Stephen F Wyler, Tullio Sulser, Hans-Helge Seifert, Robin Ruszat, Thomas H Forster, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
INTRODUCTION Recently, some controversy has arisen as to whether pelvic lymphadenectomy is still necessary for patients with prostate cancer who are undergoing radical prostatectomy. We prospectively evaluated the results and morbidity of laparoscopic extended pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with high-risk prostate cancer defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 10 ng/mL or preoperative biopsy Gleason score of 7 or more. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS In 123 consecutive patients with clinically organ-confined high-risk prostate cancer, laparoscopic extended pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed before laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The boundaries of the pelvic lymph node dissection were the bifurcation of the common iliac artery superiorly, the node of Cloquet inferiorly, the external iliac vein laterally, and the bladder wall medially. Preparation was done with bipolar forceps and scissors, with meticulous coagulation of all lymphatic tissue. The mean PSA level was 14.8 ng/mL (range 1.5 to 43.4). The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (range 9 to 55). A total of 21 patients (17%) had lymph node metastases. The overall complication rate was 4%. CONCLUSIONS Laparoscopic extended pelvic lymph node dissection is safe and effective. The results and morbidity are equivalent to those of open surgery, with the advantage of a minimally invasive operative technique.
Surg Endosc. 2011 Jul ;25 (7):2358-9 21298544
Multimedia article. Lateral lymph node dissection with preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced lower rectal cancer through a laparoscopic approach.
Tsuyoshi Konishi, Hiroya Kuroyanagi, Masatoshi Oya, Masashi Ueno, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hidehiko Yoshimatsu, Toshiaki Watanabe, Toshiharu Yamaguchi, Tetsuichiro Muto
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, and Department of Surgery, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8550, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Lateral lymph node (LLN) dissection contributes to a decrease in local recurrence and prolongs survival in locally advanced lower rectal cancer patients as compared with total mesorectal excision (TME) alone [1, 2]. However, this procedure is also accompanied by increased bleeding and postoperative complications [3, 4]. Recently, laparoscopic TME has become a safe and feasible approach for lower rectal cancer even after preoperative chemoradiation [5-7]. Laparoscopic LLN dissection could be the next promising approach and could not only provide a survival benefit but also minimize bleeding and postoperative complications with enhanced visualization, as reported in gynecological and urological malignancies [8, 9]. METHODS A total of 14 patients underwent laparoscopic LLN dissection with TME after preoperative chemoradiation. Our standardized procedure for LLN dissection is seen in the video. After completion of TME, as described previously [5, 6], the obturator nerve is identified between the external and internal iliac arteries and the obturator lymph nodes are dissected along this nerve to reach the obturator foramen. The internal iliac lymph nodes are dissected along the surface of the internal iliac vein, carefully preserving the pelvic nerve plexus. RESULTS The procedure was successfully accomplished in all cases without conversion to laparotomy. The median amount of bleeding and operative time were 25 (range=5-1190) ml and 413 (range=277-596) min, respectively. The median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 23 (range=14-33), and eight cases had metastasis in the retrieved LLNs. Postoperative recovery was excellent, with median time to flatus of 1 (range=1-2) day. Postoperative complications included three wound infections, one anastomotic leakage, and one presacral abscess, and all recovered without surgical intervention. There was no urinary dysfunction. After a mean follow-up of 17 (range=8-43) months, all 14 patients were alive without recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Laparoscopic LLN dissection can be safely conducted with minimal postoperative complications.
J Endourol. 2010 Aug ;24 (8):1229-40 20629570
Division of Urologic Oncology and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. email@example.com
Growing data suggest that lymphadenectomy is a critical component of the surgical management of urologic malignancies with both diagnostic and therapeutic benefit. The increased use of minimally invasive approaches for the management of urologic malignancies may be in conflict with the need for more extensive lymphadenectomy with these procedures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence for lymphadenectomy as a staging and/or therapeutic procedure for urologic oncology procedures, summarize the feasibility of lymphadenectomy for these disease processes using a minimally invasive approach, and make recommendations regarding management of these disease processes using minimally invasive approaches. A literature review using MESH terms to identify literature on lymphadenectomy in urologic oncology (including minimally invasive urologic oncology procedures) was performed. This literature was the summarized by disease process and by its relation to minimally invasive procedures. The literature demonstrates that lymphadenectomy can successfully duplicate that performed for open urologic oncology procedures. The application of minimally invasive approaches, however, requires advanced skills to be able to accomplish this.
The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer has long been an established part of radical prostatectomy that provides prognostic information in men with locally metastatic disease. However, given downward stage migration over the last 25 years, it is no longer clear that pelvic lymphadenectomy is pertinent for most men diagnosed today. In men in whom it is pertinent, it is unclear how extensive a lymphadenectomy should be performed. RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging alone are not accurate for detecting nodal metastases, but new modalities such as magnetic resonance lymphography have great apparent potential. Until these become widely available, pelvic lymph node dissection remains the modality of choice for detecting lymph node metastasis. A variety of predictive nomograms exists to predict lymph node involvement. As a pelvic lymphadenectomy has complications that generally increase with extent of dissection, lymphadenectomy should be limited to patients at an increased risk of nodal metastasis. SUMMARY: There is good evidence that a pelvic lymph node dissection limited to the external iliac vein nodes is unnecessary in men with low-risk prostate cancer. A standard external iliac and obturator lymph node dissection, with or without extension to hypogastric nodes, makes sense in cases of intermediate and high risk. Harvesting a greater number of lymph nodes adds prognostic and even therapeutic benefit in many cases, including in some men with no obvious nodal metastases.
The impact of robotic surgery on pelvic lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer: the Brown University early robotic experience.
Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Section of Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
INTRODUCTION Open pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) remains the gold standard in patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Recently, our institution has adopted robotic assistance for performing radical prostatectomy. We sought to determine whether robot-assisted laparoscopic PLND yields comparable numbers of lymph nodes compared to open PLND. METHODS The medical records of patients undergoing open or robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) with concurrent pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) between 2003 and 2008 were reviewed. Demographic factors including age, PSA, and Gleason score were recorded. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine the number of pelvic lymph nodes obtained during PLND. Lymph node yield was further evaluated based on surgeon. Student's t-test was used to compare the number of lymph nodes obtained with each method. RESULTS A total of 61 patients undergoing open RRP with PLND and 62 patients undergoing RALRP with PLND were included. The mean number of lymph nodes obtained via open PLND was 7.3 while the mean number obtained via robotic PLND was 3.3. These means were significantly different with a p value < 0.001. One patient in the open cohort (1.6%) and two patients in the robotic cohort (3.2%) had micrometastatic disease on PLND. CONCLUSION Robot-assisted laparoscopic PLND yielded fewer lymph nodes compared to open PLND at the time of radical prostatectomy for organ confined disease. Patients with higher risk disease may benefit from open prostatectomy with PLND early in a program's robotics experience. These findings may be related to the relative youth of our robotics program and further comparisons as our data mature will be revealing.
Extended pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostate cancer: Will the previously reported benefits be reproduced in hospitals with lower surgical volumes?
Christian Lindberg, Thomas Davidsson, Sigurdur Gudjonsson, Rafn Hilmarsson, Fredrik Liedberg, Ola Bratt
Department of Urology, Lund University Hospital.
Objective. In the European Association of Urology guidelines on prostate cancer an extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (ePLND) is now recommended, instead of a dissection limited to the obturator fossae (lPLND). This recommendation relies on studies reporting that metastatic disease is identified twice as often with ePLND as with lPLND, with only moderately increased complications. However, these studies were from high-volume centres. This study investigated whether these results could be repeated in a hospital with lower surgical volume, more typical for the Nordic countries. Material and methods. From January 2002 to September 2007 172 patients underwent radical prostatectomy and PLND at the University Hospital of Lund, 108 with ePLND and 64 with lPLND. Perioperative complications and the number of lymph-node metastases found were registered. Results. A median of 17 lymph nodes was identified with ePLND compared with seven with lPLND. Metastases were identified in four out of 64 patients in the lPLND group (6%), versus 22 out of 108 in the ePLND group (20%). In the ePLND group 10 of the patients with metastases had such exclusively outside the obturator fossae. Complications were significantly more common after ePLND (p=0.007): lymphoceles (18 vs 9%), pulmonary embolism (4.6 vs 1.6%), deep venous thrombosis(1 vs 1.5%) and other (haematomas and infectious including sepsis (8 vs 0%). Conclusions. Almost half of the patients with metastases are misclassified by lPLND. Complications are significantly more common after ePLND. This implies that ePLND should be performed, but in selected patients and by high-volume surgeons only.
Department of Urology, Program in Urologic Oncology, Urologic Outcomes Research Group, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
OBJECTIVE To compare rates of lymph node dissection (LND) and nodal yields between patients treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (ORRP) and robot-assisted RRP (RARP) in a contemporary single-institution series. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data from 1278 consecutive patients (716 ORRP and 562 RARP) from one institution were accrued prospectively in an institutional database, and the data analysed retrospectively. Disease risk was assessed using the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score. The likelihood of LND, nodal yield, and likelihood of node positivity were compared between ORRP and RARP. RESULTS Of patients treated with ORRP and RARP, 47.8% and 31.8% had LND, respectively, with more receiving LND over time in both surgical approaches. Men undergoing LND had a higher disease risk than those not undergoing LND (mean CAPRA score 4.3 vs 2.1, P < 0.01), and there was no difference in risk between those undergoing ORRP or RARP (mean CAPRA score 3.0 vs 2.9, P = 0.29). The mean (sd) nodal yield was 14.4 (8.7) for ORRP and 9.3 (5.4) for RARP (P < 0.01). Among patients undergoing LND, 5.8% of ORRP and 4.1% of RARP patients had positive nodes (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The indications for LND and template dissection should be the same regardless of surgical approach. The nodal yield was adequate using both approaches; the yield was higher among ORRP than RARP patients, but the difference was not large, and is less remarkable than the wide variation in yield within each approach. Several factors might explain this variation.
Pelvic lymphadenectomy during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Assessing nodal yield, perioperative outcomes, and complications.
Kevin C Zorn, Mark H Katz, Andrew Bernstein, Sergey A Shikanov, Charles B Brendler, Gregory P Zagaja, Arieh L Shalhav
Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, Illinois 60637, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To describe our pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND) technique during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and to evaluate the nodal yield and perioperative outcomes. PLND is commonly performed with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Because of the limitations of the robotic arm pitch in accessing the pelvic sidewall and undersurface of the iliac bifurcation, uro-oncologists have questioned the adequacy of robotic PLND. METHODS PLND was routinely performed on men with higher risk preoperative prostate cancer parameters (ie, prostrate-specific antigen >10 ng/mL, primary Gleason score > or =4, or clinical Stage T2b or greater). The outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with bilateral, standard template PLND (group 1; n = 296 [26%]) were compared with those of a cohort of 859 robot-assisted radical prostatectomy patients (74%) without PLND (group 2). We also compared these data with those from a single-surgeon experience of open, standard-template PLND for retropubic radical prostatectomy. RESULTS The mean number of lymph nodes removed was 12.5 (interquartile range 7-16). The mean operative time (224 vs 216 minutes; P =.09), estimated blood loss (206 vs 229 mL; P =.14), and hospital stay (1.32 vs 1.24 days; P =.46) were comparable between the 2 groups. The rate of intraoperative complications (1% vs 1.5%; P =.2), overall postoperative complications (9% vs 7%; P =.8), and lymphocele formation (2% vs 0%; P =.9) were not significantly different. The review of our open series and the historically published open standard-template PLND series revealed a mean yield of 15 and a range of 6.7-15 lymph nodes removed, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our data support the feasibility and low complication rate of robotic standard-template PLND with lymph node yields comparable to those with open PLND. Considering the low morbidity of PLND in experienced hands, coupled with the potential of preoperative undergrading and understaging and the therapeutic benefit to patients with micrometastatic disease, an increase in overall standard-template PLND use should be considered.
Alberto Briganti, Michael L Blute, James H Eastham, Markus Graefen, Axel Heidenreich, Jeffrey R Karnes, Francesco Montorsi, Urs E Studer
Department of Urology, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy. email@example.com
CONTEXT Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is considered the most reliable procedure for the detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer (PCa); however, the therapeutic benefit of PLND in PCa management is currently under debate. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the available literature concerning the role of PLND and its extent in PCa staging and outcome. All of the existing recommendations and staging tools determining the need for PLND were also assessed. Moreover, a systematic review was performed of the long-term outcome of node-positive patients stratified according to the extent of nodal invasion. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION A Medline search was conducted to identify original and review articles as well as editorials addressing the significance of PLND in PCa. Keywords included prostate cancer, pelvic lymph node dissection, radical prostatectomy, imaging, and complications. Data from the selected studies focussing on the role of PLND in PCa staging and outcome were reviewed and discussed by all of the contributing authors. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS Despite recent advances in imaging techniques, PLND remains the most accurate staging procedure for the detection of lymph node invasion (LNI) in PCa. The rate of LNI increases with the extent of PLND. Extended PLND (ePLND; ie, removal of obturator, external iliac, hypogastric with or without presacral and common iliac nodes) significantly improves the detection of lymph node metastases compared with limited PLND (lPLND; ie, removal of obturator with or without external iliac nodes), which is associated with poor staging accuracy. Because not all patients with PCa are at the same risk of harbouring nodal metastases, several nomograms and tables have been developed and validated to identify candidates for PLND. These tools, however, are based mostly on findings derived from lPLND dissections performed in older patient series. According to these prediction models, a staging PLND might be omitted in low-risk PCa patients because of the low rate of lymph node metastases found, even after extended dissections (<8%). The outcome for patients with positive nodes is not necessarily poor. Indeed, patients with low-volume nodal metastases experience excellent survival rates, regardless of adjuvant treatment. But despite few retrospective studies reporting an association between PLND and PCa progression and survival, the exact impact of PLND on patient outcomes has not yet been clearly proven because of the lack of prospective randomised trials. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of current data, we suggest that if a PLND is indicated, then it should be extended. Conversely, in view of the low rate of LNI among patients with low-risk PCa, a staging ePLND might be spared in this patient category. Whether this approach is also safe from oncologic perspectives is still unknown. Patients with low-volume nodal metastases have a good long-term prognosis; to what extent this prognosis is the result of a positive impact of PLND on PCa outcomes is still to be determined.
Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection for Prostate Cancer: Surgical Technique and Experience with the First 99 Cases.
Antje Feicke, Martin Baumgartner, Scherwin Talimi, Daniel Max Schmid, Hans-Helge Seifert, Michael Müntener, Markus Fatzer, Tullio Sulser, Räto T Strebel
Department of Urology, University Hospital Zürich, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: To date, there is still a paucity of data in the literature on robotic-assisted laparoscopic extended pelvic lymph node dissection (RALEPLND) in patients with prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility of RALEPLND and to present our surgical technique. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From April 2006 to March 2008, we performed RALEPLND in 99 patients prior to robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Indications for RALEPLND were a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)>/=10 ng/ml or a preoperative Gleason score >/=7. The data were evaluated retrospectively. SURGICAL PROCEDURE: The transperitoneal approach was used in all cases. In order to gain optimal access to the common iliac bifurcation, the five trocars were placed in a more cephalad position than in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy without RALEPLND. After identification of important landmarks, the lymphatics covering the external iliac vein, the obturator lymphatic packet, and the lymphatics overlying the internal iliac artery were removed on both sides. MEASUREMENTS: The total lymph node yield, the frequency of lymph node metastases, and the complication rate. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median patient age was 64 yr (range: 45-78). The median preoperative PSA level was 7.7 ng/ml (range: 1.5-84.6). The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 19 (range: 8-53). In 16 patients (16%), we found lymph node metastasis. Complications occurred in seven patients (7%). CONCLUSIONS: RALEPLND is feasible, and its lymph node yield is well in the range of open series. The robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach in itself does not seem to limit a surgeon's ability to perform a complete extended pelvic lymph node dissection.
Service of Urology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW This review highlights the most important advances and results in minimally invasive oncologic surgery reported in the literature within the past 12 months (between September 2006 and September 2007). RECENT FINDINGS For prostate cancer, the most interesting findings concern ablative therapies for primary and recurrent prostate cancer with substantial functional and oncologic results. Unfortunately, no recent study assessed the long-term oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. It appears that laparoscopic renal nephrectomy for localized renal cancer confers equivalent long-term oncologic results to open surgery. Recent studies reported a new minimally invasive procedure for inguinal lymphadenectomy in patients with penis cancer. Regarding bladder cancer, testis cancer and upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma, no recently published study has modified the current knowledge. SUMMARY Findings from the past 12 months show both the continued progress of minimally invasive oncologic surgery and the need for further evolution to optimize morbidity and oncologic outcomes. We should acknowledge that overall the follow-up is limited and no randomized study was published allowing strong and fair evaluation of these emerging techniques.
Other papers by authors:
Short-, intermediate-, and long-term quality of life after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy--does the learning curve of LRP have a negative impact on patients' quality of life?
Stephen F Wyler, Robin Ruszat, Urs Straumann, Thomas H Forster, Maurizio Provenzano, Tullio Sulser, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To evaluate quality of life (QoL) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and investigate whether the learning curve of laparoscopic novices has a negative influence on patients' QoL. METHODS Evaluation of QoL with the EORTC QLQ C-30 and the PR25 preoperatively (t0) as well as postoperatively after 1-3 mo (t1), 4-6 mo (t2), 7-12 mo (t3), 13-24 mo (t4), and yearly thereafter (t5-t7). Surgeons were grouped according to their prior experience in laparoscopy into experienced and novices. RESULTS LRP was performed in 343 patients; 268 (78%) participated in the study. The mean patient age was 63.3+/-6.3 yr; mean PSA, 10.0+/-9.2 ng/ml; mean follow-up, 26 mo. Global health was impaired for t1 (p<0.001) and then returned to baseline. Emotional functioning improved (p<0.001) for t2-t7 versus baseline. Physical functioning remained impaired for t1-t2, and role and social functioning for t1-t6. Only sexual functioning did not return to baseline for t1-t7. Urinary symptoms were worse at t1 and then improved gradually (p<0.001). No significant difference in any QoL domain could be identified for experienced surgeons versus novices except for financial difficulties at t2-t3, which related to social differences. Thirty-one (9%) patients with adjuvant therapy had significantly worse global health, bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, fatigue, and sexual functioning. CONCLUSIONS The learning curve of laparoscopic novices does not have a negative impact on patients' QoL. For intermediate- to long-term follow-up, patients reach their baseline or score even better in all domains except for sexual functioning but are significantly impaired if adjuvant treatment is performed.
Intermediate-term results of retroperitoneoscopy-assisted cryotherapy for small renal tumours using multiple ultrathin cryoprobes.
Stephen F Wyler, Tullio Sulser, Robin Ruszat, Boris Weltzien, Thomas H Forster, Maurizio Provenzano, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate outcome after retroperitoneoscopic cryotherapy for small renal tumours. METHODS Fourteen patients underwent cryoablation performed with six ultrathin 1.5-mm cryoprobes. Retroperitoneoscopic access was used for any tumour location. A double freeze-thaw cycle was performed under simultaneous retroperitoneoscopic visual control and real-time ultrasound monitoring. RESULTS Mean tumour size was 2.8 cm (range: 2.0-4.0), mean patient age was 68 yr (range: 49-83), and six left and eight right kidneys were treated. The mean operative time was 167 min (range: 120-200); mean blood loss was 93 ml (range: 0-300). Cryosurgery was successfully performed in all 14 patients, with 13 patients undergoing assisted retroperitoneoscopy and one patient, after previous open nephropexy, undergoing an open approach. Intraoperative biopsy specimens revealed renal cell cancer (RCC) in 10 (71%) patients. The only intraoperative complication was bleeding after removal of the cryoprobes in four (29%) patients, necessitating one intracorporeal stitch in each. Two (14%) of the first four patients presented postoperatively with superficial skin frostbite, which healed with conservative treatment. During mean follow-up of 21 mo (range: 2-42), 2 (14%) patients died from unrelated disease, and 12 patients remained without evidence of local recurrence. One patient with previous contralateral nephrectomy for RCC developed retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis on that side without recurrence in the cryoablated kidney. CONCLUSIONS Retroperitoneoscopic cryotherapy using multiple ultrathin cryoprobes is safe and effective with encouraging oncologic results on intermediate-term follow-up. Prospective clinical trials and long-term oncologic data are needed to define its definitive role in treatment of renal tumours.
Urology. 2008 May 30;: 18514769
Robin Ruszat, Stephen F Wyler, Lorenz Gürke, Franco Gambazzi, Nicole Ebinger, Jürg Steiger, Tullio Sulser, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Retroperitoneoscopy is our preferred technique for renal surgery and is routinely performed for living donor nephrectomy. We report a case of a totally bisected left hemidiaphragm during left-sided retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy. This was most likely caused when creating the retroperitoneal working space by balloon dilation. Because the cardiopulmonary situation of the patient remained stable, retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed with the standard technique. This report describes for the first time the retroperitoneoscopic reconstruction of a diaphragmatic injury.
Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: initial experience.
Stephen F Wyler, Alexander Bachmann, Robin Ruszat, Thomas Forster, Tvrtko Hudolin, Thomas C Gasser, Tullio Sulser
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. email@example.com
INTRODUCTION Nephrectomy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has been reported to have significant morbidity and mortality. Because of the large kidney size, laparoscopic nephrectomy is technically demanding and there have been only few reports on this subject. We describe our retroperitoneoscopic technique and review the literature. METHODS Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy was performed in 2 patients. A four-port retroperitoneal access was used, after hilar control the kidney was freed and extracted. RESULTS The mean operative time was 155 min, the mean intraoperative blood loss was 125 ml. There were no intraoperative complications. A postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma in 1 of the patients was managed conservatively with transfusion. CONCLUSION Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy for ADPKD is feasible. The main advantages of this technique compared to transperitoneal laparoscopy are the quick and easy access to the hilar vessels even in large polycystic kidneys and the strict extraperitoneal route.
Photoselective vaporization (PVP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): a prospective bi-centre study of perioperative morbidity and early functional outcome.
Alexander Bachmann, Leander Schürch, Robin Ruszat, Stephen F Wyler, Hans-Helge Seifert, Alexander Müller, Kurt Lehmann, Tullio Sulser
Department of Urology, University of Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To compare the early follow-up and perioperative morbidity of photoselective vaporization (PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients (pts.) suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIAL AND METHOD: 101 pts. underwent PVP (n = 64) and TURP (n = 37) in a prospective, non-randomized bi-centre trial. Inclusion criteria were identical at both centres. Primary outcome parameters were maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)), post-void residual volume (V(res)), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Secondary outcomes included intraoperative surgical parameters and perioperative and post-discharge morbidity. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Operating time was slightly shorter in the TURP group (p = 0.047). During TURP significant more irrigation solution was used (p < 0.001). Decrease of serum haemoglobin (p = 0.027) and serum sodium (p = 0.013) was larger after TURP. Catheter drainage was removed significant earlier after PVP than after TURP (p < 0.001). Outcome of Q(max), and IPSS were similar in both groups within 6 months. The sort of perioperative complications was different in both groups, however overall cumulative perioperative morbidity was comparable (PVP 39.1% versus TURP 43.2.1%; ns). CONCLUSION: PVP provides excellent intraoperative safety, instant tissue removal, and immediate relief from obstructive voiding symptoms, similar to TURP. Early outcomes 6-months after PVP and TURP are comparable.
Prospective single-centre comparison of 120-W diode-pumped solid-state high-intensity system laser vaporization of the prostate and 200-W high-intensive diode-laser ablation of the prostate for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Robin Ruszat, Michael Seitz, Stephen F Wyler, Georg Müller, Malte Rieken, Gernot Bonkat, Thomas C Gasser, Oliver Reich, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, and Department of Urology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety, efficacy and short-term outcome of a new 980 nm high-intensity diode (HiDi) laser (Limmer Laser, Berlin, Germany) system in comparison to the diode-pumped solid-state laser high-performance system (HPS; GreenLight(TM), AMS, Minnetonka, MI, USA) for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a prospective non-randomized single-centre study. PATIENTS AND METHODS From February to September 2007, 117 consecutive patients with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH were included; 62 patients were treated with 120-W HPS laser vaporization and 55 with 980-nm HiDi laser ablation of the prostate. We evaluated perioperative variables, and complications during and after surgery. Patients presenting for follow-up completed the International Prostate Symptom Score, and had their maximum urinary flow rate and postvoid residual urine volume measured. RESULTS The mean (sd) age of the patients was 72.3 (8.8) years (HiDi) and 73.1 (10.8) years (HPS), with a mean preoperative prostate volume of 64.7 (29.7) and 67.4 (46.9) mL, respectively. The mean operative duration was comparable, at 56.4 (20.2) and 62.7 (36.3) min, respectively, whereas the mean energy delivery was significantly higher with the diode laser, at 313 (132) vs 187 (129) kJ (P < 0.001). For patients treated with the HPS the rate of visual impairment from bleeding was higher (0% vs 12.9%, P < 0.01), as was prostate capsule perforation (0% vs 4.8%, P > 0.05). Soon after surgery the rate of dysuria (23.6% vs 17.7%, P > 0.05) and transient urge incontinence (7.3% vs 0%; P < 0.05) was higher for the HiDi laser. During the follow-up there were higher rates of bladder neck stricture (14.5% vs 1.6%, P < 0.01), re-treatment (18.2% vs 1.6%, P < 0.01) and stress urinary incontinence (9.1% vs 0%; P < 0.05) for the HiDi laser group. CONCLUSION Both systems investigated provide good tissue ablative properties. The HiDi laser at 980 nm is more favourable in terms of haemostasis. The penetration depths, resulting in coagulation necrosis and leading to increased re-treatment, bladder neck stricture and incontinence rates, were higher with the HiDi laser.
Thomas H Forster, Gernot Bonkat, Stephen Wyler, Robin Ruszat, Nicole Ebinger, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Urologische Klinik, Solothurner Spitäler AG (soH), Switzerland. email@example.com
Acute ureteral colic presents with a complex of acute and characteristic flank pain that usually indicates the presence of a stone in the urinary tract. Diagnosis and management of renal colic have undergone considerable evolution and advancement in recent years. The application of noncontrast helical computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected ureteral colic is one major advance in the primary diagnostic process. The superior sensitivity and specificity of helical CT allow ureterolithiasis to be diagnosed without the potential side effects of contrast media. Initial management is based on three key concepts:(A) rational and fast diagnostic process (B) effective pain control (C) and understanding of the impact of stone location and size on the natural course of the disease and definitive urologic management. These concepts are discussed in this review with reference to contemporary literature.
Comparison of potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser vaporization of the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate: update of a prospective non-randomized two-centre study.
Robin Ruszat, Stephen F Wyler, Michael Seitz, Kurt Lehmann, Constanze Abe, Gernot Bonkat, Oliver Reich, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the intermediate-term clinical efficacy and the rate of complications in 80 W photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with the potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser (Greenlight,(AMS, Minnetonka, MN, USA) compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in a prospective non-randomised two-centre study. PATIENTS AND METHODS From December 2003 to August 2006, 396 patients (PVP 269, TURP 127) with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study. There was a significant difference in mean age (72 years for PVP vs 68 for TURP, P = 0.001). Patients were therefore stratified in age categories (<70, 70-80,>80 years) and compared for perioperative variables, functional outcome and complications, with a follow-up of up to 24 months. RESULTS The mean prostate size was greater (overall, 62 vs 48 mL, P < 0.001) and mean operative duration longer (overall 72 vs 53 min; P = 0.001) for PVP in all age categories. The rate of intraoperative bleeding (3% vs 11%), blood transfusions (0% vs 5.5%) and capsule perforations (0.4% vs 6.3%), and early postoperative clot retention (0.4% vs 3.9%) was significantly lower for PVP. Hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the PVP group for patients aged <70 years (3.0 vs 4.7 days) and 70-80 years (4.0 vs 5.0 days; P = 0.001). The improvement of peak urinary flow rate was higher after TURP for any age category. The International Prostate Symptom Score and postvoid residual volume during the follow-up showed no significant difference. After 12 months the overall prostate size reduction was 63%(-30 mL) after TURP and 44%(-27 mL) after PVP. The rate of repeat TURP/PVP was higher in the PVP group (6.7% vs 3.9%, not significant) within the follow-up of up to 2 years. The incidence of urethral and bladder neck strictures was comparable. CONCLUSIONS PVP was more favourable in terms of perioperative safety. Although patients assigned for PVP were older and had larger prostates, PVP resulted in a similar functional outcome. Further follow-up is needed to draw final conclusions about the long-term efficacy of PVP.
Chantal Feder-Mengus, Stephen Wyler, Tvrtko Hudolin, Robin Ruszat, Lukas Bubendorf, Alberto Chiarugi, Maria Pittelli, Walter P Weber, Alexander Bachmann, Thomas C Gasser, Tullio Sulser, Michael Heberer, Giulio C Spagnoli, Maurizio Provenzano
ICFS, Department of Surgery, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. email@example.com
Arginase 2, inducible- and endothelial-nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS and eNOS), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and TGF-beta, might impair immune functions in prostate cancer (PCA) patients. However, their expression was not comparatively analysed in PCA and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We evaluated the expression of these genes in PCA and BPH tissues. Seventy-six patients (42 BPH, 34 PCA) were enrolled. Arginase 2, eNOS and iNOS gene expression was similar in BPH and PCA tissues. TGF-beta1 gene expression was higher in BPH than in PCA tissues (p=0.035). IDO gene expression was more frequently detectable (p=0.00007) and quantitatively higher (p=0.00001) in PCA tissues than in BPH. IDO protein, expressed in endothelial cells from both BPH and PCA, was detectable in tumour cells in PCA showing evidence of high specific gene expression. In these patients, IDO gene expression correlated with kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in sera. Thus high expression of IDO gene is specifically detectable in PCA.
GreenLight laser vaporization of the prostate: single-center experience and long-term results after 500 procedures.
Robin Ruszat, Michael Seitz, Stephen F Wyler, Constanze Abe, Malte Rieken, Oliver Reich, Thomas C Gasser, Alexander Bachmann
Department of Urology, Basel University Hospital, Spitalstrasse 21, Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Long-term data of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is scanty. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the long-term efficacy and the complication rate in 80-watt (W) PVP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS 500 consecutive patients with LUTS secondary to BPH underwent PVP between September 2002 and April 2007. The mean follow-up was 30.6+/-16.6 (5.2-60.6) mo. INTERVENTION All patients underwent 80-W PVP performed by seven surgeons. MEASUREMENTS We evaluated perioperative parameters, including operation time, delivered energy, changes of hemoglobin and serum sodium, catheterization, and hospitalization time as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications. Patients presenting for follow-up had data assessed on the International Prostate Symptom Score and quality-of-life questionnaire (IPPS-QoL), maximal flow rate (Q(max)), and post-voiding residual volume (Vres). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS Mean patient age was 71.4+/-9.6 (46-96) yr, with a mean preoperative prostate volume of 56.1+/-25.3 (10-180) ml. Mean operation time was 66.4+/-26.8 (10-160) min, and mean energy delivery was 206+/-94 (2.4-619.0) kJ. Despite ongoing oral anticoagulation in 45% of the patients (n=225), no severe intraoperative complications were observed. Mean catheterization and postoperative hospitalization time was 1.8+/-1.2 (0-10) and 3.7+/-2.9 (0-35) d, respectively. The mean IPSS after 3 yr was 8.0+/-6.2, the QoL score was 1.3+/-1.3, the Q(max) was 18.4+/-8.0 ml/s, and the Vres was 28+/-42 ml. The retreatment rate was 6.8%. Urethral and bladder neck strictures were observed in 4.4% and 3.6% of the patients, respectively. Localized prostate cancer was diagnosed during follow-up in six patients. CONCLUSION PVP is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of LUTS secondary to BPH. Patients on ongoing oral anticoagulation can be safely operated on. PVP leads to an immediate and sustained improvement of subjective and objective voiding parameters. The late complication rate is comparable to that of transurethral electroresection of the prostate.
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Clinical experience with limited lymph node dissection for prostate cancer in Korea: single center comparison of 247 open and 354 robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy series.
Daeheon Choi, Doejung Kim, Yoon Soo Kyung, Ju Hyun Lim, Sang Hoon Song, Dalsan You, In Gab Jeong, Choung-Soo Kim
Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
PURPOSE There are limited data on the role of limited pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in patients with prostate cancer in Korea. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our clinical experience with limited PLND and the difference in its yield between open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer patients in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 601 consecutive patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and bilateral limited PLND by either RRP (n=247) or RALP (n=354) in Asan Medical Center. All patients were divided into three groups according to the D'Amico's risk stratification method. Clinicopathologic data, including the yield of lymph nodes, were thoroughly reviewed and compared among the three risk groups or between the RRP and RALP subjects. RESULTS The mean patient age was 64.9 years and the mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen was 9.8 ng/ml. The median number of removed lymph nodes per patient was 5 (range, 0 to 20). The numbers of patients of each risk group were 167, 199, and 238, and the numbers of patients with tumor-positive lymph nodes were 1 (0.6%), 4 (2.0%), and 17 (7.1%) in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the high-risk group, the lymph node-positive ratio was higher in RRP (14.9%) than in RALP subjects (2.4%). CONCLUSIONS We speculate that limited PLND may help in prostate cancer staging in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer groups. RRP is a more effective surgical modality for PLND than is RALP, especially in high-risk prostate cancer groups.
Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection Including Internal Iliac Packet Should Be Performed During Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer.
Jae Hung Jung, Joo Wan Seo, Meng Shi Lim, Jae Won Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Sung Joon Hong, Jae Mann Song, Koon Ho Rha
1 Department of Urology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine , Wonju, Korea.
Abstract Introduction: The indication and anatomic limits of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) have not been clearly defined. Therefore, we assessed whether the extent of PLND at robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) had any benefit on lymph node yield, staging accuracy, and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Between July 2005 and July 2010, a retrospective analysis was performed on 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer stratified by D'Amico classification. The study population was divided into different groups: patients in Group 1 had standard PLND, and Group 2 had extended PLND (ePLND). The clinicopathologic findings of patients and surgical outcomes of PLND with each procedure were measured. Kaplan-Meier and log rank tests were used to estimate BCR-free survival rates. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were done with the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Medians of 15 (interquartile range, 11-19) and 24 (interquartile range, 18-28) lymph nodes were dissected in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P<.001). The incidences of lymph node metastasis were 5.2%(8/155) in Group 1 and 22.2%(10/45) in Group 2. Regardless of the extent of PLND, the patients with positive lymph nodes had a significantly lower BCR-free survival than those with negative lymph nodes. Twenty-five percent (7/27) of positive lymph nodes were in the internal iliac packet and common iliac packet. In particular, of the positive internal iliac nodes, 75%(3/4) of nodes were found in that location, exclusively. Conclusions: An ePLND that identifies patients with lymph node metastasis including the internal iliac packet during RALP provides an accurate pathologic staging and may have survival benefits in high-risk prostate cancer.
Urologia. 2012 Jul 20;: 22865337
Molecular diagnostic tools for the detection of nodal micrometastases in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection: a prospective study.
Valerio Vagnoni, Riccardo Schiavina, Daniele Romagnoli, Marco Borghesi, Giovanni Passaretti, Hussam Dababneh, Sergio Concetti, Giuseppe Martorana
Department of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna - Italy.
Background: Routine pathological examination can miss micro-metastatic tumor foci in the lymph nodes (LN) of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) that undergo radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the impact of micrometastases assessed by serial section (SS), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with extended PLND. Materials and methods: 32 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with extended PLND (obturator, internal/external and distal 2cm common iliac lymph-nodes (LN)) for intermediate (clinical T1c-T2 and PSA:10-20 ng/mL and clinical Gleason Score = 7) or high (clinical stage T3 or PSA>20 or clinical Gleason Score = 8-10) PCa were enrolled. The nodes were processed by the one uropathologist, both according to the routine pathological examination (analysis of the central section for 4 mm nodes or every 2 mm for LN>4 mm), which served as comparative method, both according to SS, IHC with antibodies against PSA and broad-spectrum Cytokeratins (BSCK), and quantitative RT-PCR targeting PSA, PSMA (PS Membrane Antigen), and Glucuronidase-S-Beta (GUSB) mRNA, that are over-expressed in prostatic cancer cells. Results: A total of 628 LN were analyzed, with a mean number of LN removed of 19.6 (SD = 7.2). Applying the routine pathological examination, 10 (31.2%) patients and 23 (3.9%) LN resulted positive for nodal involvement, with mean positive LN of 2.2 (SD = 1.4). After applying the SS and the molecular method of analysis (IHC and RT-PCR), micrometastases were found in 7 LN (SS showed micrometastases in 3 of them, IHC in 6 of them and RT-PCR in 7 of them); a total of 3 (9.3%) node-negative patients showed micrometastases at routine pathological examination (in 2 patients with RT-PCR and in 1 with IHC). Conclusions: The significance of micrometastases in PCa and the potential therapeutic role of PLND is not yet clarified, but the molecular analysis of the LN can detect a significant percentage of patients who harbor micro-metastatic PCa missed at routine pathological examination, and can enhance the accuracy of lymphadenectomy as a staging method.
J Urol. 2012 Jun ;187 (6):2082-6 22498221
Pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate cancer: frequency and distribution of nodal metastases in a contemporary radical prostatectomy series.
Guilherme Godoy, Christian von Bodman, Daher C Chade, Ozdal Dillioglugil, James A Eastham, Samson W Fine, Peter T Scardino, Vincent P Laudone
Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.
PURPOSE We determined the frequency and distribution of metastases to pelvic lymph nodes in a contemporary American radical prostatectomy series. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 642 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by a single surgeon between 2002 and 2009 pelvic lymph nodes were removed and submitted to the pathologist in separate packets (external iliac, obturator and hypogastric). We assessed the total number of nodes and the number with metastases in each packet. RESULTS Complete pathological information was available for 427 patients, who had a median of 16 lymph nodes removed. Of the patients 35 (8.2%) had lymph node metastases, including 1.7% with low, 8.6% with intermediate and 23.9% with high risk cancer. Of those with nodal metastases 24 (69%) had positive lymph nodes in only 1 of the 3 areas, including the external iliac in 4 (11%), the obturator in 9 (26%) and the hypogastric in 11 (31%). Only 37% of the patients had positive nodes only in the external iliac area above the obturator nerve while 60% and 49% had at least 1 positive node in the obturator and the hypogastric area, respectively. Of the patients 80% had only 1 (49%) or 2 (31%) positive nodes. CONCLUSIONS In contemporary American patients with clinically localized prostate cancer lymph node metastases were found more often and frequently exclusively in the obturator and hypogastric areas than in the external iliac area. Pelvic lymph node dissection limited to the external iliac area above the obturator nerve would identify and remove lymph node metastases in only a third of the patients with positive nodes found at full pelvic lymph node dissection.
Prostate. 2012 Apr ;72 (5):499-506 22468270
Assessing the risk of lymph node invasion in patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with extended pelvic lymph node dissection. A novel prediction tool.
Alberto Briganti, Umberto Capitanio, Firas Abdollah, Andrea Gallina, Nazareno Suardi, Marco Bianchi, Manuela Tutolo, Andrea Salonia, Massimo Freschi, Patrizio Rigatti, Francesco Montorsi
Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Controversy exists regarding the need for extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) in patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS The study included 982 consecutive men with intermediate risk PCa (PSA 10–20 ng/ml or cT2b-c or biopsy Gleason 3 + 4/ 4 + 3) treated with ePLND and radical prostatectomy (RP) at a single center. All patients underwent an anatomically defined ePLND. A novel risk stratification tool was developed by applying the nonparametric tree modeling technique of classification and regression tree analysis (CART) which relied on pre-operative PSA, clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, and percentage of positive cores. The area under the receiver characteristic curve (AUC) method was used to quantify the accuracy of the model. RESULTS Lymph node invasion (LNI) was found in 81 (8.2%) patients. The CART analyses identified three risk groups of having LNI: a) Low risk: Gleason 3 + 3, cT1c/cT2, PSA 10-20 ng/ml, or Gleason 3 + 4/4 + 3, ≤ 63% of positive cores and PSA < 5 ng/ml (risk of LNI:3.7 and 5.2%, respectively; 64.8% of patients included); b) Moderate risk: Gleason 3 + 4/4 + 3, ≤ 63% of positive cores and PSA ≥ 5 ng/ml (risk of LNI:14.4%; 23% of patients included); c)High risk: Gleason 3 + 4/4 + 3,% positive cores >63%(risk of LNI:20.1%; 12.% of patients included; P < 0.001). The accuracy of the model was 71%. CONCLUSIONS The risk of having LNI varies significantly (3.7–20.1%) in patients with intermediate risk PCa. Our predictive tool might help selecting those patients suitable fore PLND, allowing to spare this approach in about 60% of intermediate risk patients.
Algorithm for selecting men for pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during radical prostatectomy based on clinical risk factors in an Australian population.
Department of Urology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To define selection criteria for pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) based on a contemporary Australian cohort of men with clinically localised prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) with PLND, as stage migration of prostate cancer has led to re-evaluation of the role of PLND at the time of RP. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 200 consecutive men treated by one surgeon between 2000 and 2005 with open RP and PLND. The clinical and pathological data were extracted by retrospective chart review. Associations between clinical predictors and LN positivity were assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Overall, there were LN metastases were in 10 (5%) men. The LN positivity rate was significantly associated with biopsy Gleason score, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration and percentage of positive cores (PPC), with respective odds ratios (OR)(95% confidence interval [CI]) of 3.70 (1.98-6.92), 1.11 (1.04-1.19) and 1.04 (1.01-1.06) Trend toward significant association with clinical stage (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.97-3.13) On multivariate analysis, PSA concentration and biopsy Gleason score were significant predictors of LN disease. All 10 men with LN metastases came from a high-risk group of 96, identifiable by having at least one of the following: stage ≥ cT2b, biopsy Gleason score ≥ 4+3, PSA concentration of ≥ 10 ng/mL or PPC of ≥ 38%. CONCLUSIONS The risk of LN metastases depends upon well-defined clinical risk factors of stage, biopsy Gleason score, PSA concentration and PPC. The present data suggests a simple risk-stratification method, using these risk factors, of identifying men to have PLND at the time of RP.
J Urol. 2012 May ;187 (5):1577-82 22425077
Is bilateral extended pelvic lymphadenectomy necessary for strictly unilateral invasive bladder cancer?
Department of Urology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
PURPOSE We determined the necessary extent of pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with strictly unilateral bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 patients with cystectomy and unilateral bladder cancer preoperatively underwent flexible cystoscopy guided injection of radioactive technetium into the contralateral bladder wall. Preoperatively single photon emission computerized tomography was done in all cases to detect and localize radioactive lymph nodes. Radioactive lymph nodes were confirmed intraoperatively by a γ probe and removed separately. Backup extended pelvic lymph node dissection and ex vivo examination of the whole specimen with a γ camera were done to preclude missed radioactive lymph nodes. Single photon emission computerized tomography and intraoperative findings were used to generate a 3-dimensional projection model of each lymph node site. RESULTS A total of 228 radioactive lymph nodes (median 6, range 1 to 17) were detected, including 193 (85%) on the ipsilateral side of injection and 35 (15%) on the contralateral side. Of the contralateral lymph nodes 6%, 5% and 4% were in the external iliac, obturator fossa and common iliac region, respectively, but none were in the contralateral internal iliac region. At least 1 radioactive lymph node per patient was detected on the ipsilateral side. Additional lymphatic drainage to the contralateral side was found in 40% of patients. CONCLUSIONS Crossover lymphatic drainage is a common phenomenon and unilateral pelvic lymph node dissection would have missed radioactive lymph nodes in 40% of patients. However, we noted no lymphatic drainage to the contralateral internal iliac region. Thus, when bladder tumors are strictly unilateral, contralateral pelvic lymph node dissection can be limited to the obturator fossa, and the external and common iliac regions. Consequently preserving the contralateral autonomic nerves situated close to the internal iliac vessels does not compromise surgical radicality.
Eur Urol. 2012 May ;61 (5):1004-10 22366188
Urologic Oncology, City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Accurate staging of prostate cancer is enhanced by a thorough evaluation of the pelvic lymph nodes. Limited data are available regarding robotic extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLA) in this setting. OBJECTIVE Analyze our experience performing robotic extended PLA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 143 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent robotic extended PLA and radical prostatectomy between September 2010 and November 2011 by a single surgeon. SURGICAL PROCEDURE Lymph node packets were sent separately from bilateral common, external, and internal iliacs, obturators, node of Cloquet, and anterior prostatic fat. MEASUREMENTS Descriptive statistics were used to summarize lymph node yields and positive nodes. Clinical variables were examined in logistic regression models to predict lymph node positivity. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS Median lymph node yield was 20 (range: 9-65, interquartile range: 15-25). Eighteen patients (13%) were found to have metastatic prostate cancer in the lymph nodes. The mean number of positive nodes found was 2.9 (range: 1-11). In 14 of 18 node-positive patients (78%), the extent of nodal invasion was outside the boundaries of a limited PLA. For four patients with positive nodes (22%), prostate biopsy predicted unilateral disease but PLA revealed contralateral positive lymph nodes. A total of 82% of patients experienced no complications, and most Clavien grade 1-2 complications consisted of anastomotic leakage, urinary retention, ileus, and lymphocele. Only 4% of patients experienced a grade 3 complication. Under multivariate regression analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage, and maximum biopsy core tumor volume were identified as significant predictors of finding positive pelvic lymph nodes (area under the curve: 91%). The main limitations include short follow-up and lack of randomization. CONCLUSIONS Robotic extended bilateral PLA for prostate cancer up to the common iliac bifurcation increases nodal yield and positive nodal rate and can be performed safely. PSA, clinical stage, and maximum biopsy core volume are predictors for lymph node invasion. Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate for therapeutic benefit.
Eur Urol. 2012 Mar ;61 (3):480-7 22078338
Updated nomogram predicting lymph node invasion in patients with prostate cancer undergoing extended pelvic lymph node dissection: the essential importance of percentage of positive cores.
Alberto Briganti, Alessandro Larcher, Firas Abdollah, Umberto Capitanio, Andrea Gallina, Nazareno Suardi, Marco Bianchi, Maxine Sun, Massimo Freschi, Andrea Salonia, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Patrizio Rigatti, Francesco Montorsi
Department of Urology, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Few predictive models aimed at predicting the presence of lymph node invasion (LNI) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) are available to date. OBJECTIVE Update a nomogram predicting the presence of LNI in patients treated with ePLND at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The study included 588 patients with clinically localised PCa treated between September 2006 and October 2010 at a single tertiary referral centre. INTERVENTION All patients underwent RP and ePLND invariably including removal of obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric nodes. MEASUREMENTS Prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and primary and secondary biopsy Gleason grade as well as percentage of positive cores were included in univariable (UVA) and multivariable (MVA) logistic regression models predicting LNI and formed the basis for the regression coefficient-based nomogram. The area under the curve (AUC) method was used to quantify the predictive accuracy (PA) of the model. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS The mean number of lymph nodes removed and examined was 20.8 (median: 19; range: 10-52). LNI was found in 49 of 588 patients (8.3%). All preoperative PCa characteristics differed significantly between LNI-positive and LNI-negative patients (all p<0.001). In UVA predictive accuracy analyses, percentage of positive cores was the most accurate predictor of LNI (AUC: 79.5%). At MVA, clinical stage, primary biopsy Gleason grade, and percentage of positive cores were independent predictors of LNI (all p≤0.006). The updated nomogram demonstrated a bootstrap-corrected PA of 87.6%. Using a 5% nomogram cut-off, 385 of 588 patients (65.5%) would be spared ePLND. and LNI would be missed in only 6 patients (1.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value associated with the 5% cut-off were 87.8%, 70.3%, and 98.4%, respectively. The relatively low number of patients included as well as the lack of an external validation represent the main limitations of our study. CONCLUSIONS We report the first update of a nomogram predicting the presence of LNI in patients treated with ePLND. The nomogram maintained high accuracy, even in more contemporary patients (87.6%). Because percentage of positive cores represents the foremost predictor of LNI, its inclusion should be mandatory in any LNI prediction model. Based on our model, those patients with a LNI risk<5% might be safely spared ePLND.
Lower serum total testosterone is associated with lymph node metastases in a radical prostatectomy cohort study.
Christian Kratzik, Irene Womastek, Christian Bieglmayer, Georg Schatzl, Jakob Lackner, Christa Freibauer, Gerhard Lunglmayr
Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien 1090, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Austria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Data on testosterone levels of patients with prostate cancer of different grade and stage are inconsistent. We retrospectively investigated serum total testosterone of a radical prostatectomy cohort to further shed light on this problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS The preoperative level of serum total testosterone of 217 patients (mean age: 65±5.8 years) undergoing radical prostatectomy between 1989 and 2002 was analyzed for possible associations with Gleason score (≤6 vs.<7 vs. 8-10) and tumor stage (pT2 vs. pT3 vs. N+) with adjustment for age, diabetes and obesity. Patients exhibiting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of >10 ng/ml and biopsy Gleason scores of ≥7 were submitted to standard lymphadenectomy. RESULTS The multivariate model revealed a significant effect of body mass index (BMI)(p=0.0003) and diabetes (p=0.002) on testosterone levels. Significantly lower testosterone levels were recorded in patients with nodal metastases (p<0.0001) compared to patients with non metastatic disease. No significant associations between testosterone, Gleason score and stage were found in patients with non- metastatic disease. CONCLUSION Testosterone levels prior to radical prostatectomy were lower in patients with nodal involvement.