High-level expression of extracellular lipase Lip2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Pichia pastoris and its purification and characterization.
Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China.
The extracellular lipase gene from Yarrowia lipolytica (YlLip2) was cloned into the pPICZalphaA and integrated into the genome of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The lipase was successfully expressed and secreted with an apparent molecular weight of 39kDa using Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretion signal peptide (alpha-factor) under the control of the methanol inducible promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (AOX1). The lipase activity of 12,500,000U/l (2.10g total protein and 0.63g lipase per liter) was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation, where methanol feeding was linked to the dissolved oxygen content after initial glycerol culture. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using Q Sepharose FF. Deglycosylation showed that the recombinant lipase is a glycoprotein which contains the same content of sugar (about 12%) as the native lipase from Y. lipolytica. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant lipase was 40 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. The lipase showed high activity toward long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (C12-C16).
Expression of a lipid-inducible, self-regulating form of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Jay Shockey, Dorselyn Chapital, Satinder Gidda, Catherine Mason, Gaynelle Davis, K Thomas Klasson, Heping Cao, Robert Mullen, John Dyer
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA. Jay.Shockey@ars.usda.gov
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is frequently used as a bioreactor for conversion of exogenously acquired metabolites into value-added products, but has not been utilized for bioconversion of low-cost lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAGs) because the cells are typically unable to acquire these lipid substrates from the growth media. To help circumvent this limitation, the Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 (LIP2) gene was cloned into S. cerevisiae expression vectors and used to generate S. cerevisiae strains that secrete active Lip2 lipase (Lip2p) enzyme into the growth media. Specifically, LIP2 expression was driven by the S. cerevisiae PEX11 promoter, which maintains basal transgene expression levels in the presence of sugars in the culture medium but is rapidly upregulated by fatty acids. Northern blotting, lipase enzyme activity assays, and gas chromatographic measurements of cellular fatty acid composition after lipid feeding all confirmed that cells transformed with the PEX11 promoter-LIP2 construct were responsive to lipids in the media, i.e., cells expressing LIP2 responded rapidly to either free fatty acids or TAGs and accumulated high levels of the corresponding fatty acids in intracellular lipids. These data provided evidence of the creation of a self-regulating positive control feedback loop that allows the cells to upregulate Lip2p production only when lipids are present in the media. Regulated, autonomous production of extracellular lipase activity is a necessary step towards the generation of yeast strains that can serve as biocatalysts for conversion of low-value lipids to value-added TAGs and other novel lipid products.
Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Bioinformatic analysis of the Yarrowia lipolytica CLIB122 genome has revealed 18 putative lipase genes all of which were expressed in Escherichia coli and screened for hydrolyzing activities against p-nitrophenyl-palmitate. One positive transformant containing an ORF of 1,098 bp encoding a protein of 365 amino acids was obtained. To characterize its enzymatic properties, the lipase gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The resulting lipase exhibited the highest activity towards p-NP-decanoate at pH 7 and 35 °C. In addition, the new lipase had a lower optimal temperature and pH compared to other Y. lipolytica lipases. It was noticeably enhanced by Ca(2+), but was inhibited by PMSF, Hg(2+) and Ni(2+). The new lipase displayed the 1,3-specificity for triolein.
Biotechnol Adv. 2011 Apr 28;: 21550394
The lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica: Genetics, production, regulation, biochemical characterization and biotechnological applications.
Unité de Biotechnologies et Bioprocédés, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F.-D. Roosevelt 50, C.P. 165/61, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
Lipases are serine hydrolases that catalyze in nature the hydrolysis of ester bonds of long chain triacylglycerol into fatty acid and glycerol. However, in favorable thermodynamic conditions, they are also able to catalyze reactions of synthesis such as esterification or amidation. The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica possesses 16 paralogs of genes coding for lipase. However, little information on all those paralogs has been yet obtained and only three isoenzymes, namely Lip2p, Lip7p and Lip8p have been partly characterized so far. Microarray data suggest that only a few of them could be expressed and that lipase synthesis seems to be dependent on the fatty acid or oil used as carbon source confirming the high adaptation of Y. lipolytica to hydrophobic substrate utilization. This review focuses on the biochemical characterization of those enzymes with special emphasis on the Lip2p lipase which is the isoenzyme mainly synthesized by Y. lipolytica. Crystallographic data highlight that this latter is a lipase sensu stricto with a lid covering the active site of the enzyme in its closed conformation. Recent findings on enzyme conditioning in dehydrated or liquid formulation, in enzyme immobilization by entrapment in natural polymers from either organic or mineral origins are also discussed together with long-term storage strategies. The development of various biotechnological applications in different fields such as cheese ripening, waste treatment, drug synthesis or human therapeutics is also presented.
Lipids Health Dis. 2011 ;10 :24 21272342
Purification and characterization of the first recombinant bird pancreatic lipase expressed in Pichia pastoris: the turkey.
Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Génie Enzymatique des Lipases, ENIS route de Soukra, BP1173, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.
The turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was purified from delipidated pancreases. Some biochemical properties and kinetic studies were determined using emulsified system and monomolecular film techniques. Those studies have shown that despite the accumulation of free fatty acids at the olive oil/water interface, TPL continues to hydrolyse efficiently the olive oil and the TC4 in the absence of colipase and bile salts, contrary to most classical digestive lipases which denaturate rapidly under the same conditions. The aim of the present study was to express TPL in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris in order to get a large amount of this enzyme exhibiting interesting biochemical properties, to purify and characterize the recombinant enzyme. The recombinant TPL was secreted into the culture medium and the expression level reached about 15 mg/l after 4 days of culture. Using Q-PCR, the number of expression cassette integrated on Pichia genomic DNA was estimated to 5. The purified rTPL, with molecular mass of 50 kDa, has a specific activity of 5300 U/mg on emulsified olive oil and 9500 U/mg on tributyrin. The optimal temperature and pH of rTPL were 37°C and pH 8.5. The stability, reaction kinetics and effects of calcium ions and bile salts were also determined. Our results show that the expressed TPL have the same properties as the native TPL previously purified. This result allows us the use of the recombinant enzyme to investigate the TPL structure-function relationships.
Department of Biology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73696, Iran.
The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA), and single-cell protein (SCP) by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lipase and CA production. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 produced 34.6 +/- 0.1 U/mL of lipase and also CA and SCP as by-product on olive oil medium supplemented with yeast extract. Urea, as organic nitrogen, was the best nitrogen source for CA production. The results of this study suggest that the two biotechnologically valuable products, lipase and CA, could be produced simultaneously by this strain using renewable low-cost substrates such as plant oils in one procedure.
Centre Wallon de Biologie Industrielle, Service de Technologie Microbienne, Université de Liège, Bd du Rectorat Bat. 40, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.
Two different types of fed-batch fermentation were investigated to improve production yields of the Lip2 extracellular lipase in Y. lipolytica mutant-strain LgX64.81 grown in a 20l bioreactor. Compare to batch cultures, culture feeding with the complete medium led to a 2-fold increased lipase production (2016 +/- 76 U ml(-1)) whereas addition of a combination of glucose and olive oil led to a 3-fold increase. The high level of lipase production obtained on glucose media with Y. lipolytica LgX64.81 could be related to its phenotype i.e. a lower sensibility to glucose catabolite repression due to a modification in the level of HXK1 expression.((c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
Department of Biological Engineering, College of Pharmacy, Jilin University, 1163 Xin Min Street, Changchun 130021, PR China.
Bikunin is a proteoglycan exhibiting broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against serine proteases and could potentially suppress tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Here, we have successfully expressed recombinant human bikunin (rh-bikunin) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and established the purification procedure. The cDNA encoding human bikunin was cloned by PCR and inserted into the expression vector pPICZalphaC. After expressed in shake flask, rh-bikunin was produced in an 80-L fermenter and purified by cation exchange chromatography and reverse phase chromatography. The rh-bikunin was active by trypsin inhibition test. The final expression levels were 55 mg/L and we got totally 1.44 g (5600 inhibitor units/mg) of purified rh-bikunin (purity is 95%) from 40 L of fermentation broth. The rh-bikunin consists of two forms with molecular masses of 24 and 21 kDa, respectively. Both forms were immunoreactive by Western blotting and N-terminals were correctly processed by amino-terminal sequencing. This study provided a new method for expression and purification of active rh-bikunin.
Institute of Modern Separation Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, People's Republic of China. email@example.com
Many recombinant proteins (rPRTs) have a high bioactivity and some of them may eventually be classified as drugs beneficial to human health, recombinant human protein drugs (rPDs). rPDs are a high-technology product with all the associated economic benefits, therefore the liquid chromatography (LC) of rPRT is different from that of proteins isolated in laboratory scale for purely research purposes. The design of a purification scheme for an rPRT depends on the intended function of the purified rPRT, as a pure sample for research in small scale, or as a product for industrial production. This review paper mainly deals with the latter instance, producing rPD at a large scale. Pharmaceutical economics is considered not only for each step of purification, but also the whole production process. This strategy restricts the content of this review paper to the factors affecting the optimization source, the character of rPRT in up-stream technology and the purification of the rPRT in down-stream production. In the latter instance, the purification step is required to be as efficient as possible and LC is the core of the refined purification method, which is either a single LC method or combination of LC methods, sometimes, it may be a combination of LC and other non-LC separation methods comprising an optimized purification technology. Here some typical examples of rPRT purification at the large scale, recent developments, such as protein folding liquid chromatography, short column chromatography, and new packing material and column techniques are introduced.
Other papers by authors:
High yield expression of lipase A from Candida antarctica in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and its purification and characterisation.
Jan Pfeffer, Sven Richter, Jens Nieveler, Carl-Erik Hansen, Rachid Bel Rhlid, Rolf D Schmid, Monika Rusnak
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.
The current investigation focuses on shedding further light on the characteristics of lipase A from Candida antarctica (CalA), which has attracted growing attention in its suitability for industrial applications. CalA was functionally expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, purified and characterised. A classical fed-batch process and a semi-continuous process were developed and tested with regard to their yield capacity. Lipase concentrations of 0.88 and 0.55 g l(-1) were obtained using the fed-batch and semi-continuous processes, respectively. The semi-continuous process reaches a total activity of 10,233,000 U and so surpasses the fed-batch process reaching 7,530,000 U. The purified enzyme showed highest activity between 50 and 70 degrees C at pH 7.0 and a preference for short-chain triglycerides (C4-C8). Significantly reduced activity was observed in the presence of hydrophilic esters.
High yield production of a mutant Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase in Pichia pastoris and its purification.
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
The mutant M301A of the acetylcholinesterase B from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (NbAChE) was produced in a high-cell-density fermentation of a recombinant methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Dissolved oxygen (DO) spikes were used as an indicator for feeding the carbon source. Wet cell weight (WCW) reached after 8 days a maximum value of 316 g/L and the OD600 at this time was 280. The acetylcholinesterase activity increased up to 6,600 U/mL corresponding to an expression rate of 2 g of NbAChE per liter supernatant. The specific activity of the mutant NbAChE was determined after purification as 3,300 U/mg. Active site titration with chlorpyrifos, a strong AChE inhibitor, yielded in a specific activity of 3,400 U/mg. The enzyme was secreted by Pichia pastoris. Therefore, it could be concentrated from culture broth by cross-flow-filtration (50 kDa cut-off membrane). It was further purified in one-step anion-exchange chromatography, using a XK 50/20 column filled with 125 mL Q Sepharose HP. Mutant NbAChE was purified 1.9-fold up to a purity of 97% and a yield of 87%. The isolated enzyme was nearly homogenous, as seen on the silver stained SDS-PAGE as well as by a single peak after gel filtration. This extraordinary high expression rate and the ease of purification is an important prerequisite for their practical application, for example in biosensors for the detection of neurotoxic insecticides.
Recombinant production of human microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.
Matthias Dietrich, Lisa Grundmann, Katja Kurr, Laura Valinotto, Tanja Saussele, Rolf D Schmid, Stefan Lange
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
Microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of groups 1-3 are mainly expressed in the liver and play a crucial role in phase 1 reactions of xenobiotic metabolism. The cDNAs encoding human CYP2D6 and human NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) were transformed into the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and expressed with control of the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter. The determined molecular weights of the recombinant CYP2D6 and CPR closely matched the calculated values of 55.8 and 76.6 kDa. CPR activity was detected by conversion of cytochrome c by using isolated microsomes. Nearly all of the recombinant CYP was composed of the active holoenzyme, as confirmed by reduced CO difference spectra, which showed a single peak at 450 nm. Only by coexpression of human CPR and CYP was CYP2D6 activity obtained. Microsomes containing human CPR and CYP2D6 converted different substrates, such as 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin, parathion and dextrometorphan. The kinetic parameters of dextrometorphan conversion closely matched those of CYP2D6 from other recombinant expression systems and human microsomes. The endogenous NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase of Pichia pastoris seems to be incompatible with human CYP2D6, as expression of CYP2D6 without human CPR did not result in any CYP activity. These recombinant strains provide a novel, easy-to-handle and cheap source for the biochemical characterisation of single microsomal cytochromes, as well as their allelic variants.
Fluorophor-linked immunosorbent assay: a time- and cost-saving method for the characterization of antibody fragments using a fusion protein of a single-chain antibody fragment and enhanced green fluorescent protein.
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
A novel assay, referred to as fluorophor-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA), for the characterization of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) is described. The principle of the method is the fusion of an scFv to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The scFv domain, which binds to the immobilized hapten, can be detected by measuring the fluorescence of the EGFP domain. The time-consuming binding of secondary antibodies and enzyme reaction, necessary for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not required. Consequently, the assay time of 1.5 h needed to complete the FLISA is much shorter than that of comparable ELISAs, which require about 5 h. This renders the FLISA suitable for applications where a short assay time is essential, such as screening of mutant libraries of scFvs in directed evolution experiments or monitoring of the amount of functionally expressed recombinant protein during production processes. In contrast to a comparable ELISA, the FLISA showed no saturation when determining the relative amount of functional scFv. The amount of the soluble fraction of cell extracts from Escherichia coli expressing the fusion protein and the normalized fluorescence signal showed a linear correlation with R(2)>0.99. The usefulness of a competitive FLISA for the detection of analytes is shown exemplarily by the detection of s-triazines with the s-triazine-specific scFv K411B.
Lipase-catalyzed synthesis and characterization of polymers by cyclodextrin as support architecture.
The Biorefinery Research and Engineering Center of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China.
Diesters and diols were successfully converted into aliphatic polyesters by enzymatic lipase Candida sp.99-125 catalysis, with β-cyclodextrin acting as supporting architecture (in a similar way as chaperone proteins). No organic solvents were used. The polytransesterification was a much greener process, being solvent-free and without metal residues. Lipase Candida sp.99-125 showed a high catalytic activity for bulkpolymerization of diesters and diols with various numbers of methylene groups in their chains. β-Cyclodextrin encircled the linear polymer chain and maintained the chain in a proper configuration to avoid its coagulation. Lipase initiated the polymerization and β-cyclodextrin threaded onto the polymer chain to control the structure for producing high molecular weight polyesters. From a combination of diesters and diols, polyesters with a high molecular weight of 62,100Da were obtained at 70°C. The corresponding polyesters showed an excellent thermal stability till 350°C and had a strong ability to crystallize with up to 72% crystallinity, contributing to their high storage modulus.
Optimized expression of the dirigent protein AtDIR6 in Pichia pastoris and impact of glycosylation on protein structure and function.
Christian Kazenwadel, Janosch Klebensberger, Sven Richter, Jens Pfannstiel, Uwe Gerken, Benjamin Pickel, Andreas Schaller, Bernhard Hauer
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, D-70569, Stuttgart, Germany.
Phenoxy radical coupling reactions are involved in the biosynthesis of lignans in planta. Interestingly, the reaction can be guided by dirigent proteins, which mediate the stereoselective formation of either (+) or (-)-pinoresinol from coniferyl alcohol. So far, the mechanism is poorly understood, and for detailed mechanistic studies, a heterologous expression platform which allows the cost-effective, fast, and robust expression in high yields is needed. We established a reliable, high-yield fed-batch fermentation process with Pichia pastoris resulting in 47 mg L(-1) of the dirigent protein AtDIR6, which represents a more than 250-fold increase compared to previous studies. Biochemical characterization of AtDIR6 produced with P. pastoris showed an overall agreement in protein structure, N-glycosylation sites, and dirigent activity compared to AtDIR6 produced by plant cell cultures of Solanum peruvianum. CD spectroscopy verified the β-barrel structure proposed by earlier studies and bioconversion experiments revealed similar activities to plant-derived protein, validating P. pastoris as a suitable expression system for dirigent proteins. Compared to the complex glycan structures of most plant cells, proteins produced with P. pastoris have the advantage that they can be enzymatically deglycosylated under non-denaturating conditions. With this study, we demonstrate that the glycan structures of AtDIR6 are essential for structure, solubility, and function of the protein as deglycosylation induced conformational changes leading to the complete loss in dirigent activity and subsequent protein aggregation.
J Phys Chem B. 2012 Oct 1;: 23025718
Molecular Recognition in Different Environments - β-Cyclodextrin Dimer Formation in Organic Solvents.
Electrostatic- and van der Waals interactions as well as entropy contribute to the energetics governing macromolecular complexation in biomolecules. Hydrogen bonds play a particularly important role in such interactions. Here we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond (HB) orientations of free beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and head-to-head dimerization of β-CD monomers with and without guest molecules in different environments, namely in ten different solvents covering a wide range of polarity. Potentials of mean force for the dimer dissociation are derived from umbrella sampling simulations, allowing determination of the binding affinity between monomers. The HB orientations are in good agreement with available experimental data in water and dimethyl sulfoxide, yielding confidence in the force field used. HB exchanges at the secondary rim of β-CD are observed with a fast rate in water and with a low rate or even no exchange in other solvents. Orientational preferences of inter-glucopyranose HBs and their effects on the β-CD structure in these solvents are discussed in detail. Polar solvents with stronger HB accepting abilities can interrupt intermolecular HBs more easily, resulting in a less stable dimer. Guest molecules included in the channel-type cavity strengthen the binding affinity between two monomers to some extent, particularly in polar solvents. Formation of the head-to-head dimer is therefore solvent-dependent and guest- modulated. There is only limited correlation between the dimer binding energies and solvent properties like the dielectric constant. This implies that implicit solvent models will not be capable of predicting important properties like binding energy for other solvents than water without a complete re-parameterization. This work provides a deeper comprehension on the properties of β-CD and implications for the application of cyclodextrins in aqueous and non-aqueous media are discussed.
The interaction between puerarin and β-cyclodextrin (CD) has been studied in D(2)O, H(2)O/acetone-d(6), acetone-d(6) and DMSO-d(6) solutions by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The NMR data obtained from hydroxy protons indicate that the formation of the inclusion complex between the two molecules is not stabilized by strong hydrogen bond interactions. The sugar part of puerarin as well as the A ring are outside the β-CD cavity while the B and C rings are located inside the cavity and the interaction is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. In DMSO at 30°C and in acetone-d(6)/H(2)O at temperature below -5°C, doubling of some signals indicated that, in these solvent systems, free rotation of the C-glycosyl bond was restricted due to the steric hindrance between the phenolic hydroxy group at C-7 and the bulky sugar moiety at C-8. In acetone, fast exchange of phenolic protons on the NMR timescale was observed, showing the effect of the solvent on the hindered rotation.
One-step synthesis of 12-ketoursodeoxycholic acid from dehydrocholic acid using a multienzymatic system.
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.
12-ketoursodeoxycholic acid (12-keto-UDCA) is a key intermediate for the synthesis of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an important therapeutic agent for non-surgical treatment of human cholesterol gallstones and various liver diseases. The goal of this study is to develop a new enzymatic route for the synthesis 12-keto-UDCA based on a combination of NADPH-dependent 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH, EC 184.108.40.206) and NADH-dependent 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSDH, EC 220.127.116.11). In the presence of NADPH and NADH, the combination of these enzymes has the capacity to reduce the 3-carbonyl- and 7-carbonyl-groups of dehydrocholic acid (DHCA), forming 12-keto-UDCA in a single step. For cofactor regeneration, an engineered formate dehydrogenase, which is able to regenerate NADPH and NADH simultaneously, was used. All three enzymes were overexpressed in an engineered expression host Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)Δ7α-HSDH devoid of 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme indigenous to E. coli, in order to avoid formation of the undesired by-product 12-chenodeoxycholic acid in the reaction mixture. The stability of enzymes and reaction conditions such as pH value and substrate concentration were evaluated. No significant loss of activity was observed after 5 days under reaction condition. Under the optimal condition (10 mM of DHCA and pH 6), 99 % formation of 12-keto-UDCA with 91 % yield was observed.
J Nucl Med. 2012 Jun 7;: 22677702
Fülöp Scheibler, Polina Zumbé, Inger Janssen, Melanie Viebahn, Milly Schröer-Günther, Robert Grosselfinger, Elke Hausner, Stefan Sauerland, Stefan Lange
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), Cologne, Germany; and.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) add important information to diagnostic accuracy studies in the evaluation of PET and PET/CT. We evaluated how many RCTs on PET existed, which clinical topics they addressed, and what their design and quality were. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Clinical Trials) up to August 2010. We also searched in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing RCTs up to March 2011. Titles and abstracts and full texts were screened independently by 2 reviewers. Study characteristics were extracted with standard extraction sheets for ongoing and published RCTs, and risk of bias was assessed for published ones. RESULTS: We identified 54 RCTs, 12 of which were published. The main topics in published studies were non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer; only 3 were conducted in nononcologic fields (this trend was similar in ongoing studies, in which the most common topic was Hodgkin disease). The main indications in the oncologic PET studies were staging in published studies and restaging (mostly including an early assessment of treatment response) in ongoing ones. All except 1 of the published studies applied a marker-based strategy design, whereas about 43%(18/42) of ongoing studies use a more efficient design (Enrichment Design or Marker by Treatment Interaction Design). CONCLUSION: A relatively high number of ongoing RCTs of PET in several oncologic fields are expected to produce robust results over the next few years. For nononcologic topics, further high-quality studies are still needed to ascertain the benefit of this technique for patients. As funding is usually difficult in nondrug topics, alternative concepts of funding, which should also involve the manufacturers of diagnostic devices, but also more efficient study designs, should be applied to bridge the evidence gap on PET in the near future.
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Optimization of the pilot-scale production of an ice-binding protein by fed-batch culture of Pichia pastoris.
Jun Hyuck Lee, Sung Gu Lee, Hackwon Do, Jong Chan Park, Eunjung Kim, Yong-Hoe Choe, Se Jong Han, Hak Jun Kim
Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, 406-840, South Korea.
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) can bind to the ice crystal and inhibit its growth. Because this property of IBPs can increase the freeze-thaw survival of cells, IBPs have attracted the attention from industries for their potential use in biotechnological applications. However, their use was largely hampered by the lack of the large-scale recombinant production system. In this study, the codon-optimized IBP from Leucosporidium sp.(LeIBP) was constructed and subjected to high-level expression in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris system. In a laboratory-scale fermentation (7 L), the optimal induction temperature and pH were determined to be 25 °C and 6.0, respectively. Further, employing glycerol fed-batch phase prior to methanol induction phase enhanced the production of recombinant LelBP (rLeIBP) by ∼100 mg/l. The total amount of secreted proteins at these conditions (25 °C, pH 6.0, and glycerol fed-batch phase) was ∼443 mg/l, 60 % of which was rLeIBP, yielding ∼272 mg/l. In the pilot-scale fermentation (700 L) under the same conditions, the yield of rLeIBP was 300 mg/l. To our best knowledge, this result reports the highest production yield of the recombinant IBP. More importantly, the rLeIBP secreted into culture media was stable and active for 6 days of fermentation. The thermal hysteresis (TH) activity of rLeIBP was about 0.42 °C, which is almost the same to those reported previously. The availability of large quantities of rLeIBP may accelerate further application studies.
J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 12;: 22888024
The zinc finger proteins Mxr1p and ROP have the same DNA binding specificity but regulate methanol metabolism antagonistically in Pichia pastoris.
Indian Institute of Science, India.
The methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase I (AOXI) promoter of the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. AOXI transcription is regulated by the zinc finger protein Mxr1p (methanol expression regulator 1). ROP (repressor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK) is a methanol- and biotin starvation-inducible zinc finger protein that acts as a negative regulator of PEPCK in P. pastoris cultured in biotin-deficient, glucose-ammonium medium. The function of ROP during methanol metabolism is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that ROP represses methanol-inducible expression of AOXI when P. pastoris is cultured in a nutrient-rich medium containing yeast extract, peptone and methanol (YPM). Deletion of the gene encoding ROP results in enhanced expression of AOXI and growth promotion while overexpression of ROP results in repression of AOXI and growth retardation of P. pastoris cultured in YPM medium. Surprisingly, deletion or overexpression of ROP has no effect on AOXI gene expression and growth of P. pastoris cultured in a minimal medium containing yeast nitrogen base and methanol (YNBM). Subcellular localization studies indicate that ROP translocates from cytosol to nucleus of cells cultured in YPM but not YNBM. In vitro DNA binding studies indicate that AOXI promoter sequences containing 5 CYCCNY 3 motifs serve as binding sites for Mxr1p as well as ROP. Thus, Mxr1p and ROP exhibit the same DNA binding specificity but regulate methanol metabolism antagonistically in P. pastoris. This is the first report on the identification of a transcriptional repressor of methanol metabolism in any yeast species.
The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.
In the present study, the genes encoding trypsinogen and active trypsin from Streptomyces griseus were both cloned and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the α-factor secretion signal under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The mature trypsin was successfully accumulated extracellularly in soluble form with a maximum amidase activity of 6.6 U ml(-1)(batch cultivation with flask cultivation) or 14.4 U ml(-1)(fed-batch cultivation with a 3-l fermentor). In contrast, the recombinant trypsinogen formed inclusion bodies and no activity was detected. Replacement of the trypsin propeptide Ala-Pro-Asn-Pro confirmed that its physiological function was as a repressor of activity. More importantly, our results proved that the propeptide inhibited the activity of trypsinogen after its successful folding.
Crit Rev Microbiol. 2012 Jun 26;: 22734928
Unesco Chinese Center of Marine Biotechnology, Ocean University of China , Yushan Road, Qingdao , China.
Many genes encoding exo- and endo-inulinases from bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi have been cloned and characterized. All the inulinases have several conserved motifs, such as WMND(E)PNGL, RDP, EC(V)P, SVEVF, Q and FS(T), which play an important role in inulinase catalysis and substrate binding. However, the exo-inulinases produced by yeasts has no conserved motif SVEVF and the yeasts do not produce any endo-inulinase. Exo- and endo-inulinases found in different microorganisms cluster separately at distant positions from each other. Most of the cloned inulinase genes have been expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Klyuveromyces lactis and Escherichia coli, respectively. The recombinant inulinases produced and the engineered hosts using the cloned inulinase genes have many potential applications. Expression of most of the inulinase genes is repressed by glucose and fructose and induced by inulin and sucrose. However, the detailed mechanisms of the repression and induction are still unknown.
Heterologous protein expression in Pichia thermomethanolica BCC16875, a thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast and characterization of N-linked glycosylation in secreted protein.
Sutipa Tanapongpipat, Peerada Promdonkoy, Toru Watanabe, Witoon Tirasophon, Niran Roongsawang, Yasunori Chiba, Lily Eurwilaichitr
Bioresources Technology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathum Thani, Thailand.
This study describes Pichia thermomethanolica BCC16875, a new methylotrophic yeast host for heterologous expression. Both methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoters from Pichia pastoris were shown to drive efficient gene expression in this host. Recombinant phytase and xylanase were expressed from both promoters as secreted proteins, with the former showing different patterns of N-glycosylation dependent on the promoter used and culture medium. In addition, growth temperature also had an effect on N-glycan modification of cell wall mannoproteins. The major glycoprotein oligosaccharide species produced from P. thermomethanolica BCC16875 is Man(8-12) GlcNAc(2), which is similar to that from other methylotrophs. Moreover, mannosylphosphate and α-1,6- and α-1,2-linked mannose modifications of heterologous secreted protein were also detected. The attainably high level of protein production in complement to distinctive thermotolerance rarely found in other industrial yeasts makes this microorganism an attractive host for large-scale fermentation.
Expression of native and mutant extracellular lipases fromYarrowia lipolytica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, 55181-83111, Iran.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot produce extracellular lipase and utilize low-cost lipid substrates. This study aimed to express extracellular lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica in S. cerevisiae, construct recombinant oily substrate consumer strains, and compare the roles of native and mutant Y. lipolytica extracellular lipases in S. cerevisiae. The LIP2 gene of Y. lipolytica DSM3286 and its mutant Y. lipolytica U6 were isolated and cloned by expression vector in S. cerevisiae. New recombinant S. cerevisiae strains FDS100 containing the native LIP2 gene, and FDS101 containing the mutant LIP2 gene were produced 10 and 15 U ml (-1) extracellular lipase respectively, on a production medium containing olive oil. New recombinant S. cerevisiae strains produce acceptable amount of extracellular lipase in comparison with Y. lipolytica wild-type strains. These strains can utilize olive oil and lipids as low-cost substrates to produce bioethanol, single cell protein and other biotechnologically valuable products. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain with mutant LIP2 produced lipase with 1.5-fold higher activity. The LIP2 gene of Y. lipolytica was expressed in S. cerevisiae as a heterologous protein without any modifications. Strong components of the Y. lipolytica expression/secretion system could be used for high-level production of recombinant proteins in S. cerevisiae.
Mol Biotechnol. 2012 May 26;: 22638966
Comparison of the Heterologous Expression of Trichoderma reesei Endoglucanase II and Cellobiohydrolase II in the Yeasts Pichia pastoris and Yarrowia lipolytica.
Nassapat Boonvitthya, Sophie Bozonnet, Vorakan Burapatana, Michael J O'Donohue, Warawut Chulalaksananukul
Biological Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand, email@example.com.
The sequences encoding the genes for endoglucanase II and cellobiohydrolase II from the fungus Trichoderma reesei QM9414 were successfully cloned and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica under the control of the POX2 or TEF promoters, and using either the native or preproLip2 secretion signals. The expression level of both recombinant enzymes was compared with that obtained using Pichia pastoris, under the control of the AOX1 promoter to evaluate the utility of Y. lipolytica as a host strain for recombinant EGII and CBHII production. Extracellular endoglucanase activity was similar between TEF-preoproLip2-eglII expressed in Y. lipolytica and P. pastoris induced by 0.5 %(v/v) methanol, but when recombinant protein expression in P. pastoris was induced with 3 %(v/v) methanol, the activity was increased by about sevenfold. In contrast, the expression level of cellobiohydrolase from the TEF-preproLip2-cbhII cassette was higher in Y. lipolytica than in P. pastoris. Transformed Y. lipolytica produced up to 15 mg/l endoglucanase and 50 mg/l cellobiohydrolase, with the specific activity of both proteins being greater than their homologs produced by P. pastoris. Partial characterization of recombinant endoglucanase II and cellobiohydrolase II expressed in both yeasts revealed their optimum pH and temperature, and their pH and temperature stabilities were identical and hyperglycosylation had little effect on their enzymatic activity and properties.
Production and characterization of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expressed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
Najla Gasmi, Rabeb Lassoued, Atef Ayed, Brigitte Tréton, Didier Chevret, Jean Marc Nicaud, Héla Kallel
INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
Since its isolation, the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been proposed as a new class of therapeutic biological products in the treatment of various diseases. However, the toxicity of this cytokine towards its expression host constitutes a major obstacle to bioprocess development for large-scale production. In this work, the optimized gene encoding hGM-CSF was expressed in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in one and two copies under the control of the fatty acid-inducible POX2 promoter. Protein secretion was directed by the targeting sequence of the extracellular lipase (LIP2): preXALip2. After 48 h of induction, Western blot analysis revealed the presence of a nonglycosylated form of 14.5 kDa and a trail of hGM-CSF hyperglycosylated varying from 23 kDa to more than 60 kDa. The two-copy transformants produced hGM-CSF level which was sevenfold higher compared to the single-copy ones. Deglycosylation with PNGase F showed two forms: a mature form of 14.5 kDa and an unprocessed form of 18 kDa. The addition of two alanines to the signal sequence resulted in correct hGM-CSF processing. The production level was estimated at 250 mg/l after preliminary optimization studies of the cultivation and induction phases. The purified hGM-CSF was identified by N-terminal sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis; its biological activity was confirmed by stimulating the proliferation of TF1 cell line. This study demonstrated that Y. lipolytica is a promising host for the efficient production of active toxic proteins like hGM-CSF.
Protein Expr Purif. 2012 May 16;: 22609631
Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant human interleukin-2-serum albumin (rhIL-2-HSA) fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.
Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays important roles in variety of immune functions. Recombinant IL-2 has become an important therapeutic protein for therapy of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Previously, it was proved that the therapeutic efficacy of rIL-2 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was improved by prolonging its in vivo half-life through genetic fusion with albumin. In this study, a fusion protein composed of hIL-2 genetically fused to HSA was expressed as a secretory protein under AOX1(2)(alcohol oxidase 1) promoter in Pichia pastoris. An effective strategy was established to express rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein in 5 L scale and the optimal purification procedure was investigated. The purity of rhIL-2-HSA in final product was about 95%. The purified rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein could be recognized by both anti-hIL-2 and anti-human serum albumin monoclonal antibody. Bioactivity analysis showed that the purified rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein displayed high level activity on proliferation in IL-2 dependent manner in CTLL2-cells. rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein also showed a extended half-life in plasma compared with IL-2 when tested in a BALB/c mouse model. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of bioactive rhIL-2-HSA fusion protein using Pichia pastoris as an expression host.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sustainable utilization of plant biomass as renewable source for fuels and chemical building blocks requires a complex mixture of diverse enzymes, including hydrolases which comprise the largest class of lignocellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes need to be available in large amounts at a low price to allow sustainable and economic biotechnological processes. Over the past years Pichia pastoris has become an attractive host for the cost-efficient production and engineering of heterologous (eukaryotic) proteins due to several advantages. RESULTS: In this paper codon optimized genes and synthetic alcohol oxidase 1 promoter variants were used to generate Pichia pastoris strains which individually expressed cellobiohydrolase 1, cellobiohydrolase 2 and beta-mannanase from Trichoderma reesei and xylanase A from Thermomyces lanuginosus. For three of these enzymes even gram quantities of enzyme per liter were obtained by fed-batch cultivation. Additionally, we compared our achieved yields of secreted enzymes and the corresponding activities to literature data. CONCLUSION: In our experiments we could clearly see the importance of gene optimization and strain characterization for successfully improving secretion levels. We also give a basic guideline for understanding the interplay of promoter strength and gene dosage for a successful improvement of the secretory production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Pichia pastoris.