Some clinico-pathological changes associated with the aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus in rats.
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
The pathological changes of the aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus were studied in 32 male rats over a period of 30 days. The animals were divided into four groups of eight animals per group. The aqueous crude extract was prepared and administered orally using a cannula to rats in three groups receiving doses of 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1,000 mg/kg but the fourth group served as a control and received distilled water only. Blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical analysis. Organs such as the liver, kidney, testes and pancreas were also assessed for histopathological changes. The study showed that the extract caused a decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), but an increase in the white blood cell (WBC) count. The extract also resulted in an increase in the levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), total and conjugated bilirubin, total protein and albumin. The study, however, caused a decrease in the level of alanine amino transferase (ALT). Histopathologically, there were cases of protein casts in the kidney tubules with tubular nephrosis, foci of lymphocytic infiltration at the portal areas of the liver as well as marked testicular degeneration with severe disorganization of seminiferous tubules, which were devoid of spermatic cells. A reduction in the weight of the experimental animals was also noted in this study. It thus shows that Phyllanthus amarus has potential toxic properties.
Ghana Med J. 2011 Dec ;45 (4):143-50 22359419
Antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Tridax procumbens and Phyllanthus amarus in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture systems.
Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG581, Legon, Ghana. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Aqueous extracts of Tridax procumbens (TP)(Compositae) and Phyllanthus amarus (PA)(Euphorbiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Ghana to treat malaria. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-trypanosoma, anti-bacterial and anti-HIV effects of TP and PA. OBJECTIVE To assess the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of TP and PA. METHOD Aqueous extracts of TP and PA were prepared. A portion of each was freeze-dried and the remaining extracted sequentially with ethyl acetate and chloroform. Ethanolic extracts were also prepared. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was assessed with the 3H-hypoxanthine assay using chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Chloroquine was used as the reference drug. The modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was also used to evaluate the red blood cell (RBC)-protective/antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxicities of the extracts. RESULTS Results showed that TP and PA have antiplasmodial activities. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of PA were the most active, yielding EC50 values of 34.9 µg/ml and 31.2 µg/ml, respectively in the tetrazolium-based assay. The TP and PA produced and IC50 values of 24.8 µg/ml and 11.7 µg/ml, respectively in the hypoxanthine assay. Protection of human RBCs against P. falciparum damage by the extracts highly correlated with their antiplasmodial activities. None of the extracts, within the concentration range (1.9-500 µg/ml) studied produced any overt toxicity to human RBCs. CONCLUSION The results indicate that both PA and TP have activities against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (Dd2) parasites. The antiplasmodial principles extracted into water and ethanol but not chloroform or ethyl acetate.
Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats.
Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Bejai, Mangalore 575 004, India.
Phyllanthus niruri extract is extensively used in treating liver ailments. Effects of aqueous extract of P. niruri on liver, kidney and testes of CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats were studied. High levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in the CCl4 test group with significant reduction of MDA levels in all groups on P. niruri extract administration. Highest levels of glutathione (GSH) were found in P. niruri group. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were significantly reduced in the curative group (P. niruri treatment after CCl4 injection). Histopathology of liver showed lesser degree of inflammation in all P. niruri treated groups while the renal and seminiferous tubules showed eosinophilic protein casts with signs of tubular damage and degeneration. Testes also showed decreased amount of mature spermatozoa. The results suggest that P. niruri has anti-oxidant and hepato-protective activity with associated deleterious effects on kidney and testes.
Protective effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus on gentamicin and acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic rats.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Lagos State University College of Medicine, P.M.B. 21266, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. email@example.com
AIM OF THE STUDY In African traditional medicine, different parts of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. and Thonn.(family: Euphorbiaceae) are highly valued for the treatment of array of human diseases including hepatic and urolithic and/or other renal diseases. In the present study, single oral 100-400mg/kg/day of the leaf and seed aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PA) were studied for their protective effects in acetaminophen- and gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic Wistar rats for 14 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS In each model of nephrotoxicities, thirty adult male Wistar rats were evenly divided into 5 groups. Groups I and II served as untreated and model controls, respectively while groups III-V were the treatment groups which were pretreated with 100-400mg/kg/day of PA 1hr before each dose of the nephrotoxicants for 14 days. On the 15th day, blood samples for serum urea and creatinine while the rat kidneys for histology were obtained under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia. RESULTS In the acetaminophen nephrotoxic rats, 100-400mg/kg/day significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) attenuated elevations in the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels in dose related fashion, as well as, attenuation of acetaminophen-induced tubulonephrosis. Similar effects were also recorded in the gentamicin model of acute renal injury. Results suggest that the nephroprotective effect of PA could be due to the inherent antioxidant and free-radical-scavanging principle(s) contained in the extract. CONCLUSIONS In the near future, PA could constitute a lead to discovery of a novel drug for the treatment of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
Recent advances in plant hepatoprotectives: a chemical and biological profile of some important leads.
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO CIMAP, Lucknow, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for treating liver diseases since centuries. Several leads from plant sources have been found as potential hepatoprotective agents with diverse chemical structures. Although, a big list of hepatoprotective phytomolecules was reported in the scientific literature, only a few were potent against various types of liver damages. Of which, silymarin, andrographolide, neoandrographolide, curcumin, picroside, kutkoside, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, and glycyrrhizin have largely attracted the scientific community. This review focuses discussion on the chemistry, biological activity, mode of action, toxicity, and future prospects of these leads.
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Comparison of the nutritional value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Leonotis leonorus.
Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.
The nutritional, phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Solanum nigrum and Leonotis leonorus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the leaves of these plants. The proximate analysis showed the that the leaves of the two plants were rich in moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate. Elemental analysis in mg/100g (DW) indicated that the leaves contained sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and nitrogen. The chemical composition in mg/100g (DW) for alkaloid, saponins, and phytate were moderate. The plants were also rich in polyphenols and had good antioxidant activities. The different extracts of the plants had activities against some of the organisms used in this study. Comparing the nutrient and chemical constituents with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values, the results reveal that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals and low levels of toxicants.
Methanolic extract of Tetracera potatoria, an antiulcer agent increases gastric mucus secretion and endogenous antioxidants.
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
In this study, the possible mechanism(s) underlying the antiulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the root of Tetracera potatoria (MeTp) was studied in albino rats. Misoprostol and omeprazole were used as reference drugs. The animals had MeTp administered to them at varying doses of 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 15 days. MeTp significantly (P < 0.05) increased gastric mucus secretion and gastric mucus cell counts when compared to control. MeTp treated animals also showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activity of SOD with concurrent decrease in the level of MDA with respect to control. These findings suggest that part of the gastroprotective property of MeTp is associated with the ability of the extract to cause stimulation of gastric mucus secretion through increased number of gastric mucus cells. Increased SOD-activity and decreased MDA-levels further lend support to its gastroprotective effect.
Small bowel responses to enteral honey and glutamine administration following massive small bowel resection in rabbit.
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The trophic effects of honey and glutamine in the healing and adaptation of the small bowel following intestinal resection were studied in some Nigerian non-descript breeds of rabbits. Nine rabbits of mixed sexes with mean body weight of 1.45 +/- 0.55 kg were used. They were randomised into three treatment groups following 50% small bowel resection. Group A rabbits were placed on oral honey treatment, Group B on oral glutamine and group C on normal saline (control). All groups exhibited signs of small bowel adaptation (glutamine(B) honey (A) control (C) at the end of the experiment (4 weeks) with oral glutamine showing the best overall effects on intestinal mucosal growth and adaptation evidenced by significant increase (P<0.05) in residual bowel length (37.3%), villi width (20.0%), crypt depth (113.3%) and a non significant increase in villus height (33.3%) and cellular mass (10.2%). Honey showed a better effect than control with a significant increase (P<0.05) in villi width (18.2%), crypts depth (66.7%) and cellular mass (33.9%) and a non significant increase in gross residual bowel length (24.6%), and villus height (30.5%). Our result shows that honey and glutamine have trophic effects on bowel mucosa healing and hyperplasia and have potential therapeutic effects on massive bowel resection in humans.
Evaluation of the medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Halleria lucida.
ARDRI, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.
The medicinal potentials of the methanol extracts of the leaves and stems of Halleria lucida (Scrophulariaceae) were evaluated by assessing their antibacterial and antioxidant properties in vitro using standard procedures. The antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the leaves as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, proanthocyanidins and total flavonoids were higher than that of the stem. On the other hand, the total phenols, the flavonoids and the FRAP contents of the stem were higher than that of the leaves. The extracts however showed poor activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The methanol extract of the stem showed activities against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at MIC of 1.0 mg/ml. The methanol extract of the leaves did not show activity against any of the organisms used in this study. This study has to some extent validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and stems of H. lucida.
Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
The toxic effects of an aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius were studied in 20 male white rats over a period of 18 days. The rats were divided into four groups of five rats per group. Those in Group A served as controls while the rats in Groups B, C and D were dosed per os with 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1 600 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected for haematological and biochemical analysis and specimens of the liver, kidney and testes were taken for histopathological studies. The study showed that the extract of A. precatorius caused decreased levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin. The extract also resulted in increased levels of total serum protein, albumin, alanine amino transaminase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histologically, testicular degeneration characterized by decreased numbers of lining cells of the epithelium as well as reduction in sperm cells with presence of scattered Sertoli cells were noted. The study thus showed that aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius is toxic and caution should be exercised in its use for medicinal purpose.
D O Oluwayelu, D Todd, N W Ball, A N J Scott, O A Oladele, B O Emikpe, O A Fagbohun, A A Owoade, O D Olaleye
Veterinary Sciences Division, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Stormont, BT4 3SD, United Kingdom.
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) was isolated for the first time from the Nigerian chicken population. The virus was recovered from necropsied birds from broiler and pullet flocks that suffered disease outbreaks tentatively diagnosed as infectious bursal disease. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected CAV DNA in tissues of necropsied birds. Restriction endonuclease analysis performed with the 733-bp PCR product and the Cfo I enzyme indicated at least two different CAVs were circulating among the Nigerian chicken population. Four isolates were obtained from pooled liver and thymus tissues using the MDCC-MSB1 cell line. These isolates were found to be antigenically closely related to the Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) reference strain of CAV when reacted with four monoclonal antibodies prepared against the Cux-1 virus. One of the isolates (isolate A) induced thymus atrophy, bone marrow aplasia, and low hematocrit values when inoculated into 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. These findings not only demonstrate that CAV is present in Nigeria, but they also likely represent the first cell culture isolation of the virus in Africa.
Department of Veterinary Physiology/Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Adedapo3a@yahoo.co.uk
Chromatographic fractions obtained from Phyllanthus amarus were tested for toxicity on the serum biochemistry of rats. The results revealed that some fractions of P. amarus had potentially deleterious effects on the blood and therefore caution should be exercised in the use of P. amarus as a medicinal plant.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. email@example.com
Serum samples from 20 out of 180 (11.1%) apparently healthy Nigerian indigenous chickens were negative for antibodies against chicken anaemia virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 160 positive sera (88.9%), 12 (7.5%) had titres ranging from 1500-3000, 46 (28.8%) had titres from 3000-5000 while 102 (63.8%) had titres between 5000-11000. The overall mean titre value was 5845 +/- 2402. This appears to be evidence of a natural outbreak of the infection since the chickens had no history of vaccination against any poultry disease.
Morphometric and histopathological studies on the effects of some chromatographic fractions of Phyllanthus amarus and Euphorbia hirta on the male reproductive organs of rats.
Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology.University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
The aqueous crude extracts of P. amarus and E. hirta were administered to thirty eight-week old sexually mature male albino to determine the effects of these extracts on the male reproductive organs of these animals. The results from this study revealed that the aqueous crude extracts of P. amarus and E. hirta caused varying degrees of testicular degeneration as well as reduction in the mean seminiferous tubular diameter (STD) in the treated rats. It thus shows that the aqueous crude extracts of P. amarus and E. hirta have potentially deleterious effects on the testes and accessory organs of rats. Great caution should therefore be exercised in the use of these plants for medicinal purpose.
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Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 Mar 15;: 22421584
The genotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, haematotoxic and histopathological effects in rats after aluminium chronic intoxication.
Department of Biology, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Aluminium (Al) is used in water purification and is also present in several manufactured foods and medicines. Al is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioural dysfunctions in laboratory animals and humans. This investigation was carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to Al (as AlCl(3)) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups. Group 1 rats treated with sodium chloride served as the control, group 2 rats were treated with Al (as AlCl(3), 5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitonally for 10 weeks. Animals were killed and blood samples were analyzed for blood serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities and creatinine, urea (U) and uric acid (UA) levels for evaluating hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Blood parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Ht), platelets (PLTs) and white blood cells (WBCs) were compared between control and experimental group to assess haematoxicity. In order to determine the genotoxicity, the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was counted in isolated hepatocytes. In addition, histological alterations in liver and kidney samples were investigated. After exposure with Al, the enzymatic activities of ALP, AST, ALT and LDH, and the levels of U and UA significantly increased. RBC, WBC, PLT, Hb and Ht revealed significant decreases in experimental group compared to the control. AlCl(3) caused a significant increase in MNHEPs. Furthermore, severe pathological damages were established in both liver and kidney samples. Subchronic exposure to low doses of Al can produce serious dysfunctions in rat blood, liver and kidney, and exposure to this metal can result in greater damages.
Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.
Department of Hydrobiology, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Egypt.
This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.
National Research Centre, Medicinal Chemistry Department, Dokki Giza, Egypt.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fish oil and Artichoke (Cynara scolymus I.) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals were divided into 8 groups. Group 1, control rats. Group 2: rats injected with single dose of DEN (100 mg/kg body weight). Groups 3-8 supplemented with different concentrations of either fish oil or artichoke for 25 days before DEN injection. RESULTS DEN treatment revealed a significant decrease in tissue xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and a marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and ferritin levels showed a significant increase. A significant increase in serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin levels were found. A significant decrease in tissue total proteins and serum albumin was observed. The administration of DEN affected the liver cell through occurrence of hepatic cellular degeneration and necrosis. Treatment with fish oil (5%, 10%) or artichoke heads or leaves (0.5, 1 g) for 25 days led to significant amelioration of DEN-induced changes in the biochemical parameters. An almost normal histological architecture of the liver, in treated groups, was showed as compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS The results pointed that 10% fish oil and 1 g% leaves of artichoke succeeded to protect from hepatocellular carcinoma to a certain degree. In addition, they may be considered as protective foods against angiogenesis.
Food Funct. 2012 Feb ;3 (2):159-63 22105619
Department of Technical Biocatalysis, University of Technology Hamburg-Harburg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cassava fibre, a waste product formed in starch production, was incorporated into wheat to give composite flours at ratios of 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50, respectively. A cracker-like biscuit was produced from the preferred ratios (60/40 and 50/50). The effects of these on diets as a prebiotic were evaluated in a rat assay. Determinations of the proximate composition and haematological parameters were made as well as microbiological analysis. The protein content of the cracker-like product based on the 50/50 and 60/40 (fibre/wheat flour) ratios were 15.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Crude fibre ranged from 14.1-17.1% while ash ranged from 3.0 and 5.0%. Low cholesterol levels of 28.75 mg dL(-1) and 18.75 mg dL(-1) were recorded for the 50/50 and 60/40 composite ratios, respectively. The result of liver function test showed that the rats that were fed the fibre-based cracker product had an average value of 44.00 IU L(-1) of aspartate amino transferase (AST), which is lower than the 67.75 IU L(-1) recorded for the control. There was a significant increase in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the rats fed a fibre-based diet, relative to those fed "Ogi"(fermented maize). Haemoglobin was significantly higher in the control sample than all others, while no significant difference was observed in the white blood cell (WBC) count, with average of 11.75 mm(3). Data obtained from the faecal analysis showed that the rats fed with the composite ratios and other diets had an increased Lactobacillus count. However, by increasing the number of days that the rats were fed the fibre-based diet, the E. coli count in the rat faeces reduced significantly. The data obtained shows that cassava fibre-based crackers have good nutraceutic effects, with reduction in the E. coli count found in the rat faeces and healthy performances in terms of weight gain.
Nig Q J Hosp Med. ;20 (4):171-6 21913523
Extracts of Cnestis ferruginea and Rawolfia vomitoria affect blood chemistry and GABAergic neurotransmission in ketamine-induced psychotic rats.
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos. PMB 12003, Lagos, Nigeria, W/Africa. email@example.com
Plants such as Cnestis ferruginea and Rauwolfia vomitoria, are a great source of medicines especially in traditional medicine, which are useful in the treatment of diseases, e.g. depression. The effects of aqueous extract of Cnestis ferruginea and ethanolic extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria on blood chemistry and GABAergic neurotransmission were investigated. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats (164 +/- 13g) were divided equally into 5 groups, A-E. Psychosis was induced by orally administering 25 mg ketamine hydrochloride/kg body weight for 14 days. On the 15th day, groups B and C received 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight of aqueous fruit extract of Cnestis ferruginea respectively, groups D and E received 2 g/kg and 4 g/kg body weight of ethanolic root extract of R. vomitoria, while the control, group A received 1 ml saline daily for 7 days. The rats were sacrificed, brain, liver and heart were excised and weighed. Blood was obtained and haematological parameters such as, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), and platelet counts were determined. Serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, serum albumin, cholesterol and total protein were determined. Brain glutamate, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase activity (GAD) were assayed. There was a significant increase (p < 0.01) in serum ALP, ALT activities and serum albumin level in R. vomitoria treated rats, with no significant change in C. ferruginea treated rats compared to control. Brain glutamate level decreased in R. vomitoria treated rats, GABA level and GAD activity increased in both C. ferruginea and R. vomitoria treated rats. Data of the study indicate that extracts of C. ferruginea and R. vomitoria affected certain haematological and blood chemistry indices and mediated the enhancement in GABAergic neurotransmission.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700 037, India.
Makaradhwaja, an alchemical Ayurvedic mercury preparation is used as stimulant and vitalizer. Towards veterinary practices, the acceptability, tolerability and toxicity studies were undertaken in geriatric pet dogs aged more than 10 years irrespective of breed and sex for future use. Makaradhwaja (2.5 mg/kg) was used with honey once daily for 30 days. Before and after treatment, blood was collected for hematological studies as well as liver, kidney function and anti-oxidant activity. In control group, honey itself showed no appreciable change whereas, Makaradhwaja lowered neutrophil and total leucocyte count. Serum cholesterol, urea, glucose, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, sodium, phosphorus and calcium were decreased. Haemoglobin and serum creatinine were significantly increased. There was appreciable physical, behavioral and body weight change including quality of life. The dose was used in replication of human dose (125 mg/50 kg). Anti-oxidant study showed significant increase of lipid per oxidation in experimental group while the values of ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay although decreased but did not show any significant changes. Decrease of serum urea and increase of serum creatinine could not be explained on single dose response. Different dose study could only explain the optimum dose to be required in canine practices.
Department of Economic Entomology and Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
The toxic effect of Pb ion (lead acetate) was investigated using male albino rats, which was ingested at 1/20, 1/40, and 1/60 sublethal doses. Relative to normal control, the ingestion of Pb(2+) induced significant stimulation in ALT and AST activity. In addition, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb(2+) treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates as well as lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. These observations were gradually paralleled across the experiment dose of the three doses of intoxicated Pb(2+). In the case of blood picture, Pb(2+) ingestion significantly reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBC count of intoxicated rat's blood, while the plasma levels of T3 and T4 and blood WBC count were insignificantly decreased or unchanged. All results of the present study showed that the Pb(2+) ingestion was more effective in the case of the high dose (1/20 LD(50)) than that of the low dose (1/60 LD(50)) ingestion relative to the normal healthy control. The results of the present work advice the need to avoid exposure of humans to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.
Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.
Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India.
Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity.
Protective effect of L-carnitine on experimental lead toxicity in rats: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Female Wistar-albino rats were given lead acetate (PbAc) for 60 days to investigate the protective effects of L-carnitine (CA) clinically and histopathologically on PbAc-induced tissue damage. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein for hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine. PbAc treatment caused a significant decrease in HB, HCT and RBC, a significant increase in WBC, AST, ALT and creatinine compared to controls. Although administration of CA did not reverse HB and HCT values, it reversed both the decrease in RBC and the increase in WBC, AST, ALT and creatinine. After the experimental period, all rats were weighed, then decapitated for pathological examination. Control rat liver, kidney and brain showed normal histological architecture. Lead-induced nephropathic kidneys; degenerative changes, inflammation and portal edema of the liver; and brain neuropil vacuolation, neuronal vacuolation, satellitosis and neuronophagia were observed in experimental groups. All changes were reduced in the PbAc group treated with CA (PbAc + CA). PbAc caused copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) expression in both the hepatocytes and tubular epithelium of the kidney. PbAc + CA exposure caused moderate Cu/Zn-SOD immunoreactivity. While in the brain sections of the PbAc group the degenerative neurons were stained intensely with anti-ubiquitin antibody, PbAc + CA rats showed moderate staining in neurons with anti-ubiquitin antibody. These results show that CA as a food additive reduced the severity of tissue damage caused by PbAc.
Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of Silybum marianum in treatment of experimental steatohepatitis.
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran, Iran.
In this study, we were aimed to evaluate the probable effect of the crud extract of Silybum marianum, with high polyphenolic content, on experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To induce NASH, a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet was given to N-Mary rats for 8 weeks. After NASH development, MCD-fed rats were divided into two groups: MCD groups received MCD diet and MCD+S group was fed MCD diet plus crude extract of S. marianum orally for 3 weeks. Control group was fed a normal diet for 11 weeks. Finally, all rats were sacrificed. Plasma alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels were evaluated. In addition, the following hepatic factors were also evaluated: liver histology, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, gene expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β and immunoblot evaluations of caspase-3, ERK/p-ERK, JNK/pJNK and p38/pp38. Histopathological evaluations of the liver samples revealed that treatment with the S. marianum extract has abated the severity of NASH among the MCD-fed rats. Also, a significant reduction was observed in the sera ALT and AST activities. In addition, the extract caused dramatic reduction in the elevated hepatic TNF-α and TGF-β mRNA and MDA levels along with an increase in the GSH content. Moreover, the plant extract treatments significantly lowered activation of procaspase-3 to active caspase-3 and also lowered the phosphorylated form of JNK among the same group of rats. These results suggest that the S. marianum crude extract beneficial effects on NASH are mainly due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.