Development of a novel sticky trap for container-breeding mosquitoes and evaluation of its sampling properties to monitor urban populations of Aedes albopictus.
Parasitology Unit, Department of Public Health, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Collection methods currently used for large-scale sampling of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) present several operational limitations, which constitute major drawbacks to the epidemiological surveillance of arboviruses, the evaluation of the impact of control strategies, and the surveillance of the spreading of allochthonous species into non-endemic regions. Here, we describe a new sticky trap designed to capture adult container-breeding mosquitoes and to monitor their population dynamics. We tested the sampling properties of the sticky trap in Rome, Italy, where Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is common. The results of our observations, and the comparison between sticky trap catches and catches made with the standard oviposition trap, are presented. The sticky trap collected significantly larger numbers of Ae. albopictus females than any other Culicidae species representing >90% of the total catches. A maximum of 83 An. albopictus females was collected in a single week. A high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient r= 0.96) was found between the number of females and the number of eggs collected by the traps. The functional relationship between the number of eggs and the number of adult females was assessed by major axis regression fitted to log(1 +x)-transformed trap counts as y= 0.065 + 1.695x. Trap samples significantly departed from a random distribution; Taylor's power law was fitted to the trap samples to quantify the degree of aggregation in the catches, returning the equations s(2)= 2.401 m(1.325) for the sticky trap and s(2)= 13.068 m(1.441) for the ovitrap, with s(2) and m denoting the weekly catch variance and mean, respectively, indicating that eggs were significantly more aggregated than mosquitoes (P < 0.0001). Taylor's power law parameters were used to estimate the minimum number of sample units necessary to obtain sample estimates with a fixed degree of precision and sensitivity. For the range of densities encountered in our study area during the Ae. albopictus breeding season, the sticky trap was more precise and sensitive than the ovitrap. At low population densities (c.< 0.1 mosquito/trap), however, the ovitrap was more sensitive at detecting the presence of this species. Overall, our results indicate that our new model of sticky trap can be used to sample Ae. albopictus females in urban environments, and, possibly, other container-breeding Stegomyia mosquitoes (e.g. Aedes aegypti). The technical properties of the new trap are discussed with respect to its possible application in monitoring the population dynamics of container-breeding mosquitoes, in studying their bionomics, and in vector surveillance and, possibly, control.
Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and dengue as influenced by weather and human behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Entomology and Ecology Activity, Dengue Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Calle Cañada, San Juan, Puerto Rico. email@example.com
Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence.
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
No effective tool currently exists for trapping ovipositing malaria vectors. This creates a gap in our ability to investigate the behavior and ecology of gravid Anopheles. Here we describe a simple trap that collects ovipositing Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes. It consists of an acetate sheet coated in glue that floats on the water surface. Ten breeding sites were selected in rural Tanzania and 10 sticky traps set in each. These caught a total of 74 gravid Anopheles (54 An. arabiensis, 1 An. gambiae s.s. and 16 unamplified) and 1333 gravid Culicines, in just two trap nights. This simple sampling tool provides an opportunity to further our understanding of the behavior and ecology of gravid female Anophelines. It strongly implies that at least two of the major vectors of malaria in Africa land on the water surface during the oviposition process, and demonstrates that Anophelines and Culicines often share the same breeding sites. This simple and efficient trap has clear potential for the study of oviposition site choice and productivity, gravid dispersal, and vector control techniques which use oviposition behavior as a means of disseminating larvicides.
Climatic factors driving invasion of the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into new areas of Trentino, northern Italy.
Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Research and Innovation Centre, S. Michele all' Adige, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern Italy. Changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in Europe. Therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies. To identify the areas currently most suitable for the occurrence of the tiger mosquito in the Province of Trento, we combined field entomological observations with analyses of satellite temperature data (MODIS Land Surface Temperature: LST) and human population data. We determine threshold conditions for the survival of overwintering eggs and for adult survival using both January mean temperatures and annual mean temperatures. We show that the 0°C LST threshold for January mean temperatures and the 11°C threshold for annual mean temperatures provide the best predictors for identifying the areas that could potentially support populations of this mosquito. In fact, human population density and distance to human settlements appear to be less important variables affecting mosquito distribution in this area. Finally, we evaluated the future establishment and spread of this species in relation to predicted climate warming by considering the A2 scenario for 2050 statistically downscaled at regional level in which winter and annual temperatures increase by 1.5 and 1°C, respectively. MODIS satellite LST data are useful for accurately predicting potential areas of tiger mosquito distribution and for revealing the range limits of this species in mountainous areas, predictions which could be extended to an European scale. We show that the observed trend of increasing temperatures due to climate change could facilitate further invasion of Ae. albopictus into new areas.
Study of Aedes albopictus dispersal in Rome, Italy, using sticky traps in mark-release-recapture experiments.
Dipartimento di Scienze di Sanità Pubblica, Università di Roma Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
We report the results of three mark-release-recapture experiments carried out in an urban area in Rome, Italy, to study the active dispersal of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). The 4.3% recapture rate obtained supports the use of sticky traps in MRR experiments to study the dispersal of Ae. albopictus females. Most fluorescent dust-marked females were recaptured at the gravid stage at 50-200 m from the release sites during the first 9 days after release. The average of daily-MDTs (Mean Distance Traveled) was 119 m and the maximum observed distance travelled ranged from 199 m to 290 m in the three replicates. These data provide the first information about the dispersal of Ae. albopictus in a temperate European area and appear to be consistent with the few data available on this subject from other urban areas, where dispersal was constrained by physical barriers. Although caution should be taken in generalizing these results, they should be considered when planning control activities in urban areas in Italy, as well as in other European countries. This is particularly relevant if control is intended to interrupt pathogen transmission in cases of possible arbovirus epidemics, such as the Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Ravenna, Italy in 2007.
Unité Insectes et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
In recent years, the remarkable spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) throughout the world has drawn attention to this hitherto poorly studied species, particularly after its role in outbreaks of chikungunya fever in the western Indian Ocean and in Italy. Variants of sterile insect technique (SIT), including the release of transgenic males with a dominant lethal gene (RIDL), have been proposed in the search for new and innovative methods of control. Knowledge of male dispersal, mating behaviour and longevity will be critical to the success of this approach. We present an effective and practical method for trapping both male and female Ae. albopictus using a mouse-baited BG-Sentinel trap.
Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.
Laura Valerio, Francesca Marini, Gioia Bongiorno, Luca Facchinelli, Marco Pombi, Beniamino Caputo, Michele Maroli, Alessandra Della Torre
Parasitology Unit, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.
Evaluation of sticky ovitraps for the surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and the screening of oviposition attractants from organic infusions.
Institute of Insect Resources, Huazhong Agricultural University, 1 Shizishan Road, Hongshang District, Wuhan, 430070, China.
The performance of sticky ovitraps for investigation of a container-breeding mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has been assessed for the first time, in the field, in Wuhan, China. Almost all (90.0%) of the mosquitoes collected in the ovitraps were Ae. albopictus and, in 2006, the seasonal abundance of this species as measured using the sticky ovitraps was significantly correlated with that measured using standard red ovitraps. The baiting with a Bermuda-grass (Cynodon dactylon) infusion of oviposition cups in the laboratory or standard red ovitraps in the field increased the numbers of Ae. albopictus eggs collected (compared with the numbers seen with a tap-water control). In an adult-counting assay, however, the use of such an infusion significantly increased the numbers of female Ae. albopictus coming to sticky oviposition cups only in the laboratory, not in the field. Under field conditions, when the sticky ovitraps were used, female Ae. albopictus showed no oviposition 'preference' for infusions made from the leaves of the camphorwood tree, box, green bristle grass, Bermuda grass, lotus magnolia or bamboo. In terms of the attractancy of the sticky ovitraps to female Ae. albopictus in the field, the red colour of the ovitraps appeared to contribute more than a Bermuda-grass infusion. It appears that sticky ovitraps could be used to monitor Ae. albopictus in the field effectively. Since mosquitoes that are attracted to organic infusions but lay no eggs cannot be detected using a standard ovitrap but can be collected and counted in sticky ovitraps, the latter may be a better choice when screening for mosquito attractants (rather than oviposition stimulants) in such infusions.
Evaluation of a sticky trap for collecting Aedes (Stegomyia) adults in a dengue-endemic area in Thailand.
Luca Facchinelli, Constantianus J M Koenraadt, Caterina Fanello, Udom Kijchalao, Laura Valerio, James W Jones, Thomas W Scott, Alessandra della Torre
Parasitology Unit, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy. email@example.com
Development of new operational techniques for collection and monitoring of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes is considered a pressing need for surveillance and prevention of arboviruses. Here we report the results from a trial carried out in 2 dengue-endemic villages in Thailand to compare the ability to collect Aedes adults of a sticky trap versus a CDC backpack aspirator, which has been used routinely at the study area for entomological/epidemiological surveys. Our comparison was based on a comparable sampling effort required to carry out collections with 2 approaches. Over 19,000 specimens were collected, approximately 90% of which were Culex spp. Sticky traps collected significantly more Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus females than did backpack aspirators when located outdoors. The percentage of positive sticky-trap catches was double for Ae. aegypti and almost 20 times higher for Ae. albopictus. Operational benefits of the sticky trap are discussed within the context of the results obtained.
Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system.
Lêda Regis, Antonio Miguel Monteiro, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos, José Constantino Silveira Jr, André Freire Furtado, Ridelane Veiga Acioli, Gleice Maria Santos, Mitsue Nakazawa, Marilia Sá Carvalho, Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Jr, Wayner Vieira de Souza
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brasil.
A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5%(over 5,616 trap observations). The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.
Other papers by authors:
Blood-feeding preferences of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural settings within the province of Rome, Italy.
Parasitology Unit, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rome "Sapienza", Italy.
We here report the results of field trials carried out in Rome with the aim to obtain data on the feeding behaviour of Aedes albopictus, in relation to different availability and abundance of putative hosts. Human Blood Index values were found higher than 75% in urban areas, where humans represented the most abundant hosts, and lower than 60% in rural areas, where host alternative to humans were frequent. The overall results confirm the generalist feeding-behaviour shown by this species in its original range of distribution and highlighting its high potential as vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy.
Anatomia Patologica, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Università La Sapienza, Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The patchy geographical distributions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), better known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) remain unexplained. It has been proposed that certain species of bloodsucking insects ('promoter arthropods') promote the reactivation of HHV-8/KSHV and facilitate both HHV-8/KSHV transmission and KS development. This hypothesis was tested by sampling the presence and density of human-biting Diptera with CDC light traps in two areas of Sardinia with contrasting incidence rates of classic KS. In total, 11,030 specimens (99.9% sandflies and 0.1% mosquitoes) belonging to 10 species were collected from 40 rural sites. Five of these species are considered to be possible promoter arthropods because of the irritation their bites cause: Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead; Phlebotomus perfiliewi Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae); Aedes berlandi Seguy; Culiseta annulata (Schrank) and Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). Five species are probable 'non-promoters' because their bites are not particularly irritating: Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart); Culex pipiens s.l.; Anopheles algeriensis Theobald; Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and Anopheles plumbeus Stephens. A significant correlation was found between the geographical distribution of promoter arthropods and incidence rates of KS (Spearman's r = 0.59,P < 0.01). Promoter arthropods were more likely to be caught in areas with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a past high prevalence of malaria, and in areas of limestone, acid volcanic soil and cereal cultivation. The study supports the association between promoter arthropods and classic KS, which may explain the geographic variability of KS and HHV-8/KSHV, and highlights the links with a number of variables previously associated with the incidence of KS.
Towards a fuller understanding of mosquito behaviour: use of electrocuting grids to compare the odour-orientated responses of Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus in the field.
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, Kent, UK. email@example.com
The epidemiological role of and control options for any mosquito species depend on its degree of 'anthropophily'. However, the behavioural basis of this term is poorly understood. Accordingly, studies in Zimbabwe quantified the effects of natural odours from cattle and humans, and synthetic components of these odours, on the attraction, entry and landing responses of Anopheles arabiensis Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald. The numbers of mosquitoes attracted to human or cattle odour were compared using electrocuting nets (E-nets), and entry responses were gauged by the catch from an odour-baited entry trap (OBET) relative to that from an odour-baited E-net. Landing responses were estimated by comparing the catches from E-nets and cloth targets covered with an electrocuting grid. For An. arabiensis, E-nets baited with odour from a single ox or a single man caught similar numbers, and increasing the dose of human odour from one to three men increased the catch four-fold. For An. quadriannulatus, catches from E-nets increased up to six-fold in the progression: man, three men, ox, and man + ox, with catch being correlated with bait mass. Entry responses of An. arabiensis were stronger with human odour (entry response 62%) than with ox odour (6%) or a mixture of cattle and human odours (15%). For An. quadriannulatus, the entry response was low (< 2%) with both cattle and human odour. Anopheles arabiensis did not exhibit a strong entry response to carbon dioxide (CO2)(0.2-2 L/min). The trends observed using OBETs and E-nets also applied to mosquitoes approaching and entering a hut. Catches from an electrocuting target baited with either CO2 or a blend of acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol - components of natural ox odour - showed that virtually all mosquitoes arriving there alighted on it. The propensity of An. arabiensis to enter human habitation seemed to be mediated by odours other than CO2 alone. Characterizing 'anthropophily' by comparing the numbers of mosquitoes caught by traps baited with different host odours can lead to spurious conclusions; OBETs baited with human odour caught around two to four times more An. arabiensis than cattle-baited OBETs, whereas a human-baited E-net caught less ( approximately 0.7) An. arabiensis than a cattle-baited E-net. Similar caution is warranted for other species of mosquito vectors. A fuller understanding of how to exploit mosquito behaviour for control and surveys requires wider approaches and more use of appropriate tools.
Distribution of mosquito species in areas with high and low incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma and seroprevalence for HHV-8.
Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Patologia, Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The 'promoter-arthropod' hypothesis, which postulates that exposure to the bites of certain species of haematophagous arthropods is an environmental risk cofactor linked to human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and Kaposi's sarcoma, was investigated in the Po River valley, northern Italy. The presence and density of adult female mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was determined by CDC light trap catches in two adjacent districts, at variance with respect to Kaposi's sarcoma incidence and HHV-8 seroprevalence. A total of 3910 specimens belonging to 11 species was collected in 34 rural sites (six municipalities) representative of the two districts. Five of these species are considered to be possible 'promoters' because of the irritation their bites cause humans: Aedes vexans (Meigen) and Ae. caspius (Pallas)(87% of sampled promoters), Culex modestus Ficalbi, Culiseta annulata (Schrank) and Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi). Six are probable 'non-promoters': Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. martinii Medschid, Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus Stephens and Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards. The density of promoters by site was correlated with the incidence rates of Kaposi's sarcoma at the district level (Pearson's r = 0.33, P = 0.06) and at the municipal level (r = 0.50, P< 0.01). Similar correlations emerged for non-promoters (r = 0.48, P< 0.01 and r = 0.42, P = 0.01, respectively). The density of promoters was higher than that of non-promoters in sites with livestock (odds ratio, OR = 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6) and in municipalities with Kaposi's sarcoma cases (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.5). The study provides additional evidence of the association between the density of some mosquito species and Kaposi's sarcoma.
[Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Rome: experimental study of relevant control strategy parameters]
Dipartimento di Scienze di Sanità Pubblica, Sezione di Parassitologia, Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy. email@example.com
Since 1997, Aedes albopictus has colonised and then rapidly invaded the city of Rome (Italy) and its peripheral areas. Presently, the control of this mosquito in Italy relies mainly on larvicidal treatment of street storm sewer catch basins with the organophosphate temephos. We have therefore obtained baseline data on the susceptibility to temephos of the Roman Ae. albopictus population by laboratory bioassays on F1 fourth-instar larvae following standard WHO protocols. Estimated lethal concentrations were 0.014 mg/l (LC50) and 0.022 mg/l (LC90) indicating a lack of resistance to this compound. The persistence of temephos in sewer catch basins was evaluated by follow-up of catch basins treated with a dose of 1.5 mg of active ingredient. Mosquito larvae were recovered in 10% and 50% of the treated basins at 9 and 18 days posttreatment, respectively. In order to understand the relative contribution of this larval habitat to adult populations, we conducted a survey in the Zoo of Rome to estimate the larval density of mosquitoes breeding in sewer catch basins. A complete census of a 16.5 ha area mapped 243 catch basins, but only 25 (10.3%) contained water; of the latter 8 (32.0%) hosted mosquito larvae. All positive catch basins contained larvae of Culex pipiens, which were associated with Culiseta longiareolata and/or Ae. albopictus in 6 and 3 cases, respectively. A longitudinal survey of one catch basin over 4 months showed that the mean larval density of Ae. albopictus was markedly lower than that of Cx pipiens and Cs. Iongiareolata, ranging between 0 and 1.3 larvae/dip as compared to 0-33.2 and 0-22.7 larvae/dip, respectively. However, adult densities of Ae. albopictus in this area estimated during the same period with 20 ovitraps showed consistently high values (proportion of positive ovitraps around 100%). These preliminary observations suggest that whenever alternative larval biotopes other than sewer catch basins are widely available, they might be more productive and/or preferred substrates to catch basins for Ae. albopictus breeding.
M Albers, N Warr, K Nomura, A Blazhev, J Jolie, D Mücher, B Bastin, C Bauer, C Bernards, L Bettermann, V Bildstein, J Butterworth, M Cappellazzo, J Cederkäll, D Cline, I Darby, S Das Gupta, J M Daugas, T Davinson, H De Witte, J Diriken, D Filipescu, E Fiori, C Fransen, L P Gaffney, G Georgiev, R Gernhäuser, M Hackstein, S Heinze, H Hess, M Huyse, D Jenkins, J Konki, M Kowalczyk, T Kröll, R Krücken, J Litzinger, R Lutter, N Marginean, C Mihai, K Moschner, P Napiorkowski, B S Nara Singh, K Nowak, T Otsuka, J Pakarinen, M Pfeiffer, D Radeck, P Reiter, S Rigby, L M Robledo, R Rodríguez-Guzmán, M Rudigier, P Sarriguren, M Scheck, M Seidlitz, B Siebeck, G Simpson, P Thöle, T Thomas, J Van de Walle, P Van Duppen, M Vermeulen, D Voulot, R Wadsworth, F Wenander, K Wimmer, K O Zell, M Zielinska
Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
The neutron-rich nuclei 94,96Kr were studied via projectile Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Level energies of the first excited 2(+) states and their absolute E2 transition strengths to the ground state are determined and discussed in the context of the E(2(1)(+)) and B(E2;2(1)(+)→0(1)(+)) systematics of the krypton chain. Contrary to previously published results no sudden onset of deformation is observed. This experimental result is supported by a new proton-neutron interacting boson model calculation based on the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach using the microscopic Gogny-D1M energy density functional.
J Biomech. 2012 Apr 30;45 (7):1133-9 22387122
A M Leopaldi, R Vismara, M Lemma, L Valerio, M Cervo, A Mangini, M Contino, A Redaelli, C Antona, G B Fiore
ForCardio.Lab, Università di Milano, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy. email@example.com
Due to their high complexity, surgical approaches to valve repair may benefit from the use of in vitro simulators both for training and for the investigation of those measures which can lead to better clinical results. In vitro tests are intrinsically more effective when all the anatomical substructures of the valvular complexes are preserved. In this work, a mock apparatus able to house an entire explanted porcine heart and subject it to pulsatile fluid-dynamic conditions was developed, in order to enable the hemodynamic analysis of simulated surgical procedures and the imaging of the valvular structures. The mock loop's hydrodynamic design was based on an ad-hoc defined lumped-parameter model. The left ventricle of an entire swine heart was dynamically pressurized by an external computer-controlled pulse duplicator. The ascending aorta was connected to a hydraulic circuit which simulated the input impedance of the systemic circulation; a reservoir passively filled the left atrium. Accesses for endoscopic imaging were located in the apex of the left ventricle and in the aortic root. The experimental pressure and flow tracings were comparable with the typical in vivo curves; a mean flow of 3.5±0.1l pm and a mean arterial pressure of 101±2 mmHg was obtained. High-quality echographic and endoscopic video recordings demonstrated the system's excellent potential in the observation of the cardiac structures dynamics. The proposed mock loop represents a suitable in vitro system for the testing of minimally-invasive cardiovascular devices and surgical procedures for heart valve repair.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Dec 16;: 22171554
Mid Valley Cardiology, Kingston Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Heavier than air flying machines are impossible. Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society of England, 1895 What is known and Objective: Warfarin, an oral anticoagulant, which has been in clinical use for over sixty years, remains a challenge for clinicians to utilize, given the multiplicity of items which can limit its efficacy. Our objective is to review the evidence and comment on whether INR control can be better than has been currently reported in various studies. Comment: The duration of time a patient's international normalized ratio (INR) is maintained within the therapeutic range (time in the therapeutic range, TTR) for his or her particular indication for the drug impacts the effectiveness and safety of warfarin therapy. Maintaining a therapeutic INR while on warfarin is difficult, and numerous studies employing various strategies confirm the challenge, but not the impossibility of achieving a TTR above 70%. What is new and Conclusion: Maintaining a therapeutic INR requires a dedicated multi-faceted approach. With diligence, skill and various therapeutic strategies, a TTR >70% can be achieved.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although many laboratory studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted with Ae. aegypti, there have been few studies in natural environments and none that examined density dependence in natural containers at normal field densities. Additionally, current mathematical models that predict Ae. aegypti population dynamics lack empirically-based functions for density-dependence. We performed field experiments in Tapachula, Mexico, where dengue is a significant public health concern. Twenty-one containers with natural food and water that already contained larvae were collected from local houses. Each container was divided in half and the naturally occurring larvae were apportioned in a manner that resulted in one side of the container (high density) having four times the density of the second side (low density). Larvae were counted and pupae were removed daily. Once adults emerged, wing span was measured to estimate body size. Density had a significant impact on larval survival, adult body size, and the time taken to transition from 4(th) instar to pupation. Increased density decreased larval survival by 20% and decreased wing length by an average of 0.19 mm. These results provide a starting point for a better understanding of density dependence in field populations of Ae. aegypti.
B S Nara Singh, Z Liu, R Wadsworth, H Grawe, T S Brock, P Boutachkov, N Braun, A Blazhev, M Górska, S Pietri, D Rudolph, C Domingo-Pardo, S J Steer, A Ataç, L Bettermann, L Cáceres, K Eppinger, T Engert, T Faestermann, F Farinon, F Finke, K Geibel, J Gerl, R Gernhäuser, N Goel, A Gottardo, J Grębosz, C Hinke, R Hoischen, G Ilie, H Iwasaki, J Jolie, A Kaşkaş, I Kojouharov, R Krücken, N Kurz, E Merchán, C Nociforo, J Nyberg, M Pfützner, A Prochazka, Zs Podolyák, P H Regan, P Reiter, S Rinta-Antila, C Scholl, H Schaffner, P-A Söderström, N Warr, H Weick, H-J Wollersheim, P J Woods, F Nowacki, K Sieja
Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
A β-decaying high-spin isomer in (96)Cd, with a half-life T(1/2)=0.29(-0.10)(+0.11) s, has been established in a stopped beam rare isotope spectroscopic investigations at GSI (RISING) experiment. The nuclei were produced using the fragmentation of a primary beam of (124)Xe on a (9)Be target. From the half-life and the observed γ decays in the daughter nucleus,(96)Ag, we conclude that the β-decaying state is the long predicted 16(+)"spin-gap" isomer. Shell-model calculations, using the Gross-Frenkel interaction and the πν(p(1/2),g(9/2)) model space, show that the isoscalar component of the neutron-proton interaction is essential to explain the origin of the isomer. Core excitations across the N=Z=50 gaps and the Gamow-Teller strength, B(GT) distributions have been studied via large-scale shell-model calculations using the πν(g,d,s) model space to compare with the experimental B(GT) value obtained from the half-life of the isomer.
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Med Vet Entomol. 2012 Sep 25;: 23002913
Field evaluations of disposable sticky lures for surveillance of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus in Jakarta.
Mosquito Control Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Qld, Australia Australian Wholesale Chemical Technologies, Brisbane, Qld, Australia Communicable Diseases Control and Environmental Health, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Entomology, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Jakarta, Indonesia Public Health and Malaria Control, PT Freeport Indonesia, Kuala Kencana, Papua, Indonesia.
From December 1997 to April 1998, disposable sticky lures (1608 lure days) were trialled in homes in north Jakarta, Indonesia as surveillance tools for Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti)(Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), referenced to indoor resting adult collections (92 × 10 min). The lures collected 89.4% of the total of 1339 Ae. aegypti and 92.1% of the total of 1272 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected by all methods. Because there were no significant differences with respect to numbers collected in bedrooms, living rooms and kitchens, bedrooms were selected for subsequent trials for reasons of convenience. The main trials involved a replicated complete block design with L-lysine and sodium carbonate. Lures without attractant or with four different dilutions of L-lysine collected 3.4-8.5 times more Ae. aegypti and 4.2-8.1 times more Cx. quinquefasciatus than were collected by mouth aspirator. Lures with or without dilutions of sodium carbonate collected 2.7-5.0 times more Ae. aegypti and 1.8-4.2 times more Cx. quinquefasciatus than aspirator collections. The precision associated with catches of sticky lures was better than that for aspirator collections. Although olfactants generally improved the numbers of mosquitoes collected, the differences in catch between lures with and without attractants were usually non-significant. Any deficit in catch may be offset by increasing the surveillance period to ≥30 days to detect all four dengue serotypes from infected mosquitoes.
Field optimisation of MosquiTRAP sampling for monitoring Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Marcelo Carvalho de Resende, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira de Azara, Ione Oliveira Costa, Laila Costa Heringer, Mateus Ramos de Andrade, José Luiz Acebal, Alvaro Eduardo Eiras
Serviço de Saúde Ambiental, Fundação Nacional da Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. email@example.com
A sticky trap designed to capture gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquitoes, MosquiTRAP, has been evaluated for monitoring this species in Brazil. However, the effects of trap densities on the capture rate of Ae. aegypti females and the sensitivity of vector detection are still unknown. After a preliminary study has identified areas of high and low female mosquito abundance, a set of experiments was conducted in four neighbourhoods of Belo Horizonte (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) using densities of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 traps per block. Trap sensitivity (positive MosquiTRAP index) increased significantly when 1-8 MosquiTRAPs were installed per block in both high and low abundance areas. A strong fit was obtained for the total number of mosquitoes captured with increasing trap densities through a non-linear function (Box-Lucas)(r² = 0,994), which likely exhibits saturation towards an equilibrium level. The capacity of the Mean Female Aedes Index to distinguish between areas of high and low Ae. aegypti abundance was also investigated; the achieved differentiation was shown to be dependent on the MosquiTRAP density.
Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population size survey in the 2007 chikungunya outbreak area in Italy. II: Estimating epidemic thresholds.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Centro Agricoltura Ambiente "G. Nicoli", Via Argini Nord 3351, 40014 Crevalcore (BO), Italy.
Our study compared different estimates of adult mosquito abundance (Pupal Demographic Survey [PDS], Human Landing Collection [HLC], Number of Bites declared by Citizens during interviews [NBC]) to the mean number of eggs laid in ovitraps. We then calculated a disease risk threshold in terms of number of eggs per ovitrap above which an arbovirus epidemic may occur. The study was conducted during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy where a chikungunya epidemic occurred in 2007. Ovitrap monitoring lasted from May to September, while adult sampling by means of PDS, HLC, and NBC was repeated three times each summer. Based on calculated rate of increase of the disease (R(0)) and the number of bites per human per day measured during the outbreak, we estimated that only 10.1% of the females transmitted the chikungunya virus in the principal focus. Under our conditions, we demonstrated that a positive correlation can be found between the females' density estimated by means of PDS, HLC, and NBC and the mean number of eggs in the ovitraps. We tested our hypothesis during the 2007 secondary outbreak of CHIKV in Cervia, and found that R(0) calculated based on the number of biting females estimated from the egg density was comparable to the R(0) calculated based on the progression of the human cases. The identification of an epidemic threshold based on the mean egg density may define the high risk areas and focus control programs.
A study on distribution and seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population in Athens, Greece.
Laboratory of Insecticides of Public Health Importance, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 S. Delta str., 145 61 Kifissia, Athens, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org
In September 2008, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894), a mosquito of great medical importance, was reported for the first time in a district of Athens, Greece. The following year, its distribution and population abundance over time around its first detection site was investigated. A network of 50 ovitraps was established in a surrounding area of 25 km2 and monitored for 17 mo from 17 August 2009 through 31 December 2010. Weekly servicing of the ovitraps and subsequent laboratory treatment of the collected mosquito eggs, revealed that Ae. albopictus is the dominant container breeding Aedes species and is widespread in the entire study area. The seasonal monitoring showed that this mosquito is continuously active from mid spring until the end of December with a considerably high oviposition activity recorded during summer and fall. Moreover, comparison of its activity during late August and end of December, between the two consecutive surveillance years, indicated a significant increase of population abundance the second year. The current study suggests the necessity of setting up in the city of Athens an integrated surveillance program in a greater scale for Asian tiger mosquito's effective control.
Evaluation of yellow sticky traps for monitoring the population of thrips (Thysanoptera) in a mango orchard.
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia. email@example.com
Populations of several thrips species were estimated using yellow sticky traps in an orchard planted with mango, Mangifera indica L. during the dry and wet seasons beginning in late 2008-2009 on Penang Island, Malaysia. To determine the efficacy of using sticky traps to monitor thrips populations, we compared weekly population estimates on yellow sticky traps with thrips population sizes that were determined (using a CO(2) method) directly from mango panicles. Dispersal distance and direction of thrips movement out of the orchard also were studied using yellow sticky traps placed at three distances from the edge of the orchard in four cardinal directions facing into the orchard. The number of thrips associated with the mango panicles was found to be correlated with the number of thrips collected using the sticky trap method. The number of thrips captured by the traps decreased with increasing distance from the mango orchard in all directions. Density of thrips leaving the orchard was related to the surrounding vegetation. Our results demonstrate that sticky traps have the potential to satisfactorily estimate thrips populations in mango orchards and thus they can be effectively employed as a useful tactic for sampling thrips.
Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Escuela de Medicina Humana Campus Tapachula, Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Chiapas, Tapachula, Chiapas, México.
In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae). First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD(99)) by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD(99) for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD(99) obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.
Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population size survey in the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak area in Italy. I. Characterization of breeding sites and evaluation of sampling methodologies.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Centro Agricoltura Ambiente "G. Nicoli," Via Argini Nord 3351, 40014 Crevalcore (BO), Italy.
The population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) was measured in four towns in northern Italy by means of Stegomyia indices (house index: percentage of houses with at least one active breeding site; container index: percentage of containers with larvae; and Breteau index: number of active breeding sites per premises), pupae per premises index (PPI), pupae per hectare index (PHI), and ovitrap monitoring. A detailed investigation on types and number of productive or potential larval habitats in the inspected premises was performed. Catch basins were the most productive breeding sites in both private and public areas. The influence of the premises maintenance and premises shading indices (PMI and PSI) on the population indices and the correlations between the latter and egg density were assessed. The highest PPI was found in badly maintained premises, most times combined with shady coverage. Stegomyia indices and PPI were well correlated with each other, but not with the PHI, which also included the pupae collected in public areas. We obtained a highly positive correlation (R = 0.86) between the PHI and weekly mean egg density estimated 7-14 d after inspection of the premises. The number of females per hectare, calculated using the Focks model, was correlated with the mean egg density of the week after sampling (R = 0.79), and we propose that ovitrap monitoring can be used to evaluate the efficiency of the control activities or to determine a mean egg density threshold for epidemic risk evaluation.
Semi-field evaluation of several novel alkenol analogs of 1-octen-3-ol as attractants to adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.
J E Cilek, C O Ikediobi, C F Hallmon, R Johnson, E N Onyeozili, S M Farah, T Mazu, L M Latinwo, L Ayuk-Takem, U R Berniers
John A. Mulrennan, Sr. Public Health Entomology Research & Education Center, College of Engineering Sciences, Technology, and Agriculture, Florida A&M University, 4000 Frankford Avenue, Panama City, FL 32405, USA.
The compound 1-octen-3-ol is a known attractant of some mosquito species, which has led to the hypothesis that olfactory stimulation by this alkenol may be associated with the following structural elements: a terminal site of unsaturation or high electron density; a structural capability for hydrogen bonding, e.g.,-OH,-NH2, NHR, NR2, etc.; a saturated hydrocarbon chain of a certain minimum length; and a certain relative distance between the region of high electron density and the alcohol (or other hydrogen-bonding) functional group. Using this logic, we synthesized 20 alkenol analogs based on the octenol double-bonded carbon skeleton. The attraction of female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus to these analogs was compared with 1-octen-3-ol as a standard in semi-field trials. For both species, collections from Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) suction traps baited with the alkenol analogs in the absence of carbon dioxide were not significantly different from octenol-only baited traps, with the exception of (Z)-3-hepten-1-ol which collected significantly more Ae. albopictus. In the presence of CO2, most of the collections from traps baited with an alkenol were considerably increased for both species but not different from octenol plus CO2, with the exception of Ae. albopictus where (Z)-3-decen-1-ol,(Z)-4-hexen-1-ol, 7-octen-2-ol, and 8-nonen-3-ol significantly depressed trap catches. Although no clearly identifiable structure-activity relationship could be determined from our collected data, we did find that MMX traps baited with carbon dioxide and 4-penten-2-ol or (E)-2-decen-4-ol significantly enhanced Cx. quinquefasciatus collections up to nearly 3-fold compared with octenol plus carbon dioxide.
Surveillance of the chikungunya vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy): organizational and technical aspects of a large scale monitoring system.
Marco Carrieri, Alessandro Albieri, Paola Angelini, Flavia Baldacchini, Claudio Venturelli, Silvia Mascali Zeo, Romeo Bellini
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Centro Agricoltura Ambiente G. Nicoli, Crevalcore (BO), Italy.
The chikungunya virus outbreak that occurred in 2007 in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) prompted the development of a large scale monitoring system of the population density of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894), comparable at the provincial and municipal levels. In 2007, egg density data presented an aggregated distribution (VMR >1) and Taylor's power law was applied to calculate the minimum number of ovitraps needed to obtain the prefixed precision levels: D=0.2 in the areas where the chikungunya epidemic occurred and D=0.3 in all the other urban areas >600 ha. The estimated minimum ovitrap number was then used to set up a monitoring network at the regional scale in season 2008 (May-October). In 242 municipalities 2,741 ovitraps were activated and the 2008 sampled data showed a similar aggregated distribution as in 2007. The adequacy of the monitoring design was evaluated by recalculating the Taylor's coefficients and the minimum ovitrap number for each urban area >600 ha using the 2008 egg density data. The comparison between the two estimates showed that the minimum ovitrap number calculated in 2007 was underestimated by 2.7% in weeks 22-41 but was overestimated by 29.4% if referring to the period of highest population density (weeks 27-37). The low cost of the proposed monitoring system, based on the use of fortnightly checked ovitraps, could make it economically sustainable even in a non-epidemic season.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. ;44 (3):300-5 21537795
Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization.
Josiane Somariva Prophiro, Onilda Santos Silva, Jonny Edward Duque Luna, Carla Fernanda Piccoli, Luiz Alberto Kanis, Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva
Grupo de Pesquisa em Imunoparasitologia, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Tubarão, SC. firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion). Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina) presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.