Does physician communication influence older patients' diabetes self-management and glycemic control? Results from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).
Veterans Affairs Center for Practice Management & Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Michigan 48109, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Effective chronic disease self-management among older adults is crucial for improved clinical outcomes. We assessed the relative importance of two dimensions of physician communication-provision of information (PCOM) and participatory decision-making (PDM)-for older patients' diabetes self-management and glycemic control. METHODS We conducted a national cross-sectional survey among 1588 older community-dwelling adults with diabetes (response rate: 81%). Independent associations were examined between patients' ratings of their physician's PCOM and PDM with patients' reported diabetes self-management (medication adherence, diet, exercise, blood glucose monitoring, and foot care), adjusting for patient sociodemographics, illness severity, and comorbidities. Among respondents for whom hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values were available (n=1233), the relationship was assessed between patient self-management and HbA1c values. RESULTS In separate multivariate regressions, PCOM and PDM were each associated with overall diabetes self-management (p<.001) and with all self-management domains (p<.001 in all models), with the exception of PDM not being associated with medication adherence. In models with both PCOM and PDM, PCOM alone predicted medication adherence (p=.001) and foot care (p=.002). PDM alone was associated with exercise and blood glucose monitoring (both p<.001) and was a stronger independent predictor than PCOM of diet. Better patient ratings of their diabetes self-management were associated with lower HbA1c values (B=-.10, p=.005). CONCLUSION Among these older adults, both their diabetes providers' provision of information and efforts to actively involve them in treatment decision-making were associated with better overall diabetes self-management. Involving older patients in setting chronic disease goals and decision-making, however, appears to be especially important for self-care areas that demand more behaviorally complex lifestyle adjustments such as exercise, diet, and blood glucose monitoring.
John M Inadomi, Sandeep Vijan, Nancy K Janz, Angela Fagerlin, Jennifer P Thomas, Yunghui V Lin, Roxana Muñoz, Chim Lau, Ma Somsouk, Najwa El-Nachef, Rodney A Hayward
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. METHODS We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at average risk for development of CRC in a racially/ethnically diverse urban setting were randomized to receive recommendation for screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, or their choice of FOBT or colonoscopy. The primary outcome was completion of CRC screening within 12 months after enrollment, defined as performance of colonoscopy, or 3 FOBT cards plus colonoscopy for any positive FOBT result. Secondary analyses evaluated sociodemographic factors associated with completion of screening. RESULTS A total of 997 participants were enrolled; 58% completed the CRC screening strategy they were assigned or chose. However, participants who were recommended colonoscopy completed screening at a significantly lower rate (38%) than participants who were recommended FOBT (67%)(P < .001) or given a choice between FOBT or colonoscopy (69%)(P < .001). Latinos and Asians (primarily Chinese) completed screening more often than African Americans. Moreover, nonwhite participants adhered more often to FOBT, while white participants adhered more often to colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS The common practice of universally recommending colonoscopy may reduce adherence to CRC screening, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Significant variation in overall and strategy-specific adherence exists between racial/ethnic groups; however, this may be a proxy for health beliefs and/or language. These results suggest that patient preferences should be considered when making CRC screening recommendations. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00705731.
Nurs Inq. 2011 Dec ;18 (4):290-302 22050615
The University of Melbourne, Carlton, Vic., Australia.
Understanding medication safety in healthcare settings: a critical review of conceptual models Communication can impact on the way in which medications are managed across healthcare settings. Organisational cultures and the environmental context provide an added complexity to how communication occurs in practice. The aims of this paper are: to examine six models relating to medication safety in various hospital and community settings, to consider the strengths and limitations of each model and to explore their applications to medication safety practices. The models examined for their ability to address the complexity of the medication communication process include causal models, such as the Human Error Model and the System Analysis to Clinical Incidents Model, and exploratory models, such as the Shared Decision-Making Model, the Medication Decision-Making and Management Model, the Partnership Model and the Medication Communication Model. The Medication Communication Model provides particular insights into possible interactions between aspects that influence medication safety practices. The implications of all six models for healthcare practice and future research are also discussed.
J Nurs Meas. 2011 ;19 (1):3-16 21560897
University of Connecticut, School of Nursing, 06269-2026, Storrs, CT 06269-2026, USA. Elizabeth.Anderson@uconn.edu
The type and quality of the provider-patient health care relationship impacts patient adherence. The study purpose was to convert the 5-item paper and pencil Relationships With Health Care Provider Scale (RHCPS) to a reliable and valid computer-based scale for use with older adults. Outpatient adults (N = 121) older than 59 years were recruited. The RHCPS underwent several iterations documenting internal consistency reliability, content and factorial validity, and scale usability in a computer tablet format. A total of 5 expert judges rated all 5 items as valid, which resulted in a scale content validity index of 1. Cronbach's standardized alpha was .81. Principal components analysis extracted 1 factor (eigenvalue > 1; confirmed by scree plot) as anticipated. Computer-based RHCPS has the potential to reveal valuable clinical and scientific data on patient-provider relationships among older adults.
Effectiveness of home telehealth in comorbid diabetes and hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial.
Bonnie J Wakefield, John E Holman, Annette Ray, Melody Scherubel, Margaret R Adams, Stephen L Hillis, Gary E Rosenthal
Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Comprehensive Access & Delivery Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Iowa City, Iowa 52246, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Increased emphasis is being placed on the critical need to control hypertension (HTN) in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nurse-managed home telehealth intervention to improve outcomes in veterans with comorbid diabetes and HTN. DESIGN A single-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial design comparing two remote monitoring intensity levels and usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes and HTN being treated in primary care was used. MEASUREMENTS Primary outcomes were hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure (SBP); secondary outcome was adherence. RESULTS Intervention subjects experienced decreased A1c during the 6-month intervention period compared with the control group, but 6 months after the intervention was withdrawn, the intervention groups were comparable with the control group. For SBP, the high-intensity subjects had a significant decrease in SBP compared with the other groups at 6 months and this pattern was maintained at 12 months. Adherence improved over time for all groups, but there were no differences among the three groups. LIMITATIONS Subjects had relatively good baseline control for A1c and SBP; minorities and women were underrepresented. CONCLUSIONS Home telehealth provides an innovative and pragmatic approach to enhance earlier detection of key clinical symptoms requiring intervention. Transmission of education and advice to the patient on an ongoing basis with close surveillance by nurses can improve clinical outcomes in patients with comorbid chronic illness.
Comparison of the prognostic importance of diagnosed diabetes, co-morbidity and frailty in older people.
Geriatric Medicine Research Unit, Dalhousie University and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
The impact of limited English proficiency and physician language concordance on reports of clinical interactions among patients with diabetes: The DISTANCE study.
Yael Schenker, Andrew J Karter, Dean Schillinger, E Margaret Warton, Nancy E Adler, Howard H Moffet, Ameena T Ahmed, Alicia Fernandez
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of limited English proficiency (LEP) and physician language concordance with patient reports of clinical interactions. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 8638 Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients with diabetes. Patient responses were used to define English proficiency and physician language concordance. Quality of clinical interactions was based on 5 questions drawn from validated scales on communication, 2 on trust, and 3 on discrimination. RESULTS: Respondents included 8116 English-proficient and 522 LEP patients. Among LEP patients, 210 were language concordant and 153 were language discordant. In fully adjusted models, LEP patients were more likely than English-proficient patients to report suboptimal interactions on 3 out of 10 outcomes, including 1 communication and 2 discrimination items. In separate analyses, LEP-discordant patients were more likely than English-proficient patients to report suboptimal clinician-patient interactions on 7 out of 10 outcomes, including 2 communication, 2 trust, and 3 discrimination items. In contrast, LEP-concordant patients reported similar interactions to English-proficient patients. CONCLUSIONS: Reports of suboptimal interactions among patients with LEP were more common among those with language-discordant physicians. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Expanding access to language concordant physicians may improve clinical interactions among patients with LEP. Quality and performance assessments should consider physician-patient language concordance.
Development of CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) project: rationale and methodology.
Domenico Fusco, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Matteo Tosato, Andrea Corsonello, Antonio Cherubini, Stefano Volpato, Cinzia Maraldi, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Graziano Onder
Centro Medicina dell'Invecchiamento, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
Pharmacological treatment of complex older adults with comorbidities, multiple impairments in function, cognition, social status and geriatric syndromes represents a challenge for prescribing physicians and often results in a high rate of iatrogenic illnesses. Clinical guidelines are commonly used to indicate appropriate prescription, but they are often based on the results of clinical trials that are conducted on young subjects with a low level of complexity. Therefore, the recommendations of clinical guidelines may be difficult to apply to older complex adults. In this paper we present the rationale and methodology of the Development of CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) project, a study aimed at producing recommendations to evaluate the appropriateness of pharmacological prescription in older complex patients, translating the recommendations of clinical guidelines to this type of patient. A literature search will be performed to integrate and revise the recommendations of disease-specific guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of patients with common chronic conditions. New recommendations will be provided and approved in a consensus meeting of international experts. Both data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies will be used to meet this aim. Recommendations provided by the CRIME project are not meant to replace existing clinical guidelines, but they may be used to help physicians in the prescribing process. Once completed these recommendations should be validated in interventional studies.
A better model of diabetes self-management? Interactions between GP communication and patient self-efficacy in self-monitoring of blood glucose.
School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, College of Health & Science, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South DC, NSW, Australia. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the interaction between patient self-efficacy and GP communication in explaining diabetes self-management in a disadvantaged region of Sydney, Australia. METHODS This study was undertaken in South West Sydney with the Fairfield Division of General Practice. We used a cross-sectional survey design to assess patients' self-reported beliefs and behaviours about diabetes self-management. We used hierarchical multiple linear regression to test for interaction effects in diabetes self-management, following tests for clustering using multilevel modeling. RESULTS Of those eligible for survey, 105 patients completed the telephone survey (72%). There was a significant interaction between diabetes self-efficacy and GP communication in blood glucose testing; high-ratings of GP communication enhanced self-monitoring of blood glucose when patient self-efficacy was high but impeded self-monitoring of blood glucose when self-efficacy was low. There were no significant interaction effects for the general diet or exercise scales. CONCLUSION This exploratory study suggests a complex relationship between patient self-efficacy and GP communication in self-monitoring of blood glucose. It is likely optimal diabetes self-management behaviours are produced by a fit between high patient self-efficacy and high quality GP communication. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS There is a risk that GPs who are sensitive to their patients' low self-efficacy in self-monitoring of blood glucose may step in and take over the monitoring role and inadvertently reduce self-management.
Division of General Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois 62794-9636, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Aging Couple Across the Curriculum is a unique program designed around a couple who "age" a decade with each year of medical school. In these half-day sessions, students encounter the aging couple through a standardized patient experience. Interactive breakout sessions conducted by multidisciplinary professionals enhance student learning and appreciation of the contributions of the team of professionals. A panel of elder specialists provides personal insight into how they have overcome and/or adapted to various health-related problems. Evaluation measures have indicated that students are benefiting from the program and that it is affecting their attitudes in a positive way toward caring for older adults.
School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Effective patient-clinician communication is at the heart of good healthcare and may be even more vital for older patients and their nurse practitioners (NPs). OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to examine 1)contributions of older patients' and NPs' characteristics and the content and relationship components of their communication to patients' proximal outcomes (satisfaction and intention to adhere) and longer term outcomes (changes in presenting problems, physical health, and mental health), and 2) contributions of proximal outcomes to longer term outcomes. METHODS Visits were video-recorded for a statewide sample of 31 NPs and 155 older patients. Patients' and NPs' communications during visits were measured using the Roter Interaction Analysis System for verbal activities, a check sheet for nonverbal activities, and an inventory of relationship dimension items. Proximal outcomes were measured with single items after visits. At 4 weeks, change in presenting problems was measured with a single item, and physical and mental health changes were measured with the SF-12 Version 2 Health Survey. Mixed-model regression with backward deletion was conducted until only predictors with p <or=.05 remained in the models. RESULTS With the other variables in the models held constant, better outcomes were related to background characteristics of poorer baseline health, nonmanaged care settings, and more NP experience; to a content component of seeking and giving biomedical and psychosocial information; and to a relationship component of more positive talk and greater trust and receptivity and affection, depth, and similarity. Poorer outcomes were associated with higher rates of lifestyle discussion and NPs' rapport building that patients may have perceived to be patronizing. Greater intention to adhere was associated with greater improvement in presenting problems. DISCUSSION Older patient-NP communication was effective regarding seeking and giving biomedical and psychosocial information other than that involving lifestyle. Studies of ways to improve older patient-NP lifestyle discussions and rapport building are needed.
Other papers by authors:
Mechanisms for racial and ethnic disparities in glycemic control in middle-aged and older Americans in the health and retirement study.
Veterans Affairs Center for Practice Management and Outcome Research, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare Systems, MI 48113-0170, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Mechanisms for racial/ethnic disparities in glycemic control are poorly understood. METHODS A nationally representative sample of 1901 respondents 55 years or older with diabetes mellitus completed a mailed survey in 2003; 1233 respondents completed valid at-home hemoglobin A(1c)(HbA(1c)) kits. We constructed multivariate regression models with survey weights to examine racial/ethnic differences in HbA(1c) control and to explore the association of HbA(1c) level with sociodemographic and clinical factors, access to and quality of diabetes health care, and self-management behaviors and attitudes. RESULTS There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in HbA(1c) levels in respondents not taking antihyperglycemic medications. In 1034 respondents taking medications, the mean HbA(1c) value (expressed as percentage of total hemoglobin) was 8.07% in black respondents and 8.14% in Latino respondents compared with 7.22% in white respondents (P <.001). Black respondents had worse medication adherence than white respondents, and Latino respondents had more diabetes-specific emotional distress (P <.001). Adjusting for hypothesized mechanisms accounted for 14.0% of the higher HbA(1c) levels in black respondents and 19.0% in Latinos, with the full model explaining 22.0% of the variance. Besides black and Latino ethnicity, only insulin use (P <.001), age younger than 65 years (P =.007), longer diabetes duration (P =.004), and lower self-reported medication adherence (P =.04) were independently associated with higher HbA(1c) levels. CONCLUSIONS Latino and African American respondents had worse glycemic control than white respondents. Socioeconomic, clinical, health care, and self-management measures explained approximately a fifth of the HbA(1c) differences. One potentially modifiable factor for which there were racial disparities--medication adherence--was among the most significant independent predictors of glycemic control.
Beyond comorbidity counts: how do comorbidity type and severity influence diabetes patients' treatment priorities and self-management?
Eve A Kerr, Michele Heisler, Sarah L Krein, Mohammed Kabeto, Kenneth M Langa, David Weir, John D Piette
VA HSR&D Center of Excellence, VA Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND The majority of older adults have 2 or more chronic conditions and among patients with diabetes, 40% have at least three. OBJECTIVE We sought to understand how the number, type, and severity of comorbidities influence diabetes patients' self-management and treatment priorities. DESIGN Cross-sectional observation study. PATIENTS A total of 1,901 diabetes patients who responded to the 2003 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) diabetes survey. MEASUREMENTS We constructed multivariate models to assess the association between presence of comorbidities and each of 2 self-reported outcomes, diabetes prioritization and self-management ability, controlling for patient demographics. Comorbidity was characterized first by a count of all comorbid conditions, then by the presence of specific comorbidity subtypes (microvascular, macrovascular, and non-diabetes related), and finally by severity of 1 serious comorbidity: heart failure (HF). RESULTS 40% of respondents had at least 1 microvascular comorbidity, 79% at least 1 macrovascular comorbidity, and 61% at least 1 non-diabetes-related comorbidity. Patients with a greater overall number of comorbidities placed lower priority on diabetes and had worse diabetes self-management ability scores. However, only macrovascular and non-diabetes-related comorbidities, but not microvascular comorbidities, were associated with lower diabetes prioritization, whereas higher numbers of microvascular, macrovascular, and non-diabetes-related conditions were all associated with lower diabetes self-management ability scores. Severe, but not mild, HF was associated with lower diabetes prioritization and self-management scores. CONCLUSIONS The type and severity of comorbid conditions, and not just the comorbidity count, influence diabetes patients' self-management. Patients with severely symptomatic comorbidities and those with conditions they consider to be unrelated to diabetes may need additional support in making decisions about care priorities and self-management activities.
Veterans Affairs Center for Practice Management & Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48113-0170, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Black Americans with diabetes have a higher burden of illness and mortality than do white Americans. However, the extent to which differences in medical care processes and treatment intensity contribute to poorer diabetes outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess racial disparities in the quality of diabetes care processes, intermediate outcomes, and treatment intensity. METHODS We conducted an observational study of 801 white and 115 black patients who completed the Diabetes Quality Improvement Project survey (response rate=72%) in 21 Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities using survey data; medical record information on receipt of diabetes services (A1c, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], nephropathy screen, and foot and dilated eye examinations), and intermediate outcomes (glucose control measured by A1c; cholesterol control measured by LDL; and achieved level of blood pressure); and pharmacy data on filled prescriptions. RESULTS There were no racial differences in receipt of an A1c test or foot examination. Blacks were less likely than whites to have LDL checked in the past 2 years (72% vs. 80%, P<0.05) and to have a dilated eye examination (50% vs. 63%, P<0.01). Even after adjusting for patients' age, education, income, insulin use, diabetes self-management, duration, severity, comorbidities, and health services utilization, racial disparities in receipt of an LDL test and eye examination persisted. After taking into account the nested structure of the data using a random intercepts model, blacks remained significantly less likely to have LDL testing than whites who received care within the same facility (68% vs. 83%, P<0.01). In contrast, there were no longer differences in receipt of eye examinations, suggesting that black patients were more likely to be receiving care at facilities with overall lower rates of eye examinations. After adjusting for patient characteristics and facility effects, black patients were substantially more likely than whites to have poor cholesterol control (LDL > or =130) and blood pressure control (BP > or =140/90 mm Hg)(P<0.01). Among those with poor blood pressure and lipid control, blacks received as intensive treatment as whites for these conditions. CONCLUSIONS We found racial disparities in some diabetes care process and intermediate outcome quality measures, but not in intensity of treatment for those patients with poor control. Disparities in receipt of eye examinations were the result of black patients being more likely to receive care at lower-performing facilities, whereas for other quality measures, racial disparities within facilities were substantial.
How well do patients' assessments of their diabetes self-management correlate with actual glycemic control and receipt of recommended diabetes services?
Veterans Affairs Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE Although patient diabetes self-management is a key determinant of health outcomes, there is little evidence on whether patients' own assessments of their self-management correlates with glycemic control and key aspects of high-quality diabetes care. We explored these associations in a nationwide sample of Veterans' Affairs (VA) patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We abstracted information on achieved level of glycemic control (HbA(1c)) and diabetes processes of care (receipt of HbA(1c) test, eye examination, and nephropathy screen) from medical records of 1032 diabetic patients who received care from 21 VA facilities and had answered the Diabetes Quality Improvement Program survey in 2000. The survey included sociodemographic measures and a five-item scale assessing the patients' diabetes self-management (medication use, blood glucose monitoring, diet, exercise, and foot care [alpha = 0.68]). Using multivariable regression, we examined the associations of patients' reported self-management with HbA(1c) level and receipt of each diabetes process of care. We adjusted for diabetes severity and comorbidities, insulin use, age, ethnicity, income, education, use of VA services, and clustering at the facility level. RESULTS Higher patient evaluations of their diabetes self-management were significantly associated with lower HbA(1c) levels (P < 0.01) and receipt of diabetes services. Those in the 95th percentile for self-management had a mean HbA(1c) level of 7.3 (95% CI 6.4-8.3), whereas those in the 5th percentile had mean levels of 8.3 (7.4-9.2). For every 10-point increase in patients' ratings of their diabetes self-management, even after adjusting for number of outpatient visits, the odds of receiving an HbA(1c) test in the past year increased by 15%(4-27%), of receiving an eye examination increased by 16%(7-27%), and of receiving a nephropathy screen increased by 13%(2-26%). CONCLUSIONS In this sample, patients' assessments of their diabetes self-care using a simple five-question instrument were significantly associated both with actual HbA(1c) control and with receiving recommended diabetes services. These findings reinforce the usefulness of patient evaluations of their own self-management for understanding and improving glycemic control. The mechanisms by which those patients who are more actively engaged in their diabetes self-care are also more likely to receive necessary services warrant further study.
The relative importance of physician communication, participatory decision making, and patient understanding in diabetes self-management.
Veterans Affairs Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Mich, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE Patients' self-management practices have substantial consequences on morbidity and mortality in diabetes. While the quality of patient-physician relations has been associated with improved health outcomes and functional status, little is known about the impact of different patient-physician interaction styles on patients' diabetes self-management. This study assessed the influence of patients' evaluation of their physicians' participatory decision-making style, rating of physician communication, and reported understanding of diabetes self-care on their self-reported diabetes management. DESIGN We surveyed 2,000 patients receiving diabetes care across 25 Veterans' Affairs facilities. We measured patients' evaluation of provider participatory decision making with a 4-item scale (Provider Participatory Decision-making Style [PDMstyle]; alpha = 0.96), rating of providers' communication with a 5-item scale (Provider Communication [PCOM]; alpha = 0.93), understanding of diabetes self-care with an 8-item scale (alpha = 0.90), and patients' completion of diabetes self-care activities (self-management) in 5 domains (alpha = 0.68). Using multivariable linear regression, we examined self-management with the independent associations of PDMstyle, PCOM, and Understanding. RESULTS Sixty-six percent of the sample completed the surveys (N = 1,314). Higher ratings in PDMstyle and PCOM were each associated with higher self-management assessments (P <.01 in all models). When modeled together, PCOM remained a significant independent predictor of self-management (standardized beta: 0.18; P <.001), but PDMstyle became nonsignificant. Adding Understanding to the model diminished the unique effect of PCOM in predicting self-management (standardized beta: 0.10; P =.004). Understanding was strongly and independently associated with self-management (standardized beta: 0.25; P <.001). CONCLUSION For these patients, ratings of providers' communication effectiveness were more important than a participatory decision-making style in predicting diabetes self-management. Reported understanding of self-care behaviors was highly predictive of and attenuated the effect of both PDMstyle and PCOM on self-management, raising the possibility that both provider styles enhance self-management through increased patient understanding or self-confidence.
Physician assessments of medication adherence and decisions to intensify medications for patients with uncontrolled blood pressure: still no better than a coin toss.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients have uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) because they are not taking medications as prescribed. Providers may have difficulty accurately assessing adherence. Providers need to assess medication adherence to decide whether to address uncontrolled BP by improving adherence to the current prescribed regimen or by intensifying the BP treatment regimen by increasing doses or adding more medications. METHODS: We examined how provider assessments of adherence with antihypertensive medications compared with refill records, and how providers' assessments were associated with decisions to intensify medications for uncontrolled BP. We studied a cross-sectional cohort of 1169 veterans with diabetes presenting with BP [GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO]140/90 to 92 primary care providers at 9 Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities from February 2005 to March 2006. Using VA pharmacy records, we utilized a continuous multiple-interval measure of medication gaps (CMG) to assess the proportion of time in prior year that patient did not possess the prescribed medications; CMG [GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO]20 % is considered clinically significant non-adherence. Providers answered post-visit Likert-scale questions regarding their assessment of patient adherence to BP medications. The BP regimen was considered intensified if medication was added or increased without stopping or decreasing another medication. RESULTS: 1064 patients were receiving antihypertensive medication regularly from the VA; the mean CMG was 11.3 %. Adherence assessments by providers correlated poorly with refill history. 211 (20 %) patients did not have BP medication available for >=20 % of days; providers characterized 79 (37 %) of these 211 patients as having significant non-adherence, and intensified medications for 97 (46 %). Providers intensified BP medications for 451 (42 %) patients, similarly whether assessed by provider as having significant non-adherence (44 %) or not (43 %). CONCLUSIONS: Providers recognized non-adherence for less than half of patients whose pharmacy records indicated significant refill gaps, and often intensified BP medications even when suspected serious non-adherence. Making an objective measure of adherence such as the CMG available during visits may help providers recognize non-adherence to inform prescribing decisions.
Improving blood pressure control through a clinical pharmacist outreach program in patients with diabetes mellitus in 2 high-performing health systems: the adherence and intensification of medications cluster randomized, controlled pragmatic trial.
Michele Heisler, Timothy P Hofer, Julie A Schmittdiel, Joe V Selby, Mandi L Klamerus, Hayden B Bosworth, Martin Bermann, Eve A Kerr
VA Center for Clinical Management Research (152), 2215 Fuller Rd, PO Box 130170, Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0170, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Even in high-performing health systems, some patients with diabetes mellitus have poor blood pressure (BP) control because of poor medication adherence and lack of medication intensification. We examined whether the Adherence and Intensification of Medications intervention, a pharmacist-led intervention combining elements found in efficacy studies to lower BP, improved BP among patients with diabetes mellitus with persistent hypertension and poor refill adherence or insufficient medication intensification in 2 high-performing health systems. METHODS AND RESULTS We conducted a prospective, multisite cluster randomized pragmatic trial with randomization of 16 primary care teams at 5 medical centers (3 Veterans Affairs and 2 Kaiser Permanente) to the Adherence and Intensification of Medications intervention or usual care. The primary outcome was relative change in systolic BP (SBP), comparing 1797 intervention with 2303 control team patients, from 6 months preceding to 6 months after the 14-month intervention period. We examined shorter-term changes in SBP as a secondary outcome. The mean SBP decrease from 6 months before to 6 months after the intervention period was ≈9 mm Hg in both arms. Mean SBPs of eligible intervention patients were 2.4 mm Hg lower (95% CI:-3.4 to -1.5; P<0.001) immediately after the intervention than those achieved by control patients. CONCLUSIONS The Adherence and Intensification of Medications program more rapidly lowered SBPs among intervention patients, but usual-care patients achieved equally low SBP levels by 6 months after the intervention period. These findings show the importance of evaluating in different real-life clinical settings programs found in efficacy trials to be effective before urging their widespread adoption in all settings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00495794.
Pediatrics. 2010 Mar 15;: 20231189
Divisions of General Pediatrics and.
Objective: Growing numbers of children with severe chronic illnesses are surviving to adulthood. Little is known about what primary care physicians perceive as the resources for and barriers to providing primary care services for young adults who transfer care from pediatric to adult medicine practitioners. The objective of this study was to describe primary care physicians' resources for and barriers to caring for young adults with childhood-onset chronic diseases. Methods: We conducted a national mailed survey of general internists and pediatricians to assess their office and specialty resources, attitudes toward, and barriers faced in treating young adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases. We then analyzed how these factors were associated with overall perceived quality of chronic illness care delivery. Results: Overall response rate was 53%(1289 of 2434). Only half of general internists viewed themselves as readily able to provide for the primary care needs of young adults with childhood-onset chronic diseases. Half of the internists and 62% of pediatricians thought that it would be difficult for these young adults to find an adult-focused primary care provider. Both specialties reported lack of time and reimbursement as major barriers in providing primary care to transitioning patients. Good office systems for coordinating patient care and improved coordination with subspecialty resources were both associated with improved provider perception of providing high-quality chronic illness care. Conclusions: General pediatricians and internists report multiple barriers to providing care for adults with childhood-onset chronic diseases. Improvements in office-based support seem to be most associated with perceived quality of care delivery.
Patient-Provider Concordance in the Prioritization of Health Conditions Among Hypertensive Diabetes Patients.
Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Many patients with diabetes have multiple other chronic conditions, but little is known about whether these patients and their primary care providers agree on the relative importance that they assign these comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To understand patterns of patient-provider concordance in the prioritization of health conditions in patients with multimorbidity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of 92 primary care providers and 1,169 of their diabetic patients with elevated clinic triage blood pressure (>/=140/90) at nine Midwest VA facilities. MEASUREMENTS: We constructed a patient-provider concordance score based on responses to surveys in which patients were asked to rank their most important health concerns and their providers were asked to rank the most important conditions likely to affect that patient's health outcomes. We then calculated the change in predicted probability of concordance when the patient reported having poor health status, pain or depression, or competing demands (issues that were more pressing than his health), controlling for both patient and provider characteristics. RESULTS: For 714 pairs (72%), providers ranked the patient's most important concern in their list of three conditions. Both patients and providers ranked diabetes and hypertension most frequently; however, providers were more likely to rank hypertension as most important (38% vs. 18%). Patients were more likely than providers to prioritize symptomatic conditions such as pain, depression, and breathing problems. The predicted probability of patient-provider concordance decreased when a patient reported having poor health status (55% vs. 64%, p < 0.01) or non-health competing demands (46% vs. 62%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients and their primary care providers often agreed on the most important health conditions affecting patients with multimorbidity, but this concordance was lower for patients with poor health status or non-health competing demands. Interventions that increase provider awareness about symptomatic concerns and competing demands may improve chronic disease management in these vulnerable patients.
Cost-related nonadherence to medications among patients with diabetes and chronic pain: factors beyond finances.
University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
OBJECTIVE In the face of financial constraints, diabetic patients may forgo prescribed medications, causing negative health effects. This study examined how cost and noncost factors are associated with patterns of cost-related nonadherence to medications (CRN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey of patients using medications for both diabetes and chronic pain (n = 245). Patients reported their income, out-of-pocket medication costs, education level, depressive symptoms, and medication-related beliefs and whether they cut back because of cost on 1) both diabetes and pain medications, 2) diabetes medications only, 3) pain medications only, or 4) neither. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model patients' adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of falling into these four possible categories. RESULTS Of the patients, 9% cut back on medications for both conditions, 13% cut back on diabetes medications alone, and 9% cut back on pain medications alone. Income <20,000 USD (AOR = 5.7, P = 0.008) and monthly medication costs >50 USD (AOR = 3.9, P = 0.02) increased patients' odds of CRN for both conditions versus neither. Low-income patients also were more likely to selectively forgo pain medications (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.001) but not diabetes medications (AOR = 2.1, P = 0.12). More depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.6, P = 0.006) and negative medication-related beliefs (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.02) increased patients' odds of cutting back selectively on medications for diabetes but not pain. CONCLUSIONS Patients who forgo medications for both diabetes and chronic pain appear to be influenced primarily by economic pressures, whereas patients who cut back selectively on their diabetes treatments are influenced by their mood and medication beliefs. Our findings point toward more targeted strategies to assist diabetic patients who experience CRN.
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Swiss Med Wkly. 2012 ;142 : 22918615
Institute of General Medicine, Family Medicine, and Preventive Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Austria; email@example.com.
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the older population is high, but hardly any data are available on current diabetes care in the primary care setting. We aimed at investigating the diabetes management of older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the primary care setting, including adherence to current guidelines, comparing patients aged 70-79 years to those aged 80 years and above. METHODS From November 2008 through March 2009 a total of 23 primary care physicians and one consultant in internal medicine consecutively enrolled 203 unselected patients with T2DM aged ≥70 years. RESULTS From the 203 study participants 66% were 70-79 years of age, and 34% were 80 years or older. Mean HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the older and the younger age group (7.6 ± 1.6 vs. 7.1 ± 0.9%; p = 0.080; and 122 ± 40 vs. 114 ± 34 mg/dl; p = 0.273), whereas BMI was lower (27.5 ± 5.0 vs. 29.6 ± 5.0 kg/m2, p = 0.010), and the prevalent rates of coronary heart disease (55.1 vs. 37.1%, p = 0.011) and of dementia (29% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.001) were higher in the older age group. LDL-cholesterol (77.6% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.012), creatinine clearance (34.6% vs. 30.9%, p = 0.049) but not HbA1c (74.6% vs.73.9; p = 0.520) were monitored significantly less often in the older than in the younger age group. CONCLUSIONS While glycaemic control on average appears strict, there may be ample room for improvement in reaching lipid targets and in the monitoring of lipid and renal function among older adults in primary care, in particular among individuals aged ≥80 years.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012 Aug 13;: 22898447
Effect of diabetes fatalism on medication adherence and self-care behaviors in adults with diabetes.
Rebekah J Walker, Brittany L Smalls, Melba A Hernandez-Tejada, Jennifer A Campbell, Kimberly S Davis, Leonard E Egede
Center for Health Disparities Research, Medical University of South Carolina, P.O. Box 250593 Charleston, SC, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes fatalism is defined as "a complex psychological cycle characterized by perceptions of despair, hopelessness, and powerlessness" and associated with poor glycemic control. This study examined the association between diabetes fatalism and medication adherence and self-care behaviors in adults with diabetes. METHODS: Data on 378 subjects with type 2 diabetes recruited from two primary care clinics in the Southeastern United States were examined. Previously validated scales were used to measure diabetes fatalism, medication adherence, diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-care behaviors (diet, physical activity, blood sugar testing and foot care). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent effect of diabetes fatalism on medication adherence and self-care behaviors controlling for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Fatalism correlated significantly with medication adherence (r=0.24, P<.001), diet (r=-0.26, P<.001), exercise (r=-0.20, P<.001) and blood sugar testing (r=-0.19, P<.001). In the linear regression model, diabetes fatalism was significantly associated with medication adherence [β=0.029, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.016, 0.043], diabetes knowledge (β=-0.042, 95% CI -0.001,-0.084), diet (β=-0.063, 95% CI -0.039,-0.087), exercise (β=-0.055, 95% CI -0.028,-0.083) and blood sugar testing (β=-0.055, 95% CI -0.023,-0.087). There was no significant association between diabetes fatalism and foot care (β=-0.018, 95% CI -0.047, 0.011). The association between diabetes fatalism and medication adherence, diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-care behaviors did not change significantly when depression was added to the models, suggesting that the associations are independent of depression. CONCLUSION: Diabetes fatalism is associated with poor medication adherence and self-care and may be an important target for education and skills interventions in diabetes care. In addition, the effect of diabetes fatalism is independent of depression, suggesting that interventions that target depression may not be sufficient to deal with diabetes fatalism.
J Immigr Minor Health. 2012 Jul 28;: 22843322
Department of Pediatrics, UCSF School of Medicine, 400 Parnassus Ave, Box 0318, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0318, USA, NaranjoD@peds.ucsf.edu.
Younger adult patients with diabetes often have poorer glycemic control (HbA1c) than older patients. It is not known if this relationship holds true in the Latino population. Objective was to explore the relationship between age and HbA1c in a Mexican American population and what plausible factors might mediate this relationship. We analyzed data from 387 patients with diabetes self-identified as Mexican American recruited as a part of a cross-sectional study of safety net patients in two cities. Patients completed questionnaires and their last HbA1c was extracted from the medical record. We conducted multivariate regression analyses and Baron and Kenny tests of mediation. Participants were young with mean age of 53 ± 12 years. Younger age was associated with a higher HbA1c and having a higher fat diet. High fat diet partially mediated the relationship between age and HbA1c (p < 0.001 to p < 0.01). Age's indirect effect on HbA1c through diet was significant (Sobel = -2.44, p = 0.01). Younger Mexican American patients had higher HbA1c compared to older patients. Having a diet high in fat partially explained this relationship. Future epidemiological studies are needed to understand the multifaceted relationship between age and glycemic control.
Personal and cultural influences on diabetes self-care behaviors among older Hispanics born in the U.S. and Mexico.
Department of Social and Behavioral Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, McAllen, TX, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Older Hispanics are disproportionately affected by diabetes, but little is known about predictors of diabetes self-care among this group. This study compared the magnitude of three self-care behaviors (diet, physical activity (PA), and glucose monitoring) among older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes born in the United States (n = 59) to those born in Mexico (n = 179), and investigated the influence of personal and health indicators on each self-care behavior. Findings were based on data drawn from convenience sample data collected with a questionnaire. Self-care behaviors were moderately practiced (39.5-45.8 %) with no significant differences by nativity. Mexico-born seniors were less linguistically acculturated (P < 0.001). Being female (OR = 2.41) and PA levels (OR = 2.62) were significantly associated with diet. Being female (OR = 3.24), more educated (OR = 3.73), U.S.-born (OR = 2.84), and receiving diabetes education (OR = 3.67) were associated with PA. Diabetes education (OR = 2.41) was associated with glucose monitoring. Although acculturation influenced only PA and no other behaviors, personal and cultural factors require further investigation to design diabetes management strategies for Hispanic seniors at the border region.
Geriatr Nurs. 2012 Jun 8;: 22683110
Helen Y L Chan, Diana T F Lee, Edward M F Leung, Chui-Wah Man, Kwok-Man Lai, Man-Wai Leung, Irene K Y Wong
Foot and toenail problems are prevalent among older adults. The importance of foot care is often overlooked, however, because the associated problems are often considered to be minor. These "minor" problems often result in unnecessary distress and complications for older adults. This study aims to develop and examine the effects of a foot and toenail care protocol on promoting foot health in older adults. It includes a thorough assessment of foot health, footwear conditions, and specific self-care ability. On the basis of the assessment, an individualized nursing care plan was devised. It has been found that the implementation of the care protocol can help to increase the awareness of nurses and older adults with regard to foot health and that some foot and toenail problems can be identified earlier and better managed.
An EMR-based tool to support collaborative planning for medication use among adults with diabetes: Design of a multi-site randomized control trial.
Daniel G Morrow, Thembi Conner-Garcia, James F Graumlich, Michael S Wolf, Stacey McKeever, Anna Madison, Kathryn Davis, Elizabeth A H Wilson, Vera Liao, Chieh-Li Chin, Darren Kaiser
Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 405 W. Mathews Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Patients with type II diabetes often struggle with self-care, including adhering to complex medication regimens and managing their blood glucose levels. Medication nonadherence in this population reflects many factors, including a gap between the demands of taking medication and the limited literacy and cognitive resources that many patients bring to this task. This gap is exacerbated by a lack of health system support, such as inadequate patient-provider collaboration. The goal of our project is to improve self-management of medications and related health outcomes by providing system support. The Medtable™ is an Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-integrated tool designed to support patient-provider collaboration needed for medication management. It helps providers and patients work together to create effective medication schedules that are easy to implement. We describe the development and initial evaluation of the tool, as well as the process of integrating it with an EMR system in general internal medicine clinics. A planned evaluation study will investigate whether an intervention centered on the Medtable™ improves medication knowledge, adherence, and health outcomes relative to a usual care control condition among type II diabetic patients struggling to manage multiple medications.
Department of Health Restoration, West Virginia University School of Nursing, Morgantown, WV 26506-9620, USA.
This study examined appraisal of perceived threat of diabetes and the relation to adherence to self-management behaviors in uninsured Appalachians receiving care at a free clinic. Participants were at least 18 years of age, English-speaking, and uninsured. Participants followed recommendations for taking prescribed oral medications an average of 6.6 days/week, diet 4.1 days/week, and exercise 2.9 days/week. Relationships were found between appraisal and self-management variables. Diabetes was perceived more as challenging than threatening. Although part of a recognized group experiencing health disparities, adherence behaviors did not differ from those of other patient populations. Appraisal of diabetes is an important issue when discussing adherence with patients. Interventions targeting the perception of diabetes as a challenge rather than a threat would contribute to the understanding of adherence. Developing this characterization, rather than emphasizing the poor physiological outcomes associated with diabetes, could improve self-management behaviors and diabetes control.
Relations between resiliency, diabetes-related quality of life, and disease markers to school-related outcomes in adolescents with diabetes.
Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, University of Arizona, 1430 East 2nd Street, Tucson, AZ 85629, USA. email@example.com
The current study examined the role that resiliency and diabetes quality of life play in school functioning and glucose control among adolescents with diabetes. Participants included 45 adolescents with diabetes who participated in a larger study evaluating the feasibility of a model of mental health screening, assessment, and referral/service coordination. We hypothesized that aspects of resiliency (e.g., self-mastery, optimism, interpersonal relations, emotional control) would be related to self-reported grades and glucose control Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We also hypothesized that the relation between resiliency and HbA1c would be mediated by blood glucose monitoring. We found that self-mastery (i.e., the perception that one has the ability to overcome challenges and solve problems) predicted self-reported school grades. Fewer diabetes-related worries and parental reports of less school-related problems (e.g., absences, problems with teacher) also predicted better grades. Females and youth with less disruptive behaviors and higher levels of self-mastery were less likely to be viewed by parents as having problems in school. Self-mastery, in addition to later age of onset and more frequent blood glucose monitoring, predicted lower HbA1c. The mediational model could not be tested because the same components of resiliency that related to blood glucose monitoring did not relate to HbA1c. This study suggests that evaluation of positive attributes of adolescents, particularly the self-mastery component of resiliency, and consideration to the adolescents' perceptions of how diabetes affects their lives, may assist in understanding how these adolescents perform in school and manage their diabetes.
Associations between coping, diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and self-care behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Brittany L Smalls, Rebekah J Walker, Melba A Hernandez-Tejada, Jennifer A Campbell, Kimberly S Davis, Leonard E Egede
Center for Health Disparities Research, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, P.O. Box 250593 Charleston, SC 29425-0593, USA.
BACKGROUND Few studies have examined the emotional approach to coping on diabetes outcomes. This study examined the relationship between emotional coping and diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and self-care behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Data on 378 subjects with type 2 diabetes recruited from two primary care clinics in the southeastern United States were examined. Previously validated scales were used to measure coping, medication adherence, diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-care behaviors (including diet, physical activity, blood sugar testing and foot care). Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent effect of coping through emotional approach on medication adherence and self-care behaviors while controlling for relevant covariates. RESULTS Significant correlations were observed between emotional coping [as measured by emotional expression (EE) and emotional processing (EP)] and self-care behaviors. In the linear regression model, EP was significantly associated with medication adherence [β -0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)-0.32 to -0.015], diabetes knowledge (β 0.76, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.24), diet (β 0.52, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.81), exercise (β 0.51, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.82), blood sugar testing (β 0.54, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.91) and foot care (β 0.32, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.67). On the other hand, EE was associated with diet (β 0.38, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.64), exercise (β 0.54, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82), blood sugar testing (β 0.42, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.76) and foot care (β 0.36, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66), but it was not associated with diabetes knowledge. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that coping through an emotional approach is significantly associated with behaviors that lead to positive diabetes outcomes.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Mercer University Dr, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Purpose: The objective of this project was to determine the amount and type of clinical skills and diabetes education provided by recent pharmacy school graduates. Methods: Six hundred and one graduates were e-mailed a link to an online survey. Subjects were asked to report how frequently they either educate patients on diabetes self-care activities or perform diabetes-related patient care skills and to rate their ability to do so as poor, fair, good, or excellent. Results: Data from 155 (25.8%) respondents were analyzed. The most commonly reported clinical activity was changing medication, followed by interpreting blood glucose patterns, medication management therapy, and interpreting laboratory results. Subjects reported educating patients more on the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, blood glucose monitoring, and diet information relative to other topics. The majority of subjects rated their skills as good or excellent. Conclusion: Pharmacists reported the most commonly performed diabetes-related clinical skill was changing medication and they most often educate patients about hypoglycemia and blood glucose monitoring. Subjects, who rated themselves poor/fair in these skills, preferred active learning strategies to enhance their ability.