School of Psychology, University of the West of England, Bristol, England, UK. email@example.com
This article argues that an iconic event in the history of helping research -- the story of the 38 witnesses who remained inactive during the murder of Kitty Genovese -- is not supported by the available evidence. Using archive material, the authors show that there is no evidence for the presence of 38 witnesses, or that witnesses observed the murder, or that witnesses remained inactive. Drawing a distinction between the robust bystander research tradition and the story of the 38 witnesses, the authors explore the consequences of the story for the discipline of psychology. They argue that the story itself plays a key role in psychology textbooks. They also suggest that the story marks a new way of conceptualizing the dangers of immersion in social groups. Finally, they suggest that the story itself has become a modern parable, the telling of which has served to limit the scope of inquiry into emergency helping.
Three studies consider the implicit bystander effect in the light of recent advances in social identity approaches to helping. Drawing on the social identity model of deindividuation effects we argue that the implicit bystander effect is shaped not by the number of others imagined, but by who those others are imagined to be. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that, when group membership is primed, increasing group size can facilitate helping in line with the norms and values of the group. Study 3 explores mediation processes in group level helping. As group size increases, female participants react faster to words associated with communalism when others are imagined as women rather than strangers. The paper demonstrates that group size and helping behaviour is qualified by an implicit identity effect.
The responsive bystander: how social group membership and group size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention.
Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Four experiments explored the interaction of group size, social categorization, and bystander behavior. In Study 1, increasing group size inhibited intervention in a street violence scenario when bystanders were strangers but encouraged intervention when bystanders were friends. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings to social category members. When gender identity was salient, group size encouraged intervention when bystanders and victim shared social category membership. In addition, group size interacted with context-specific norms that both inhibit and encourage helping. Study 3 used physical co-presence and gender identities to examine these social category effects. Increasing group size of women produced greater helping of a female victim, but increasing group size of men did not. Additionally, increasing numbers of out-group bystanders resulted in less intervention from women but more intervention from men. Study 4 replicated these findings with a measure of real-life helping behavior. Taken together, the findings indicate that the bystander effect is not a generic consequence of increasing group size. When bystanders share group-level psychological relationships, group size can encourage as well as inhibit helping.
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Ohio, USA.
Other papers by authors:
Am Psychol. 2008 Sep ;63 (6):562-3 18793050
University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
Behav Brain Sci. 2012 Nov 20;:1-15 23164194
Beyond prejudice: Are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution?
Department of Psychology, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom. email@example.com http://www.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/staff/people-profile.php?name=John_Dixon.
For most of the history of prejudice research, negativity has been treated as its emotional and cognitive signature, a conception that continues to dominate work on the topic. By this definition, prejudice occurs when we dislike or derogate members of other groups. Recent research, however, has highlighted the need for a more nuanced and "inclusive"(Eagly 2004) perspective on the role of intergroup emotions and beliefs in sustaining discrimination. On the one hand, several independent lines of research have shown that unequal intergroup relations are often marked by attitudinal complexity, with positive responses such as affection and admiration mingling with negative responses such as contempt and resentment. Simple antipathy is the exception rather than the rule. On the other hand, there is mounting evidence that nurturing bonds of affection between the advantaged and the disadvantaged sometimes entrenches rather than disrupts wider patterns of discrimination. Notably, prejudice reduction interventions may have ironic effects on the political attitudes of the historically disadvantaged, decreasing their perceptions of injustice and willingness to engage in collective action to transform social inequalities. These developments raise a number of important questions. Has the time come to challenge the assumption that negative evaluations are inevitably the cognitive and affective hallmarks of discrimination? Is the orthodox concept of prejudice in danger of side-tracking, if not obstructing, progress towards social justice in a fuller sense? What are the prospects for reconciling a prejudice reduction model of change, designed to get people to like one another more, with a collective action model of change, designed to ignite struggles to achieve intergroup equality?
J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 15;: 23071249
Duke University and the Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC.
J Clin Oncol. 2012 Oct 15;: 23071238
Gary H. Lyman, Duke University and the Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC; and Mark Levine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Oct 16;: 23067008
Ascorbic Acid Kills Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Positive Burkitt Lymphoma Cells and EBV Transformed B-Cells in Vitro, but not in Vivo.
ABSTRACT Ascorbic acid has been shown to kill various cancer cell lines at pharmacologic concentrations. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells were more susceptible to ascorbic acid-induced cell killing than EBV-negative BL cells or EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Ascorbic acid did not induce apoptosis in any of the tested cells but did induce the production of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Previously, we showed that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, induces cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. We found that ascorbic acid is strongly antagonistic for ascorbic acid-induced cell death in LCLs and EBV-positive BL cells. Finally, ascorbic acid did not prolong survival of severe combined immunodefiency mice inoculated with LCLs either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Thus, while ascorbic acid was highly effective at killing EBV-positive BL cells and LCLs in vitro, it antagonized cell killing by bortezomib and was ineffective in an animal model.
Thromb Res. 2012 Jun 1;: 22658414
Accuracy and safety of (99m)Tc-labeled anti-D-dimer (DI-80B3) Fab' fragments (ThromboView®) in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis: A phase II study.
James D Douketis, Jeffrey S Ginsberg, Susan Haley, Jim Julian, Miriam Dwyer, Mark Levine, Paul R Eisenberg, Richard Smart, Wendy Tsui, Richard H White, Timothy A Morris, Scott Kaatz, Philip C Comp, Mark A Crowther, Clive Kearon, Jeannine Kassis, Shannon M Bates, Sam Schulman, Louis Desjardins, Raymond Taillefer, Susan M Begelman, Mike Gerometta
Dept. of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
BACKGROUND: The assessment of patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains challenging despite current diagnostic algorithms.(99m)Tc-labelled DI-DD3B6/22-80B3 Fab´ fragments ((99m)Tc-DI-80B3, ThromboView®) is a novel diagnostic test that uses a radiolabelled humanized monoclonal antibody fragment specific for the D-dimer region of cross-linked fibrin to detect DVT. This test has an anatomic component to locate DVT and a functional component to differentiate acute (newly formed) thrombus from inactive (old) thrombus. METHODS: In a multi-centre prospective cohort trial we investigated the diagnostic accuracy and safety of (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 in consecutive patients with suspected DVT who had the diagnosis confirmed or excluded by venography. RESULTS: We enrolled 94 patients with suspected DVT of whom 12 did not have (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 imaging, leaving 82 patients for the safety analysis. Of these patients, there were 16 with non-evaluable imaging (11 venography, 7 (99m)Tc-DI-80B3, both in two patients) leaving 66 patients for the accuracy analysis.(99m)Tc-DI-80B3 imaging was well-tolerated: 2 patients developed urticaria; none developed serious adverse events. For proximal DVT, the sensitivity (84.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.4-94.5) and specificity (97.6%; CI: 83.3-99.4) were highest when the combined 0.25-hour and 3-hour (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 images were used. The accuracy was lower for distal DVT, irrespective of the images used. There were insufficient patients to comment on the accuracy of (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 imaging for suspected recurrent DVT. CONCLUSIONS:(99m)Tc-DI-80B3 (ThromboView®) is a novel diagnostic modality for patients with suspected DVT with a promising accuracy and safety profile that justifies additional clinical development in diagnostic accuracy and clinical management studies.
Can J Anaesth. 2012 May 8;: 22565331
Postgraduate Medical Education, University of Toronto, 500 University Avenue, Suite 602, Toronto, ON, M5G 1V7, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372, USA.
Although vitamin C (ascorbate) is present in whole blood, measurements in red blood cells (RBCs) are problematic because of interference, instability, limited sensitivity, and sample volume requirements. We describe a new technique using HPLC with coulometric electrochemical detection for ascorbate measurement in RBCs of humans, wild-type mice, and mice unable to synthesize ascorbate. Exogenously added ascorbate was fully recovered even when endogenous RBC ascorbate was below the detection threshold (25nM). Twenty microliters of whole blood or 10μl of packed RBCs was sufficient for assay. RBC ascorbate was stable for 24h from whole-blood samples at 4°C. Processed, stored samples were stable for >1month at -80°C. Unlike other tissues, ascorbate concentrations in human and mouse RBCs were linear in relation to plasma concentrations (R=0.8 and 0.9, respectively). In healthy humans, RBC ascorbate concentrations were 9-57μM, corresponding to ascorbate plasma concentrations of 15-90μM. Mouse data were similar. In human blood stored as if for transfusion, initial RBC ascorbate concentrations varied approximately sevenfold and decreased 50% after 6weeks of storage under clinical conditions. With this assay, it becomes possible for the first time to characterize ascorbate function in relation to endogenous concentrations in RBCs.
Adv Nutr. 2011 Mar ;2 (2):78-88 22332036
Molecular and Clinical Nutrition Section, Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1372.
A concentration-function approach to vitamin C (ascorbate) has yielded new physiology and pharmacology discoveries. To determine the range of vitamin C concentrations possible in humans, pharmacokinetics studies were conducted. They showed that when vitamin C is ingested by mouth, plasma and tissue concentrations are tightly controlled by at least 3 mechanisms in healthy humans: absorption, tissue accumulation, and renal reabsorption. A 4th mechanism, rate of utilization, may be important in disease. With ingested amounts found in foods, vitamin C plasma concentrations do not exceed 100 μmol/L. Even with supplementation approaching maximally tolerated doses, ascorbate plasma concentrations are always <250 μmol/L and frequently <150 μmol/L. By contrast, when ascorbate is i.v. injected, tight control is bypassed until excess ascorbate is eliminated by glomerular filtration and renal excretion. With i.v. infusion, pharmacologic ascorbate concentrations of 25-30 mmol/L are safely achieved. Pharmacologic ascorbate can act as a pro-drug for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation, which can lead to extracellular fluid at concentrations as high as 200 μmol/L. Pharmacologic ascorbate can elicit cytotoxicity toward cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in experimental murine models. The effects of pharmacologic ascorbate should be further studied in diseases, such as cancer and infections, which may respond to generation of reactive oxygen species via H(2)O(2).
PLoS One. 2012 ;7 (1):e29794 22272248
Phase I evaluation of intravenous ascorbic acid in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Daniel A Monti, Edith Mitchell, Anthony J Bazzan, Susan Littman, George Zabrecky, Charles J Yeo, Madhaven V Pillai, Andrew B Newberg, Sandeep Deshmukh, Mark Levine
Myrna Brind Center of Integrative Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
BACKGROUND Preclinical data support further investigation of ascorbic acid in pancreatic cancer. There are currently insufficient safety data in human subjects, particularly when ascorbic acid is combined with chemotherapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS 14 subjects with metastatic stage IV pancreatic cancer were recruited to receive an eight week cycle of intravenous ascorbic acid (three infusions per week), using a dose escalation design, along with standard treatment of gemcitabine and erlotinib. Of 14 recruited subjects enrolled, nine completed the study (three in each dosage tier). There were fifteen non-serious adverse events and eight serious adverse events, all likely related to progression of disease or treatment with gemcitabine or erlotinib. Applying RECIST 1.0 criteria, seven of the nine subjects had stable disease while the other two had progressive disease. CONCLUSIONS These initial safety data do not reveal increased toxicity with the addition of ascorbic acid to gemcitabine and erlotinib in pancreatic cancer patients. This, combined with the observed response to treatment, suggests the need for a phase II study of longer duration. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00954525.
Latest similar papers:
Emotion. 2012 Oct 22;: 23088777
It Felt Fluent, and I Liked It: Subjective Feeling of Fluency Rather Than Objective Fluency Determines Liking.
According to the processing-fluency explanation of aesthetics, more fluently processed stimuli are preferred (R. Reber, N. Schwarz,& P. Winkielman, 2004, Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, pp. 364-382.). In this view, the subjective feeling of ease of processing is considered important, but this has not been directly tested in perceptual processing. In two experiments, we therefore objectively manipulated fluency (ease of processing) with subliminal perceptual priming (Study 1) and variations in presentation durations (Study 2). We assessed the impact of objective fluency on feelings of fluency and liking, as well as their interdependence. In line with the processing-fluency account, we found that objectively more fluent images were indeed judged as more fluent and were also liked more. Moreover, differences in liking were even stronger when data were analyzed according to felt fluency. These findings demonstrate that perceptual fluency is not only explicitly felt, it can also be reported and is an important determinant of liking.(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Am Psychol. 2012 Apr 30;: 22545597
As illustrated by the story of Amanda Knox and many others wrongfully convicted, false confessions often trump factual innocence. Focusing on consequences, recent research suggests that confessions are powerfully persuasive as a matter of logic and common sense; that many false confessions contain richly detailed narratives and accurate crime facts that appear to betray guilty knowledge; and that confessions in general can corrupt other evidence from lay witnesses and forensic experts-producing an illusion of false support. This latter phenomenon, termed "corroboration inflation," suggests that pretrial corroboration requirements as well as the concept of "harmless error" on appeal are based on an erroneous presumption of independence among items of evidence. In addition to previously suggested reforms to police practices that are designed to curb the risk of false confessions, measures should be taken as well to minimize the rippling consequences of those confessions.(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, USA. email@example.com
Three articles published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology have shown that a disproportionate share of people choose spouses, places to live, and occupations with names similar to their own. These findings, interpreted as evidence of implicit egotism, are included in most modern social psychology textbooks and many university courses. The current article successfully replicates the original findings but shows that they are most likely caused by a combination of cohort, geographic, and ethnic confounds as well as reverse causality.
School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
In our article (Storm, Tressoldi,& Di Risio, 2010), we claimed that the ganzfeld experimental design has proved to be consistent and reliable. However, Hyman (2010) argues that the overall evidence for psi is, in fact, contradictory and elusive. We present a case for psi research that undermines Hyman's argument. First, we give examples from parapsychologists who do not outrightly dismiss psi, despite appearances, but actually support it. Second, we claim that Hyman does not tell the full story about the ganzfeld meta-analytic findings and thus presents a one-sided account. Third, we argue that our meta-analysis has followed standard procedures, that we have not broken any rules but have found a communications anomaly, often referred to as psi. Though we may be in agreement that the evidence is largely statistical, the evidence suggests that concealed targets are actually identified rather than guessed. We argue that further research is necessary.
School of Psychology.
Individuals who are low (compared with high) in attachment-related avoidance rely on social bonds to regulate distress, and the authors hypothesized that nostalgia can be a repository of such social connectedness. Studies 1-3 showed a positive association between loneliness and nostalgia when attachment-related avoidance was low, but not when it was high. Study 4 revealed that low-avoidance individuals derived more social connectedness from nostalgia than did high-avoidance individuals. Study 5 extended these findings and demonstrated that, in addition to being a source of social connectedness, nostalgia increased participants' perceived capacity to provide emotional support to others. As in the case of social connectedness, this beneficial effect of nostalgia was significantly stronger when attachment-related avoidance was low (compared with high).(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, OH 43606, USA. email@example.com
Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Taking an interactional perspective on creativity, the authors examined the influence of social networks and conformity value on employees' creativity. They theorized and found a curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity when their number of weak ties was at intermediate levels rather than at lower or higher levels. In addition, employees' conformity value moderated the curvilinear relationship between number of weak ties and creativity such that employees exhibited greater creativity at intermediate levels of number of weak ties when conformity was low than when it was high. A proper match between personal values and network ties is critical for understanding creativity.
Am Psychol. 2009 Nov ;64 (8):712-23 19899875
Responding to the psychological impact of war on the Iraqi people and U.S. veterans: mixing icing, praying for cake.
Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, and Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5717, USA. KNH@Stanford.edu
The psychological impact of the war in Iraq stimulated major initiatives to build a modern mental health care system for the Iraqi people and to improve mental health services for U.S. veterans of the Iraq war. Although these two initiatives differ in important respects, they are both informed by general principles of psychology concerning the nature of social problem definition, the process of human adaptation to extreme stress and its aftermath, and the role and limits of mental health services. Building on these common themes and my own experiences, I describe how two nations are trying to address the colossal psychological damage wrought by the war in Iraq.
Am Psychol. 2009 Nov ;64 (8):642-58 19899858
Am Psychol. 2009 Nov ;64 (8):634-58 19899854
The Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. The 2009 winners are Susan E. Carey, Alice H. Eagly, Steven F. Maier. For each awardee a citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented. In addition, for Alice H. Eagly, her paper, entitled "The his and hers of prosocial behavior: An examination of the social psychology of gender," a version of which she delivered at APA's annual convention, is provided.(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).