Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Hospital Infection Control, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, POB 559, Petah Tiqva, 49202, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
Exserohilum is a dematiaceous fungus that may cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including skin and corneal infection, invasive disease, and allergic fungal sinusitis. The aim of this work is to describe two new cases of Exserohilum infection and to review the literature. The review yielded 33 cases of Exserohilum infection, of which 23 were reported since 1993. Most occurred in regions with hot climates, such as India, Israel, and the southern USA. Impaired immunity was present in the majority of patients with invasive and skin infections, whereas local trauma and atopy were the predisposing factors in those with corneal infections and allergic fungal sinusitis, respectively. Surgical debridement was the principal mode of therapy for allergic fungal sinusitis. Amphotericin B was the initial single antifungal agent used in all cases of invasive disease; the response rate was low but improved with the addition of triazole agents. Outcome appeared to be better than for other mold infections and depended mainly on the underlying diseases.
Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17821, USA. Delston@geisinger.edu
Many emerging pathogens present in the skin and are of interest to dermatologists. Recent epidemics of measles, avian flu, and SARS demonstrated how an organism can rapidly spread worldwide because of airline travel. Travelers are often contagious before they are aware that they have the disease, contributing to the spread. This article reviews bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens important to dermatologists.
Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exserohilum rostratum in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Department of Dermatology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Adv Dermatol. 2007 ;23 :165-76 18159901
Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17821, USA. email@example.com
Other papers by authors:
Infectious complications of implantable ports and Hickman catheters in paediatric haematology-oncology patients.
Unit of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Hospital Infection Control, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to define and compare the infectious and non-infectious complications associated with Hickman catheters and implantable ports in children. The study was conducted over a three-year period in the Department of Haematology-Oncology at the Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel. All patients who required a central venous catheter (CVC) were included in the study. For each episode of catheter-associated bloodstream infection, demographic, clinical and microbiology data were recorded. During the study period, 419 tunnelled CVCs (246 implantable ports and 173 Hickman) were inserted in 281 patients. Compared with implantable ports, Hickman catheters were associated with a significantly higher rate of bloodstream infections (4.656 vs 1.451 episodes per 1000 catheter-days), shorter time to first infection (52.31 vs 108.82 days, P < 0.001), shorter duration of catheterization (140.75 vs 277.28 days, P < 0.001), and higher rate of removal because of mechanical complications (P < 0.005). Gram-positive bacterial infections were more prevalent in the implantable port group (63.6% vs 41.6%), whereas Gram-negative rods, polymicrobial infections and mycobacterial infections were more prevalent in the Hickman group (31.4% vs 50.9%, 17% vs 36% and 0% vs 4.4%, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation was identified as an independent risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR)-1.68, P = 0.005] and for catheter removal due to complications (OR -2.0, P < 0.001). Implantable ports may be considered the preferred device for most paediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients.
Outcome of antibiotic lock technique for persistent central venous catheter-associated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia in children.
Infectious Diseases Unit, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of the antibiotic lock technique (ALT) in conjunction with systemic antibiotics for the salvage of long-term central venous catheter (CVC)-associated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children. A retrospective study of children with CVC-associated CONS BSIs treated with systemic vancomycin and ALT with vancomycin was carried out. The primary outcome was the immediate and 3-month success rate of salvage of the CVC. During the study period, 23 patients had persistent CONS bacteremia and were treated with ALT and systemic vancomycin. Of the 23 vancomycin lock treatments, eight catheters were removed during the acute event because of persistent bacteremia, six had relapse of CONS bacteremia within 30 days, and two had relapse within 90 days. Only seven CVCs (30%) were salvaged. Long-term transcutaneous CVCs (Hickman CVCs) were significantly associated with higher salvage rates than implantable ports (75% vs. 18%, P = 0.05). ALT with vancomycin for CVC-associated bacteremia has a limited long-term effectiveness, especially with implantable ports. Larger prospective studies are needed for the long-term evaluation of this technique.
Outbreak of Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteraemia due to contaminated water supply in a paediatric haematology-oncology department.
Unit of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel. email@example.com
We describe an outbreak of bloodstream infections due to Mycobacterium mucogenicum involving five patients in a paediatric haematology-oncology ward over a six-month period. Specimens from faucets on the floor indicated that an automatic faucet was the probable source of infection and identity between strains was confirmed using molecular techniques. Levels of chlorine in the water were intermittently low and may have contributed towards bacterial growth. A review of infection control practices revealed that the exit sites of central venous catheters (CVCs) of children were not properly covered during bathing, which may have facilitated CVC colonisation. Replacing the contaminated faucets, optimal water chlorination and proper coverage of the CVC exit site using impermeable dressings terminated the outbreak. This investigation emphasises the three major factors that should be investigated in outbreaks due to a waterborne pathogen: source of the infection, water supply and infection control practices.
Near haploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia masked by hyperdiploid line: detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
B Stark, M Jeison, R Gobuzov, H Krug, L Glaser-Gabay, D Luria, R El-Hasid, M B Harush, G Avrahami, S Fisher, J Stein, R Zaizov, I Yaniv
Cancer Cytogenetic Laboratory, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
Near-haploid (<30 chromosomes) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare and unique subgroup of childhood common ALL associated with a very poor outcome. It may be underdiagnosed when masked by a co-existing hyperdiploid line, which has to be distinguished from the common good-prognostic hyperdiploid (>50 chromosomes) ALL. We present three children in whom, by conventional cytogenetics, near-haploid ALL was detected on relapse. Using interphase FISH probes of chromosomes X, Y, 4, 12, and 21, we were able, in two cases, to trace the hidden near-haploid lines of approximately 5% and 20% of the cells, masked by hyperdiploid cells of approximately 80% and 70%, respectively; at relapse, the proportion was reversed, with predominant near-haploid lines of over 80% and residual hyperdiploidy of less than 10%. The near-haploid lines consisted of 24 and 27 chromosomes, and always retained the second copy of chromosome 21 or its derivative, as detected in one of our patients by SKY. The hyperdiploid clones were the exact duplicates of the near-haploid ones and contained four and two copies of the chromosomes represented in two and one copies in the near-haploid stem line, respectively. Unlike the common hyperdiploid ALL, no trisomies were observed. The patients were all aged >10 years, with WBC 0.7-30 x 10(9)/L, and a common ALL phenotype. They were treated with the ALL-BFM-95 protocol, medium risk group, and responded well to 8 days of steroid therapy, but relapsed early, within 11 months, and died a few months later. Interphase FISH technique is recommended for the detection of cryptic near-haploid clones in the diagnostic survey of ALL. To assess the prognostic value of near-haploidy in the context of the ALL-BFM protocols, a larger cohort of patients is required.
Possible link between month of birth and childhood leukemia supports the hypothesis of an infectious etiology.
Long-term results of the Israeli National Studies in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: INS 84, 89 and 98.
B Stark, R Nirel, G Avrahami, A Abramov, D Attias, A Ballin, B Bielorai, Y Burstein, H Gavriel, R Elhasid, J Kapelushnik, D Sthoeger, A Toren, M Wientraub, I Yaniv, S Izraeli
Molecular Oncology, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Petah Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive disease with a striking predisposition of lymphoid malignancies. ATM mutations have been reported in adult sporadic lymphoma and leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of the ATM gene in the carcinogenesis of Hodgkin disease in children. Tumours were obtained from 23 patients and were subjected to mutation screening and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Eight base substitutions were identified in seven patients. Of them, Y54Y, a silent change, was observed in two patients and a known polymorphism, D1853N, in three patients. Of the other two patients, one harboured a combined genotype P604S/F1463C, identified previously in two patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, and the other a novel missense mutation, V595A. The alterations were present in the germ line, and both had a more aggressive disease. In all, 100 matched normal ethnic controls were screened for these mutations and P604S/F1463C was identified in one healthy control. Loss of heterozygosity was identified in four patients and in three of them it was located centromeric to the ATM gene, and, in one, it spanned a large region, indicating the involvement of other tumour-suppressor genes in this disease. Missense variants of the ATM gene are a rare event in childhood Hodgkin disease.
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. email@example.com
To determine if the prevalence of non- albicans Candida spp. has increased at two institutions in Israel, the distribution of 6,954 Candida isolates obtained from sterile and nonsterile sites during the periods 1995-1996 and 1999-2000 were compared. In the latter period, a slight decrease was observed in the prevalence of non- albicans Candida spp. isolated from sterile sites (from 39% to 37%) and nonsterile sites (from 38% to 35%). Specifically, the prevalence of Candida glabrata increased significantly in sterile sites, from 26% to 35%(P=0.0095), and in nonsterile sites, from 18% to 27%(P<0.0001), and the prevalence of Candida krusei increased significantly in sterile sites, from 2% to 7%(P=0.0072). The prevalence of Candida parapsilosis decreased significantly in nonsterile sites, from 31% to 23%(P=0.0002). Continuous surveys of the distribution of Candida spp. and analysis of the clinical significance of changes are warranted.
Department of Neonatology, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.
A preterm infant, with posterior urethral valves had a mycetoma of the renal pelvis caused by Fusarium species. Prolonged treatment with amphotericin B alone or with flucytosine failed. Combined surgical drainage and medical therapy resulted in full resolution.
Yield of bronchoalveolar lavage in ventilated and non-ventilated children after bone marrow transplantation.
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneidler Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva.
A study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate the yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in a single-institution series of children after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and to compare the yield of BAL between the ventilated and nonventilated patients. We reviewed charts of 52 consecutive children after BMT who underwent BAL. Thirty patients (41 BALs) were nonventilated (group 1) and 33 patients (45 BALs) were ventilated for respiratory failure (group 2). Eleven patients were included in both groups. BAL was performed a median of 255 and 28.5 days after BMT in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). Group 1:17 pathogens were isolated from 13 BALs; a single pathogen from 10 BALs. Group 2:15 pathogens were isolated from 14 BALs (31.1% positive). Viruses were isolated from 13 BALs in group 2. A severe complication of BAL occurred in only one patient from group 1 (1.1%). Open lung biopsies were performed in one patient in group 1 and eight patients in group 2. The histological findings correlated with the BAL findings in 66.7%. In conclusion, there was no difference in the yield of BAL between the groups. Therapy was changed in one third of the patients dictated by the BAL findings. The risk of severe complications was relatively low. A good correlation between open lung biopsy (OLB) and BAL was found.
Latest similar papers:
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Oct 5;: 23042971
Tyler Warkentien, Carlos Rodriguez, Bradley Lloyd, Justin Wells, Amy Weintrob, James R Dunne, Anuradha Ganesan, Ping Li, William Bradley, Lakisha J Gaskins, Françoise Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Clinton K Murray, Eugene V Millar, Bryan Keenan, Kristopher Paolino, Mark Fleming, Duane R Hospenthal, Glenn W Wortmann, Michael L Landrum, Mark G Kortepeter, David R Tribble
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.
Background. Major advances in combat casualty care have led to increased survival of patients with complex extremity trauma. Invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) are an uncommon, but increasingly recognized, complication following trauma that require greater understanding of risk factors and clinical findings to reduce morbidity.Methods. The patient population includes US military personnel injured during combat from June 2009 through December 2010. Case definition required wound necrosis on successive debridements with IFI evidence by histopathology and/or microbiology (Candida spp excluded). Case finding and data collected through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study utilized trauma registry, hospital records or operative reports, and pathologist review of histopathology specimens.Results. A total of 37 cases were identified: proven (angioinvasion, n = 20), probable (nonvascular tissue invasion, n = 4), and possible (positive fungal culture without histopathological evidence, n = 13). In the last quarter surveyed, rates reached 3.5% of trauma admissions. Common findings include blast injury (100%) during foot patrol (92%) occurring in southern Afghanistan (94%) with lower extremity amputation (80%) and large volume blood transfusion (97.2%). Mold isolates were recovered in 83% of cases (order Mucorales, n = 16; Aspergillus spp, n = 16; Fusarium spp, n = 9), commonly with multiple mold species among infected wounds (28%). Clinical outcomes included 3 related deaths (8.1%), frequent debridements (median, 11 cases), and amputation revisions (58%).Conclusions. IFIs are an emerging trauma-related infection leading to significant morbidity. Early identification, using common characteristics of patient injury profile and tissue-based diagnosis, should be accompanied by aggressive surgical and antifungal therapy (liposomal amphotericin B and a broad-spectrum triazole pending mycology results) among patients with suspicious wounds.
Mil Med. 2012 Jun ;177 (6):681-5 22730844
Department of Clinical Trials, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.
Invasive mold infections are a rare complication of traumatic wounds. We examined the incidence and outcomes of these infections in combat wounds. A retrospective chart review from March 2002 through July 2008 of U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic wounds was performed. A confirmed fungal wound infection was defined as growth of a known pathogenic mold and visualization of fungal elements on histopathology. Six cases were identified for an incidence of 0.4 cases/1,000 admissions. The incidence of invasive mold infections increased over time (p = 0.008) with a peak of 5.2 cases/1,000 admissions in 2007. Isolated molds included Aspergillus (n = 4), Bipolaris (n = 2), and 1 each Mucor and Absidia. All patients were male with a mean age of 22. Blast (n = 5) and gunshot wound (n = 1) were the sources of injury. All patients had fever (mean 39.4 degrees C) and leukocytosis (mean white blood cell count 25 x 10(3)/microL). The average acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 22. All patients received antifungal agents, surgical debridement, and 3 required amputation revision. Average length of stay was 97 days. There were no deaths. Invasive mold infections are a rare complication of combat wounds but are associated with significant morbidity and may be increasing in frequency.
Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Invasive mold infections affecting the lungs are increasing in incidence and diversity. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection from unusual, normally nonpathogenic fungi that are found naturally in the environment. Certain fungi such as Scedosporium and the dematiaceous fungi also cause lung disease in hosts without overt immune compromise. The impacts of these emerging pathogens range from airway colonization to locally invasive lung, and disseminated, disease. Diagnosis requires isolation and identification of the etiologic agent by either or both phenotypic and molecular biology methods. Evidence of tissue invasion on histopathology is often required to distinguish infection from colonization. Diagnostic imaging techniques are nonspecific, and there are no reliable serological biomarkers of infection. Many rare molds and yeasts demonstrate reduced in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents. Although amphotericin B formulations remain clinically useful for many of these infections, voriconazole and posaconazole are more effective for some of these difficult-to-treat pathogens. Surgical resection of diseased tissue and support of the host immune system are often required to optimize outcomes.
J Neuroophthalmol. 2011 Jul 26;: 21799448
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute (JS, BLL, JP), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; and Memorial Neuroscience Center (LS), Memorial Regional Hospital, Hollywood, Florida.
BACKGROUND:: Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is thought to represent an immunologic response to exposure to dematiaceous fungi. These fungi are known to cause disease more frequently in hot and humid climates and seasons. METHODS:: Three patients presented with unusual manifestations of fungal disease after exposure to environments recently affected by hurricanes. RESULTS:: Two patients had AFS, 1 with gradual painless visual loss from an AFS mass extending into the suprasellar region and 1 with orbital apex syndrome. Another patient had invasive fungal disease and developed orbital apex syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:: These cases underscore the importance of clinical recognition of fungal disease in patients with sinus, orbital, or skull base involvement as well as its potential for causing permanent visual loss. This report suggests a potential association between fungal disease and tropical storm exposure.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA. email@example.com
Melanized or dematiaceous fungi are associated with a wide variety of infectious syndromes. Many are soil organisms and are generally distributed worldwide, though certain species appear to have restricted geographic ranges. Though they are uncommon causes of disease, melanized fungi have been increasingly recognized as important pathogens, with most reports occurring in the past 20 years. The spectrum of diseases with which they are associated has also broadened and includes allergic disease, superficial and deep local infections, pneumonia, brain abscess, and disseminated infection. For some infections in immunocompetent individuals, such as allergic fungal sinusitis and brain abscess, they are among the most common etiologic fungi. Melanin is a likely virulence factor for these fungi. Diagnosis relies on careful microscopic and pathological examination, as well as clinical assessment of the patient, as these fungi are often considered contaminants. Therapy varies depending upon the clinical syndrome. Local infection may be cured with excision alone, while systemic disease is often refractory to therapy. Triazoles such as voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole have the most consistent in vitro activity. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis and optimal treatment of these uncommon infections.
Invasive sinonasal disease due to dematiaceous fungi in immunocompromised individuals: case report and review of the literature.
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, 1101 East Marshall Street, Richmond, VA 23298-0049, USA.
Invasive dematiaceous fungal sinusitis is an uncommon and aggressive disease in immunocompromised individuals. We report a unique case of invasive Exserohilum sinusitis in a pregnant, immunocompromised woman. After treating the woman with pregnancy-induced aplastic anemia and invasive Exserohilum sinusitis and pulmonary disease, we performed a Medline/PubMed review of invasive dematiaceous fungal sinonasal disease in immunocompromised individuals. Twelve cases of proven and one case of probable invasive sinonasal dematiaceous fungal disease in immunocompromised patients are reported in the English-language literature. The majority of patients had underlying hematological conditions. The crude mortality was high, with over half of the patients dying from presumed complications of the underlying immunosuppression. Successful outcomes were associated with surgical debridement, aggressive antifungal use, and a reduction of immunosuppression. The optimal treatment for immunocompromised patients with invasive dematiaceous fungal disease is not known. The role of newer triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, appears promising, however more clinical data are needed. Definitive diagnosis requires tissue biopsy and successful treatment is associated with reduction of immunosuppression, aggressive surgical debulking, and systemic antifungal therapy.
Ann Transplant. ;14 (4):52-7 20009156
Undine A Gerlach, Sven Kohler, Igor M Sauer, Dinah Joerres, Frank Kandziora, Peter Neuhaus, Johann Pratschke, Andreas Pascher
Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Although spondylodiscitis is rare, it is increasingly described in patients with compromised immunity due to malignancy, chemotherapy or immunosuppression. Typical pathogens are staphylococcus aureus and enterobacteria; fungal spondylodiscitis is uncommon. CASE REPORT: We present a case of aspergillus spondylodiscitis following pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with multivisceral and kidney transplantation. Due to irreversible disc destruction, surgical restoration by autologous iliac crest graft was required in addition to intravenous antifungal therapy, which consisted of voriconazole, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus spondylodiscitis is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, a combination of surgical debridement and antifungal therapy is inevitable to prevent rapid progression of invasive aspergillosis and neurological damage.
Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
Paecilomyces lilacinus is a little-known mold that causes rare cases of invasive infections in humans regardless of their immune status. We present a unique case in an immunocompromised host with olecranon bursitis because of multidrug-resistant P. lilacinus treated with systemic ketoconazole therapy and surgical debridement. Recognition of this fungus is difficult initially because of its appearance, which can be confused with that of other fungi. Once this organism has been identified, it is recommended that antifungal susceptibility testing be obtained to guide appropriate therapy. Combination of therapeutic modalities requires case-by-case assessment. Surgical debridement and removal of prosthesis may be indicated. Although P. lilacinus can be a laboratory contaminant, in our case, causation was established as the organism grew in repeated cultures, sufficient to confirm a fungal origin for his bursitis.
Disseminated Scedosporium apiospermum infection in renal transplant recipient: long-term successful treatment with voriconazole: a case report.
P G Rogasi, M Zanazzi, J Nocentini, E Fantoni, M Trotta, E Faggi, A Fontanelli, E Bertoni, M Salvadori, F Leoncini
Malattie Infettive, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Scedosporium apiospermum, the asexual form of Pseudallescheria boydii, is a ubiquitous fungus that represents an unfrequent complication of immune suppression. It accounts for 20% of all non-Aspergillus mold infections in organ transplant recipients. The infection can be localized or disseminated in multiple organs, including lungs, brain, joints, tendons, and skin, and is difficult to treat, due to resistance of S apiospermum to amphotericin B and other antifungal agents. The mortality rate is about 50%. To our knowledge, there are no prospective studies or registries of transplant recipients to guide diagnosis and there are no evidence-based recommendations for the optimal management of this infection. We report a case of S apiospermum infection in a woman with renal transplantation. The first occurrence of infection was a solitary nodule on the forearm, which was surgically excised. Two following relapses were disseminated to the knee, the Achilles tendon, and the skin of the left leg. The infection was successfully treated with voriconazole, but due to the severe iatrogenic immune suppression, a strong reduction in immunosuppressant drugs was needed.
Department of Pathology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Fungal infection of the nose and sinuses is an uncommon condition which is now being increasingly recognized. In this study we review clinicopathologic features in a series of 26 cases encountered at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre over a five-year period. The cases were divided into four categories according to the following histopathologic features: allergic fungal sinusitis (11 cases), aspergilloma (one case), chronic indolent fungal sinusitis (five cases), and acute fulminant fungal sinusitis (nine cases). In the cases of allergic fungal sinusitis and aspergilloma, the fungal hyphae were limited to the sinus activity without any evidence of invasion. Invasion in the wall of the sinus, as well as the surrounding tissue, was noted in cases of chronic indolent fungal sinusitis and acute fulminant fungal sinusitis. All patients were treated surgically and those cases with evidence of tissue invasion on pathologic or radiologic examination were given antifungal therapy. The prognosis was excellent in the cases of allergic fungal sinusitis and aspergilloma. Most of the patients with acute fulminant fungal sinusitis died of uncontrolled fungus growth. In the cases of chronic indolent fungal sinusitis, all patients are still alive, but two patients had loss of vision due to fungal invasion. Fungal sinusitis with absence of tissue invasion is easily treated by surgery alone. However, in cases with tissue invasion, a combination of surgery with antifungal therapy may be successful. Acute fulminant fungal sinusitis, however, has a grave prognosis.