, School of Medicine , University of California San Diego , San Diego , California , USA.
Inherited mutations of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) give rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or variants (LNV). We report molecular insights from real-time RT-PCR for HPRT mRNA quantification into the mechanism by which a single mutation located in exon 7 of the HPRT gene: c.500G>T, p.R167M, led to different clinical phenotypes from three male LNV-affected patients in the same family manifesting parallel differences in enzymatic activities. This approach can be applied for understanding genotype-phenotype correlations for other human genetic diseases.
Mol Genet Metab. 2012 Jun 19;: 22766437
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: mRNA expression of HPRT in patients with enzyme proven deficiency of HPRT and normal HPRT coding region of the DNA.
Department of Medicine, Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, The Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, Building CTF, Room C-103, 214 Dickinson Street, San Diego, CA 92103-8467, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
Inherited mutation of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or Lesch-Nyhan variants (LNV). We report a case of two LNS affected members of a family with deficiency of activity of HPRT in intact cultured fibroblasts in whom mutation could not be found in the HPRT coding sequence but there was markedly decreased HPRT expression of mRNA.
Korea Genetic Research Center, Cheong Ju, Heung Deok Gu, Republic of Korea. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND In hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, impaired ornithine transport across the mitochondrial membrane causes ornithine accumulation in cytoplasm. The resulting mitochondrial ornithine deficiency leads to reduced clearance of ammonia through the urea cycle. First described in 1969, no long-term follow-up has been reported. METHODS Four patients were followed up for 11 to 38y. Diagnosis was made by plasma amino acid analysis using ion exchange chromatography, HPLC orotic acid measurement, and (14)C-ornithine incorporation study using cultured fibroblasts. DNA from fibroblasts was amplified and sequenced. Blood ammonia was controlled by restriction of protein intake. RESULTS All patients had reduced (14)C-ornithine incorporation. Mutation analysis revealed two novel mutations in the ORNT1 gene. Neurologic outcome included memory loss, low IQ, tremor, spasticity of extremities, bladder incontinence, and abnormal gait. Neuroimaging revealed subcortical, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, sparing the basal ganglia. Individual examination showed pyramidal signs, cerebellar signs, paraplegia, movement disorder, dystonia, and epilepsy. One patient had 3 pregnancies, one of which resulted in intrauterine growth retardation. CONCLUSIONS Our patients expand the clinical phenotype of adults with HHH. Long-term follow-up showed serious neurologic outcomes in all patients; three patients clearly exhibited progression of neurologic dysfunction despite control of hyperammonemia. Intracellular ornithine deficiency may adversely affect brain functions.
Nat Genet. 2011 Sep ;43 (9):883-6 21841779
Jennifer L Sloan, Jennifer J Johnston, Irini Manoli, Randy J Chandler, Caitlin Krause, Nuria Carrillo-Carrasco, Suma D Chandrasekaran, Justin R Sysol, Kevin O'Brien, Natalie S Hauser, Julie C Sapp, Heidi M Dorward, Marjan Huizing, Bruce A Barshop, Susan A Berry, Philip M James, Neena L Champaigne, Pascale de Lonlay, Vassilli Valayannopoulos, Michael D Geschwind, Dimitar K Gavrilov, William L Nyhan, Leslie G Biesecker, Charles P Venditti
Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
We used exome sequencing to identify the genetic basis of combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria (CMAMMA). We sequenced the exome of an individual with CMAMMA and followed up with sequencing of eight additional affected individuals (cases). This included one individual who was identified and diagnosed by searching an exome database. We identify mutations in ACSF3, encoding a putative methylmalonyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA synthetase as a cause of CMAMMA. We also examined a canine model of CMAMMA, which showed pathogenic mutations in a predicted ACSF3 ortholog. ACSF3 mutant alleles occur with a minor allele frequency of 0.0058 in ∼1,000 control individuals, predicting a CMAMMA population incidence of ∼1:30,000. ACSF3 deficiency is the first human disorder identified as caused by mutations in a gene encoding a member of the acyl-CoA synthetase family, a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved proteins, and may emerge as one of the more common human metabolic disorders.
Department of Medicine, Biochemical Genetics and Metabolism, The Mitochondrial and Metabolic Disease Center, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, San Diego, California 92103-8467, USA. email@example.com
Inherited mutation of a purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) or HPRT-related gout. Here, we report five novel independent mutations in the coding region of the HPRT gene from five unrelated male patients manifesting different clinical phenotypes associated with LNS: exon 2: c.133A > G, p.45R > G; c.35A > C, p.12D > A; c.88delG; exon 7: c.530A > T, p.177D > V; and c.318 + 1G > C: IVS3 + 1G > C splice site mutation.
Mutat Res. 2010 Oct 13;692 (1-2):1-5 20638392
Analysis of the HPRT1 gene in 35 Italian Lesch-Nyhan families: 45 patients and 77 potential female carriers.
Paola de Gemmis, Laura Anesi, Elisa Lorenzetto, Ilenia Gioachini, Elisabetta Fortunati, Gessica Zandonà, Erika Fanin, Lynette Fairbanks, Gilberto Andrighetto, Pietro Parmigiani, Diego Dolcetta, William L Nyhan, Uros Hladnik
Mauro Baschirotto Institute for Rare Diseases, B.I.R.D. Foundation, 36023 Costozza di Longare, Vicenza, Italy.
Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Krista Grosse-Redlinger, Christopher J Boys, Laurence Charnas, Noelle Otten, Robyn Broock, William L Nyhan
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, MMC 8404, 13-124 PWB, 516 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Amino Acids. 2009 Oct ;37 (4):673-80 18850309
Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr., San Diego, CA, 92182-7251, USA.
The influence of alanine on plasma amino acid concentrations and fuel substrates as well as cycling performance was examined. Four solutions [6% alanine (ALA); 6% sucrose (CHO); 6% alanine and 6% sucrose (ALA-CHO); an artificially sweetened placebo (PLC)] were tested using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design. During each trial, ten cyclists ingested 500 mL of test solution 30 min before exercise and 250 mL after 15, 30, and 45 min of exercise. Participants cycled for 45 min at 75% VO(2)max followed by a 15-min performance trial. Blood was collected before beverage consumption and prior to the performance trial. Alanine concentration was increased (p < 0.05) by approximately tenfold for ALA and ALA-CHO and less than twofold for CHO and PLC. Alanine ingestion increased concentrations of most gluconeogenic amino acids. Overall, alanine supplementation tended to produce favourable metabolic effects, but did not influence performance.
'Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: phenotype evolution in an adolescent patient at 20-year follow-up'.
Division of Biochemical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
BACKGROUND Lesch-Nyhan disease is an inborn error of purine metabolism that results from deficiency of the activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). In the classic disease, the activity of the enzyme is completely deficient; the patient has mental retardation, spasticity, dystonia, and self-injurious behavior, as well as elevated concentrations of uric acid in blood and urine and its consequences of nephropathy, urinary tract calculi, and tophaceous gout. The HPRT gene is located on the X chromosome, and its expression is usually X-linked recessive. There are variant HPRT enzymes with some activity, and milder clinical expression, but the rule has been that each mutation produces a stereotypical pattern of clinical disease. OBJECTIVE To document a family in which a single mutation has led to 3 different phenotypes in 5 individuals. DESIGN Case reports. Settings A foundation devoted to the investigation and care of patients with rare diseases and a university-based biochemical genetics laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical and biochemical observations of predominantly 1 generation of a family. RESULTS A mutation (IVS6 + 2) led to deletion of exon 6. In 1 patient, the phenotype was that of classic Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, while the patient's brother and uncle had a much milder disease, which was difficult to distinguish from good health; 2 cousins had an intermediate phenotype. CONCLUSION It is no longer true that a given mutation in the HPRT gene will lead to a reproducible pattern of clinical expression.
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Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Madrid, Spain.
Cells extracts from Thermus thermophilus HB27 express phosphorolytic activities on purines and pyrimidine nucleosides. Five putative encoding genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified and studied. Two of these showed phosphorolytic activities against purine nucleosides, and third one showed phosphorolytic activity against pyrimidine nucleosides in vitro, and the three were named TtPNPI, TtPNPII, and TtPyNP, respectively. The optimal temperature for the activity of the three enzymes was beyond the water boiling point and could not be measured accurately, whereas all of them exhibited a wide plateau of optimal pHs that ranged from 5.0 to 7.0. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments revealed that TtPNPI was a homohexamer, TtPNPII was a monomer, and TtPyNP was a homodimer. Kinetic constants were determined for the phosphorolysis of the natural substrates of each enzyme. Reaction tests with nucleoside analogues revealed critical positions in the nucleoside for its recognition. Activities with synthetic nucleobase analogues, such as 5-iodouracil or 2,6-diaminopurine, and arabinosides were detected, supporting that these enzymes could be applied for the synthesis of new nucleoside analogs with pharmacological activities.
Inborn errors in purine metabolism: role of 5'-nucleotidases and their involvement in the etiology of neurological impairments.
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. email@example.com
A number of scientists have been involved for decades in the study of nucleotide metabolism in different species of living beings. We are, therefore, aware of the relevant roles of purine compounds and of the many different ways in which these compounds influence cell life, acting both inside and outside the cells. Nevertheless, the consequences of an alteration (lack of expression, or hypo- or hyperexpression) in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds are sometimes surprising, and far from being mechanistically explained. Alterations in enzyme activities involved in nucleotide metabolism are frequently associated with syndromes characterized by two different types of problems--one, metabolic, which is expected and can be easily explained, and the second, neurological and behavioral. Neurological and behavioral impairments are more difficult to explain and show a very high degree of individual variability. The molecular bases of the neurological impairment linked to purine metabolism disorders have been extensively studied. These studies have generated a lot of hypotheses but very few certainties. In this short review, neurological and behavioral symptoms linked to the dysfunction of some enzymes involved in purine synthesis, catabolism, and salvage will be briefly described, with particular attention to their metabolic and regulatory consequences. Finally, attention will be focused on the 5'-nucleotidase family members and on their involvement in the regulation of purine and pyrimidine metabolism.
University of Queensland and Mater Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Defects in X-linked phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) manifest as follows:(1) PRS-I enzyme "superactivity"(gain-of-function mutations affecting allosteric regions);(2) PRS-I overexpression (which may be linked to miRNA mutation);(3) severe PRS-I deficiency/Arts syndrome (missense mutations producing loss-of-function);(4) moderate PRS-I deficiency/Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (less severe loss-of-function mutations); and (5) mild PRS-I deficiency/Deafness-2 (mutations producing slight destabilization). Similar to Lesch-Nyhan disease, PRPS1-related disorders arise from phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate (PRPP)-dependent nucleotide "depletion" of purine nucleotides (e.g., ATP, GTP). S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) appears to partially alleviate purine depletion via a PRPP-independent path. Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is PRPP dependent, with uridine monophosphate synthase deficiency producing pyrimidine nucleotide depletion. But pyrimidine salvage from uridine does not require PRPP, and this nucleoside is transported freely to pyrimidine-depleted tissues. Regulation of nicotinamide nucleotides is less clear; synthesis from pyridine nucleobases is PRPP dependent. Nucleotide "depletion" contrasts with nucleotide "toxicity," exemplified by the purine disorders adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiencies or by pyrimidine nucleotidase deficiency. These are characterized by the accumulation of one or more abnormal nucleotides such as succinyl- or deoxy-nucleotides or their metabolites, which interrupt other nucleotide or related pathways or are toxic to specific cell types. Theoretically, purine toxicity disorders would not be ameliorated by SAMe therapy, and this was confirmed for one adenylosuccinate lyase-deficient child. Nucleotide defects may also be seen as an aspect of mitochondrial disease, with SAMe-based mitochondrial therapy perhaps meriting further investigation.
Planta. 2011 Dec ;234 (6):1251-65 21773791
Distinct fluctuations in nucleotide metabolism accompany the enhanced in vitro embryogenic capacity of Brassica cells over-expressing SHOOTMERISTEMLESS.
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, 31527, Egypt.
Besides regulating meristem formation and maintenance in vivo, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) has been shown to affect embryogenesis. While the over-expression of Brassica napus (Bn)STM enhances the number of microspore-derived embryos produced in culture and their ability to regenerate viable plants, a down-regulation of this gene represses the embryogenic process (Elhiti et al., J Exp Bot, 61:4069-4085, 2010). Synthesis and degradation of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides were measured in developing microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) generated from B. napus lines ectopically expressing or down-regulating BnSTM. Pyrimidine metabolism was investigated by following the metabolic fate of exogenously supplied (14)C-uridine, uracil and orotic acid, whereas purine metabolism was estimated by using (14)C-adenine, adenosine and inosine. The improvement in embryo number and quality affected by the ectopic expression of BnSTM was linked to the increased pyrimidine and purine salvage activity during the early phases of embryogenesis and the enlargement of the adenylate pool (ATP + ADP) required for the active growth of the embryos. This was due to an increase in transcriptional and enzymatic activity of several salvage enzymes, including adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and adenosine kinase (ADK). The highly operative salvage pathway induced by the ectopic expression of BnSTM was associated with a slow catabolism of nucleotides, suggesting the presence of an antagonist mechanism controlling the rate of salvage and degradation pathways. During the second half of embryogenesis utilization of uridine for UTP + UDPglucose (UDPG) synthesis increased in the embryos over-expressing BnSTM, and this coincided with a better post-germination performance. All these events were precluded by the down-regulation of BnSTM which repressed the formation of the embryos and their post-embryonic performance. Overall, this work provides evidence that precise metabolic changes are associated with proper embryo development in culture.
Vanna Micheli, Marcella Camici, Maria G Tozzi, Piero L Ipata, Sylvia Sestini, Matteo Bertelli, Giuseppe Pompucci
Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare - Università degli Studi di Siena, Via Fiorentina 1 - 53100 Siena, Italy. email@example.com
Purines and pyrimidines, regarded for a long time only as building blocks for nucleic acid synthesis and intermediates in the transfer of metabolic energy, gained increasing attention since genetically determined aberrations in their metabolism were associated clinically with various degrees of mental retardation and/or unexpected and often devastating neurological dysfunction. In most instances the molecular mechanisms underlying neurological symptoms remain undefined. This suggests that nucleotides and nucleosides play fundamental but still unknown roles in the development and function of several organs, in particular central nervous system. Alterations of purine and pyrimidine metabolism affecting brain function are spread along both synthesis (PRPS, ADSL, ATIC, HPRT, UMPS, dGK, TK), and breakdown pathways (5NT, ADA, PNP, GCH, DPD, DHPA, TP, UP), sometimes also involving pyridine metabolism. Explanations for the pathogenesis of disorders may include both cellular and mitochondrial damage: e.g. deficiency of the purine salvage enzymes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and deoxyguanosine kinase are associated to the most severe pathologies, the former due to an unexplained adverse effect exerted on the development and/or differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, the latter due to impairment of mitochondrial functions. This review gathers the presently known inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism that manifest neurological syndromes, reporting and commenting on the available hypothesis on the possible link between specific enzymatic alterations and brain damage. Such connection is often not obvious, and though investigated for many years, the molecular basis of most dysfunctions of central nervous system associated to purine and pyrimidine metabolism disorders are still unexplained.
Genomic evidence for complementary purine metabolism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and its symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola.
Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purine salvage pathway recycles purines to nucleotides, promoting efficient utilization of purine nucleotides. Exceptionally among animals with completely sequenced genomes, the pea aphid lacks key purine recycling genes that code for purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase, indicating that the aphid can neither metabolize nucleosides to the corresponding purines, nor adenosine to inosine. Purine metabolism genes in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera complement aphid genes, and Buchnera can meet its nucleotide requirement from aphid-derived guanosine. Buchnera demand for nucleosides may have relaxed the selection for purine recycling in the aphid, leading to the loss of key aphid purine salvage genes. Further, the coupled purine metabolism of aphid and Buchnera could contribute to the dependence of the pea aphid on this symbiosis.
Institute for Cancer Research, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.
The Bateman domain (CBS subdomain) of IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo GMP biosynthesis, is evolutionarily conserved but has no established function. Deletion of the Bateman domain has no effect on the in vitro IMPDH activity. We report that in vivo deletion of the Bateman domain of IMPDH in Escherichia coli (guaB(DeltaCBS)) sensitizes the bacterium to growth arrest by adenosine and inosine. These nucleosides exert their growth inhibitory effect via a dramatic increase in the intracellular adenylate nucleotide pool, which results in the enhanced allosteric inhibition of PRPP synthetase and consequently a PRPP deficit. The ensuing starvation for pyrimidine nucleotides culminates in growth arrest. Thus, deletion of the Bateman domain of IMPDH derepresses the synthesis of AMP from IMP. The growth inhibitory effect of inosine can be rescued by second-site suppressor mutations in the genes responsible for the conversion of inosine to AMP (gsk, purA, and purB) as well as by the prsA1 allele, which encodes a PRPP synthetase that is insensitive to allosteric inhibition by adenylate nucleotides. Importantly, the guaB(DeltaCBS) phenotype can be complemented in trans by a mutant guaB allele, which encodes a catalytically disabled IMPDH(C305A) protein containing an intact Bateman domain. We conclude that the Bateman domain of IMPDH is a negative trans-regulator of adenylate nucleotide synthesis, and that this role is independent of the catalytic function of IMPDH in the de novo GMP biosynthesis.
Changes in the de novo, salvage, and degradation pathways of pyrimidine nucleotides during tobacco shoot organogenesis.
Plant Physiology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada.
Pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism was studied in tobacco callus cultured for 21days under shoot-forming (SF) and non-shoot-forming (NSF) conditions by following the metabolic fate of orotic acid, a precursor of the de novo pathway, and uridine and uracil, intermediates of the salvage and degradation pathways respectively. Nucleic acid synthesis was also investigated by measuring the incorporation of labeled thymidine into different cellular components. Our results indicate that with respect to nucleotide metabolism, the organogenic process in tobacco can be divided in two "metabolic phases": a de novo phase followed by a salvage phase. The initial stages of meristemoid formation during tobacco organogenesis (up to day 8) are characterized by a heavy utilization of orotic acid into nucleotides and nucleic acids. Utilization of this intermediate for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides, which is limited in NSF tissue, is mainly due to the activity of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), which increases in tissue cultured under SF conditions. After day 8, nucleotide synthesis during shoot growth seems to be mainly due to the salvage activity of both uridine and uracil. Both intermediates are preferentially utilized in SF tissue for the formation of nucleotides and nucleic acids through the activities of their respective salvage enzymes: uridine kinase (URK), and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT). Metabolic studies on thymidine indicate that in SF tissue maximal nucleic acid synthesis occurs at day 4, in support of the initiation of meristemoid formation. Overall these results suggest that the organogenic process in tobacco is underlined by precise fluctuations in pyrimidine metabolism which delineate structural events culminating in shoot formation.
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Thomas.West@sdstate.edu
Regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas synxantha ATCC 9890 was investigated and the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities were affected by pyrimidine supplementation in cells grown on glucose or succinate as a carbon source. In pyrimidine-grown ATCC 9890 cells, the activities of four de novo enzymes could be depressed which indicated possible repression of enzyme synthesis. To learn whether the pathway was repressible, pyrimidine limitation experiments were conducted using an orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (pyrE) mutant strain identified in this study. Compared to excess uracil growth conditions for the succinate-grown mutant strain cells, pyrimidine limitation of this strain caused dihydroorotase activity to increase about 3-fold while dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase activities rose about 2-fold. Regulation of de novo pathway enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines appeared to be occurring. At the level of enzyme activity, aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in P. synxantha ATCC 9890 was strongly inhibited in vitro by pyrophosphate, UTP, ADP, ATP, CTP and GTP under saturating substrate concentrations.
Comprehensive Detection of Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism by HPLC with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
Susen Hartmann, Jürgen G Okun, Christiane Schmidt, Claus-Dieter Langhans, Sven F Garbade, Peter Burgard, Dorothea Haas, Jörn Oliver Sass, William L Nyhan, Georg F Hoffmann
Division of Metabolic Diseases, Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Clinical presentation and disease severity in disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism vary considerably. We present a method that allows comprehensive, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of the entire spectrum of abnormalities in purine and pyrimidine metabolism in 1 analytical run. METHODS: We used reversed-phase HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to investigate 24 metabolites of purine and pyrimidine metabolism in urine samples from healthy persons and from patients with confirmed diagnoses of inherited metabolic disorders. Urine samples were filtered and diluted to a creatinine concentration of 0.5 mmol/L. Stable-isotope-labeled internal standards were used for quantification. The metabolites were analyzed by multiple-reaction monitoring in positive and negative ionization modes. RESULTS: Total time of analysis was 20 min. Recovery (n = 8) of a compound after addition of a known concentration was 85%-133%. The mean intraday variation (n = 10) was 12%. The interday variation (n = 7) was </=17%. Age-related reference intervals were established for each compound. Analysis of patient urine samples revealed major differences in tandem mass spectrometry profiles compared with those of control samples. Twelve deficiencies were reliably detected: hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, xanthine dehydrogenase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, adenylosuccinate lyase, uridine monophosphate synthase, adenosine deaminase, adenine phosphoribosyl transferase, molybdenum cofactor, thymidine phosphorylase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, dihydropyrimidinase, and beta-ureidopropionase. CONCLUSION: This method enables reliable detection of 13 defects in purine and pyrimidine metabolism in a single analytical run.