J Med Syst. 2006 Oct ;30 (5):351-62 17068998
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Despite the fact that oral cancer is usually diagnosed with the naked eye, dental radiology can play a significant role in the process of diagnosis, treatment planning, assessment of response to treatment, and prognosis. This paper will discuss a prototype tele-educational system to support dental radiology training programs, which will help dental students get the skills necessary for interpreting dental tumor images. The system consists of a central database, an online case annotation tool and a case demonstration tool. The annotation tool allows dental faculty to integrate image findings with related clinical information, and to prepare high-quality teaching cases. The tele-educational system can improve and reinforce dental students' and dentists' skills in analyzing dental tumor images. The design of tele-educational system could serve as a model for self-evaluation of interpreting skills in dental tumor images as part of Continuous Medical Education (CME) in the future.
Other papers by authors:
Am J Pathol. 2012 Nov 20;: 23177475
CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein δ Is a Critical Mediator of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, the Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Although inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses in acute lung injury are poorly understood, and therapeutic options remain limited. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, are expressed in the lung and have been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory mediators. However, their functions in lung pathobiological characteristics are not well characterized. Herein, we show that C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ are activated in mouse lung after intrapulmonary deposition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice carrying a targeted deletion of the C/EBPδ gene displayed significant attenuation of the lung permeability index (lung vascular leak of albumin), lung neutrophil accumulation (myeloperoxidase activity), and neutrophils in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids compared with wild-type mice. These phenotypes were consistent with morphological evaluation of lung, which showed reduced inflammatory cell influx and minimal intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Moreover, mutant mice expressed considerably less tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids in LPS-injured lung compared with wild-type mice. In contrast, C/EBPβ deficiency had no effect on LPS-induced lung injury. By using small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown for C/EBPδ, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that C/EBPδ plays a critical role for the tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 production in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages. These findings demonstrate that C/EBPδ, but not C/EBPβ, plays an important role in LPS-induced lung inflammatory responses and injury.
Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano-superstructures (NSSs) have attracted intense research interests due to their large surface areas and unique properties. In this work, we report an original approach to synthesize ZnO NSSs in a one-step manner with a hydrothermal method. The crystalline structures and growth mechanism can be understood by surface energy calculations. The reaction kinetics was investigated for the control of the morphology of ZnO NSSs. The critical role of the morphology of Au catalysts in the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures has been demonstrated. Such ZnO NSSs can be fabricated on various rigid and flexible substrates for applications in electronics, solar cells and piezoelectric devices.
Stent placement for treatment of long segment (≥80mm) carotid artery stenosis in patients with takayasu disease.
Jun Hu, Heqing Huang, Xiaofei Zhang, Guangjian Li, Qu Liu, Min Wu, Gui Li, Kangning Chen, Shugui Shi
Department of Neurology (J.H., H.H., Gua.L., Q.L., M.W., Gui.L., K.C., S.S.).
PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of carotid artery stent (CAS) placement for treatment of long segment stenosis in patients with Takayasu arteritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between January 2002 and February 2012, all patients with Takayasu arteritis found to have long segment (≥80mm) carotid artery stenoses at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients treated by CAS placement with either long or multiple self-expandable stents were included. All patients had focal neurologic symptoms, including three strokes and two transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Six self-expanding stents were used in five patients. The mean follow-up period was 19.2 months (range, 6-30 mo); all patients had clinical evaluation, laboratory examination, and vascular imaging follow-up. RESULTS Improvement in clinical symptoms was shown after successful angioplasty. There were no perioperative or in-hospital deaths. Four patients exhibited persistent relief, and repeated angiography or computed tomography (CT) angiography showed normal flow. One patient stopped taking her medications after CAS placement and became symptomatic 8 months later as a result of a severe in-stent stenosis. CONCLUSIONS CAS placement was shown to be a feasible option for treating long segment (≥80mm) stenosis of carotid arteries in patients with Takayasu arteritis with encouraging results.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012 Oct 19;: 23076531
Identification of genes differentially expressed in the roots of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) in response to phosphorus deficiency.
Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory for Rubber Biology, Rubber Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, 571737, Hainan, China.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. P deficiency could affect rubber tree productivity seriously, and understanding the mechanism responses of the rubber tree under the P deficiency will be helpful to improving rubber tree productivity. The molecular mechanism by which the rubber trees respond to a P-deficiency is a complex network involving many processes. To identify the genes differentially expressed in that response, we constructed subtractive suppression hybridization libraries for roots of plants growing under deficient or sufficient conditions. We identified 94 up-regulated genes from the forward library and 45 down-regulated from the reverse library. These differentially expressed genes were categorized into eight groups representing functions in metabolism, transcription, signal transduction, protein synthesis, transport, stress responses, photosynthesis, and development. We also performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression profiles of eight randomly selected clones. Our results provide useful information for further study of the molecular mechanism for adaptations to a P-deficiency in this species. Further characterization and functional analysis of these differentially expressed genes will help us improve its phosphorus utilization and overall productivity.
Wei-Yan Zhang, Ming-Xu Fang, Wen-Wu Zhang, Chuan Xiao, Xin-Qi Zhang, Zhi-Ping Yu, Xu-Fen Zhu, Min Wu
College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University;
A novel strain, named S4(T), was obtained from an industrial wastewater in Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, neutrophilic and non-spore-forming, and moved by polar flagellum. Normal cells were 0.8-0.9 × 1.3-1.9 μm and the cells elongated when cultivated at higher temperature. Strain S4(T) grew at 15-50 °C (optimum at 48 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum 7.0-7.5), and 0-2%(optimum 0.5% w/v) NaCl. Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were alanine, asparagine, glutamate, citrate, malonate, salicylate and succinate. Ubiquinone-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone. C(16:0), summed feature 3 (C(16:1) ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) cyclo and C(18:1) ω7c were the major cellular fatty acids. Major 3-OH fatty acid was C(10:0) 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminoglycolipids.The genomic DNA G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences alignment, the close genera were Comamonas (94.6-95.6%), Giesbergeria (94.9-95.6%), Acidovorax (94.8-95.4%), Brachymonas (95.2%), Macromonas (95.1%). Phylogenetic analyses showed the closest relatives of strain S4(T) to be genera Macromonas. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, we suggest that strain S4(T) represent a novel species of a new genus of the family Comamonadaceae, for which the name Extensimonas vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4(T)(= CGMCC 1.10977(T)=JCM 17803(T)).
J Cell Biochem. 2012 Oct 11;: 23060286
Institute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key cellular event in the early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). Monocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of TIF. We have previously demonstrated that monocytes can directly induce HK-2 cell transition by direct contact. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant agent, has been widely used in renal disease for decades. Whether it could influence the monocyte and HK-2 cell interaction and prevent EMT is still uncertain. In this study we found that the typical epithelial cell morphology of HK-2 cells disappeared 24 hours after co-culture with monocytes, and dexamethasone significantly prevented this change in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that dexamethasone prevented monocytes from binding to HK-2 cells by inhibiting ICAM-1 expression on HK-2 cells. Further analysis demonstrated that there was increased E-cadherin expression and decreased α-SMA and fibronectin expression after co-culture with dexamethasone, suggesting that dexamethasone prevents monocyte-induced HK-2 cell transition. The nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) pathway played an important role in this process. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which corticosteroids may delay the progression of TIF via preventing EMT. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
J Card Surg. 2012 Oct 10;: 23046109
Surgical Outcome of Isolated Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection in Adults: A 14-Year Experience.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, P.R. China.
Abstract Aim of the study: To investigate the surgical result of adult total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). Methods: From March 1997 to March 2011, 12 adult cases of isolated TAPVC, with an average age of 24.9 ± 6.7 years (from 18 to 41 years), underwent surgical repair in our department. All patients suffered from right-sided volume overload with clinical manifestations varying from mild cyanosis to severe heart failure. Results: According to Darling's classification, eight cases were classified as supracardiac type, four as cardiac type. Unobstructed connections were established between the left atrium and the pulmonary common vein in all patients with external cardiac approach in four supracardiac cases, and internal cardiac approach in four cardiac and three supracardiac cases, and Warden technique in one supracardiac patient. Concomitant operations included De Vega's tricuspid annuloplasty in six patients, patent arteriosus ductus closure in two. All patients survived the operation, and postoperative follow-up was 100% complete with a period ranging from 10 months to 14 years. NYHA grade decreased from 2.33 ± 0.49 to 1.08 ± 0.29 (p < 0.01). Three patients had postoperative tricuspid insufficiency. Five patients had cardiac arrhythmia, among two symptomatic cases; one controlled with medication, another received a successful radiofrequency ablation for incision-related atrial flutter. Conclusions: Surgical correction of isolated adult TAPVC can be carried out safely with acceptable long-term outcome. Postoperative tricuspid insufficiency and cardiac arrhythmias may have a negative long-term impact, which should be evaluated preoperatively and managed individually during surgery.(J Card Surg 2012;**:1-4).
Analyst. 2012 Sep 27;: 23013769
Development of an improved single-drop microextraction method and its application for the analysis of carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.
Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China. email@example.com.
An improved single-drop microextraction (SDME) method combined with high performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the detection of trace carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in water samples. The most fascinating feature of the proposed method is the use of an oval-shaped polychloroprene rubber (PCR) tube to load the extraction solvent, which efficiently loads more solvent and improves the stability of extraction microdrop. Furthermore, this device provides a larger contact surface between the extraction solvent and the inner surface of the oval-shaped PCR tube than that between the extraction solvent and the tip of a microsyringe needle in the conventional SDME. It thereby avoids the problem of the drop floating upwards or dislodging from the tip of the microsyringe needle as observed in the traditional SDME. This method is significant for the great improvement it can offer in extraction efficiency. A series of extraction parameters were investigated systematically using carbamate and organophosphorus as the model analytes. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors for analysis were between 117 and 177, and the limits of detection were ≦0.63 μg L(-1)(S/N = 3). The repeatability study was carried out by extracting the spiked water samples. Here the relative standard deviations varied between 4.0 and 5.8%(n = 5). Additionally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticides in real water samples, and good recoveries were obtained from 79% to 112%. The proposed method was demonstrated to hold advantages of low cost, simplicity of operation, and successful application to in real water samples.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is one of the common complications in diabetes mellitus. Many studies have shown that high glucose (HG) caused cardiovascular calcification, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, medial calcification has been most commonly described in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Chondrocytes were involved in the medial calcification. Recent studies have shown that the conversion into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) could be triggered in chondrocytes. Our previous research has indicated that HG induced EndMT in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Therefore, we addressed the question of whether HG-induced EndMT could be transitioned into MSCs and differentiated into chondrocytes. METHODS: HAECs were divided into three groups: a normal glucose (NG) group, HG group (30 mmol/L), and mannitol (5.5 mmol/L NG + 24.5 mmol/L) group. Pathological changes were investigated using fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the co-expression of endothelial markers, such as CD31, and fibroblast markers, such as fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1). The expression of FSP-1 was detected by real time-PCR and western blots. Endothelial-derived MSCs were grown in MSC medium for one week. The expression of the MSCs markers STRO-1, CD44, CD10 and the chondrocyte marker SOX9 was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blots. Chondrocyte expression was detected by alcian blue staining. Calcium deposits were analyzed by alizarin red staining. RESULTS: The incubation of HAECs exposed to HG resulted in a fibroblast-like phenotype. Double staining of the HAECs indicated a co-localization of CD31 and FSP-1. The expression of FSP-1 was significantly increased in the HG group, and the cells undergoing EndMT also expressed STRO-1, CD44 and SOX9 compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Additionally, alcian blue staining in the HG group was positive compared to the NG group. Consistent with the evaluation of SOX9 expression, calcium deposits analyzed by alizarin red staining were also enhanced by the HG treatment. Specifically, we showed that HG-induced EndMT is accompanied by the activation of the canonical Snail pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that HG could induce endothelial cells transdifferentiation into chondrocyte-like cells via the EndMT, which is mediated in part by the activation of the Snail signaling pathway.
Hepatology. 2012 Sep 19;: 22996189
Hepatitis B virus polymerase impairs interferon-α-induced STATs activation through inhibition of importin-α5 and protein kinase C-δ
Jieliang Chen, Min Wu, Xiaonan Zhang, Wen Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Lixiang Chen, Jing He, Ye Zheng, Cuncun Chen, Fan Wang, Yunwen Hu, Xiaohui Zhou, Cong Wang, Yang Xu, Mengji Lu, Zhenghong Yuan
Research Unit Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, Ministry of Education and Health, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Treatment with exogenous interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is not effective in the majority of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recent evidences suggest that HBV has evolved strategies to block the nuclear translocation of STAT1 to limit IFN-α-induced cellular antiviral responses. However, it remains unclear whether STAT1 translocation is impaired in chronic hepatitis B patients and what mechanisms are involved. Here we reported that the expression of HBV polymerase (Pol) in human hepatic cell lines inhibited IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induction and resulted in a weakened antiviral activity of IFN-α. Ectopic expression of Pol suppressed IFN-α-induced STAT1 serine 727 phosphorylation and STAT1/2 nuclear accumulation, whereas STAT1 tyrosine 701 phosphorylation and STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer formation were not affected. Further studies demonstrated that Pol interacted with the catalytic domain of protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ), perturbed PKC-δ phosphorylation and its association with STAT1, which resulted in the suppression of STAT1 Ser727 phosphorylation. Moreover, Pol was found to interfere with nuclear transportation of STAT1/2 by competitively binding to the region of importin-α5 required for STAT1/2 recruitment. Truncation analysis suggested that the terminal protein (TP) and RNase H (RH) domains of Pol were able to bind to PKC-δ and importin-α5 respectively and responsible for the inhibition of IFN-α signaling. More importantly, the inhibition of STAT1 and PKC-δ phosphorylation were confirmed in a hydrodynamic-based HBV mouse model and the blockage of IFN-α-induced STAT1/2 nuclear translocation was observed in HBV-infected cells from liver biopsies of chronic HBV patients. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a role for Pol in HBV-mediated antagonization of IFN-α signaling and provide a possible molecular mechanism by which HBV resists the IFN therapy and maintains its persistence.(HEPATOLOGY 2012.).
Latest similar papers:
Griffith University, 16-30 High Street, Gold Coast, Queensland 4215, Australia.
The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate the attitudes of a cohort of fourth- and fifth-year dental students (n=53) at Griffith University in Australia to a proposed computer-based Case Study and Treatment Planning (CSTP) tool. The tool would allow students to work through the process of comprehensive, multidisciplinary treatment planning for patients in a structured and logical manner. A questionnaire was designed to investigate the students' perceived needs, attitudes, and factors deemed to be important in the design of such a tool. Students responded on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The survey was supplemented by two focus groups, one of fourth-year and one of fifth-year students. The survey results indicated strong agreement that there is a need for such a tool (fourth-year mean=6.24; fifth-year mean=5.75) and the likelihood that it would be used after hours and for extra treatment planning practice (fourth-year mean=5.82; fifth-year mean=5.45). The themes that emerged from the focus groups revealed students' agreement that a CSTP tool would be beneficial both for training and for faculty assessment of students' treatment planning skills. The type of concerns raised included whether a rigid treatment planning template might hamper the flexibility needed to deal with complex patient cases. Additionally, there was some concern that students' personal interaction with tutors would be reduced if this mode of computer-based treatment planning were to be used exclusively. In conclusion, the overall attitude of dental students was positive towards a CSTP tool. This study's findings provide guidance as to how such software could be developed and which features to include.
Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.
There is heightened optimism about the potential of 3D visualization software as an alternative learning resource in radiology education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3D visualization software on students' learning of oral radiographic interpretation from 2D radiographic images. Fourth-year dental students underwent a learning intervention phase of radiographic interpretation of oral pathoses using 3D visualization software. The success of the educational intervention was assessed by quantitative means, using a radiographic interpretation test, and by qualitative means, using a structured Likert-scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes. It was anticipated that training with the rotational mode of 3D visualization software would provide additional depth cues, enabling students to create spatial-mental models of anatomy that they can apply to 2D radiographic interpretation of oral pathoses. Although quantitative assessment did not support this, questionnaire evaluations demonstrated a positive effect of the 3D visualization software by enhancing students' learning about radiographic interpretation. Despite much optimism about the educational potential of 3D visualization software, it is important to understand the interactions between learners and such new technologies in order to identify potential advantages and limitations prior to embracing them as learning resources.
J Dent Educ. 2011 May ;75 (5):679-84 21546602
Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Clinic, University Hospital, Umeå and affiliated to Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
The purpose of this project was to investigate the long-term effects on skill to interpret spatial information in radiographs after conventional and simulator-supported training. The study was a follow-up of a previously reported randomized experimental study. The original study population was comprised of fifty-seven dental students. Forty-five individuals agreed to participate in a follow-up study eight months after completion of the original study. During the time interval between completion of the previous study and the follow-up study, the participants underwent an examination in oral radiology and had theoretical and clinical training in other topics than oral radiology. Skill at interpreting spatial information in radiographs was assessed with a previously used test instrument. The test instrument was identical with the instrument used for baseline assessment in the original study. The results showed that the skill to interpret spatial relations in radiographs eight months after completion of simulator-supported training was significantly better (p=0.01) than before training. The conventional training showed almost the same pattern, but the difference was smaller and not statistically significant (p=0.11). It is concluded that simulator-supported training is a valuable adjunct to conventional educational methods in oral radiology.
Acad Pediatr. ;9 (6):440-5 19945079
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas 75246, USA. email@example.com
In 2000, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General identified disparities in oral health and access to care for vulnerable populations, including children. The report identified a declining dental school applicant pool, shortages of dental school faculties, and an overcrowded curriculum as dental education factors affecting disparities. Dental school applications are up, but the dentist/population ratio is projected to decline, and the shortage of dental faculty has worsened-limiting dental students' experiences with children. Current Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standards do not include essential curriculum required to care for children. We recommend that CODA revisions to predoctoral and postdoctoral programs include care of infants, characteristics of children that distinguish them from adults, mandatory service learning experiences, emphasis upon social responsibility for all dentists, and use of objective standardized clinical examinations (OSCEs). Additionally, we recommend prioritization of limited pediatric dental resources to young children with disease and older children with complex dental requirements or special health care needs. Critical dental education goals for children should be developed through a special American Dental Education Association task force. Only the dental education community can assure that the dental workforce is better trained to care for children.
P.O. Box 70-421, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F., Mexico;. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dentists must be trained in oral cancer (OC) screening and counseling. However, educational gaps exist in OC prevention worldwide. The objective of this investigation was to assess self-reported perceptions and practices relevant to OC education among Mexican dental school deans. At a leadership meeting in 2007, deans were given a questionnaire containing Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Associations between variables were analyzed with Pearson's chi-square test. Of thirty-four deans attending, twenty-three (68 percent response rate) answered the questionnaire in full. Among the respondents, 83 percent believed "very strongly" that dentists must look for OC, but only 52 percent believed "very strongly" that OC screening must be adopted as a standard practice. Fifty-two percent ranked dentists' responsibility in looking after their patients' overall health as "very strong." The deans indicated less support for dentists' roles to intervene in tobacco and alcohol cessation. Participant deans lead institutions that provide education for over 12,000 dental students; their low awareness on OC screening and counseling may hinder the establishment of routine standardized screening and health promotion that help save human lives.
Department of Dentistry, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Manwai.email@example.com
The authors describe the impact of the Title VII, Section 747 Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (Title VII) grant program on the development, growth, and expansion of general and pediatric dentistry residency programs in the United States. They first briefly review the legislative history of the Title VII program as it pertains to dental education, followed by a historical overview of dental education in the United States, including a description of the differences between dental and medical education and the routes to professional practice. The authors then present an extensive assessment of the role of the Title VII grant program in building general and pediatric dental training capacity, diversifying the dental workforce, providing outreach and service to underserved and vulnerable populations, stimulating innovations in dental education, and engaging collaborative and interdisciplinary training with medicine. Finally, the authors call for broadening the scope of the Title VII program to allow for predoctoral training (dental student education) and faculty development in general and pediatric dentistry. In doing so, the Title VII program can more effectively address current and future challenges in dental education, dentist workforce, and disparities in oral health and access to care.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.
Now that registration is in place for dental technicians, it is important to know where our experience and knowledge fit into the GDC dental team. Knowing one's position in that team will help it to become a well oiled machine and help us to produce what the patient wants, without costly mistakes. New materials and techniques often open different treatment plan options and using the technologist's experience will help with costs to the dentist and the patient, and avoid possible problems. I wanted to ask a few questions regarding the experience of dental technologists and the training of dental students, to see whether we could blend or share some of the responsibilities of some appliance designs.
Int Dent J. 2008 Jun ;58 (3):127-33 18630107
Influence of years of professional experience in relation to the diagnostic skill of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in identifying oral cancer and precancerous lesions.
Clínica Odontológica Universitaria Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate skill in diagnosing cancer and oral precancerous lesions among general dentists in the Autonomous Community of Murcia (Spain). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty randomly distributed clinical images were used, of which 45% corresponded to benign lesions, 35% to oral precancerous lesions, and 20% to oral cancer. Each case was accompanied by a summarised clinical history. The study sample comprised 150 general dentists divided into two groups: group I (60 recently graduated dentists without professional experience) and group II (90 dentists with established professional activity). RESULTS: In group I, the sensitivity of oral cancer diagnosis was 61.3% versus 85.5% in group II (p < 0.001), while the sensitivity of precancerous lesion diagnosis was 71.7% in group I versus 80.7% in group II (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained show that junior dentists and general dentists with public or private practice need more training and more experience in diagnosing cancer and oral precancerous lesions.
J Cancer Educ. 2008 ;23 (2):85-91 18569243
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Most oral cancers are diagnosed at late stages. Health care providers, particularly dentists, play a critical role in early detection of oral cancers and should be knowledgeable and skillful in oral cancer diagnosis. In this study, we assessed knowledge and opinions regarding oral cancer among dental students in Maryland. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Maryland dental students in 2005. RESULTS The response rate was 59.6%. Knowledge of oral cancer was low among freshmen and significantly different from other classes. There was no statistically significant difference between 2nd-, 3rd- and 4th-year students in terms of level of oral cancer knowledge. The results revealed inadequate confidence among junior and senior students with regard to oral cancer examination and lymph node palpation. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study identify areas that need reinforcement in Maryland dental school's curriculum regarding oral cancer education. This survey approach could be a model for other dental schools in the United States or overseas.
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Center for Oral Biology, Box 611, 601 Elmwood Ave., Rochester, NY 14642;. James_Roger@urmc.rochester.edu.
During the inaugural year (2006-07) of the Academic Dental Careers Fellowship Program (ADCFP), 110 faculty members at ten different dental schools were interviewed by dental students who were participating as ADCFP fellows in this year-long program designed to introduce them to faculty roles and activities and help them gain an appreciation for the rewards and issues associated with academic life. The goals, format, and components of the ADCFP are described in a companion article in this issue of the Journal of Dental Education. One of the fellows' assignments during the ADCFP was to interview faculty at various academic ranks who had differing degrees of work emphasis in teaching, research, service/patient care, and administration. Sixty-nine (63 percent of the total) of these interviews were reviewed and analyzed by the authors, who were student fellows in the ADCFP during 2006-07. The purpose of these interviews was to provide the fellows with insight into the positive aspects and challenges in becoming and remaining a dental school faculty member. This aggregate perspective of the interviews conducted at ten dental schools highlights the motivations and challenges that confront a dentist during the process of choosing a career in academic dentistry and determining if dental education is a good fit for each individual who elects to pursue this pathway. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed several factors consistently identified by faculty across the schools as being positive influences on the quality of the academic work environment and career satisfaction: mentorship and student interaction, opportunities for scholarship (research and discovery), job diversity, intellectual challenge, satisfaction with the nature of academic work, lifestyle/family compatibility, flexibility, lifelong learning, professional duty, and lab responsibility. A series of negative themes were also consistently identified: bureaucracy/administrative burdens and barriers, time commitment, financial frustration, political frustration, lack of mentorship, required research emphasis, lack of teaching skills development, student engagement, isolation, and funding uncertainty. This article reports the approximate frequency of each theme, presents representative statements that describe the motivations and attitudes of dental faculty members who were interviewed, and concludes with a review of programs/methods aimed at marketing academic careers to current students. The purpose of this review of the rewards, benefits, and challenges that current dental faculty face is to provide students who are considering dental education with a frame of reference to guide their further exploration of this career path and to help students appreciate the many positive aspects of academic life that may not be readily apparent from their own interactions with faculty members.