Study of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients and its relationship with glycated hemoglobin.
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Medical School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 65178, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic patients and also to determine the correlation between hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation. METHODS Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals control group participated in this case-control study. The patients were referred to Sina Hospital, Hamadan, Iran from April to June 2006. Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c was measured as a marker of hyperglycemia using the chromatography method Biosystem and malondialdehyde MDA was determined using the colorimetric method. Glutathione peroxidase GPx and superoxide dismutase SOD activity were assessed using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric technique Randox kit. RESULTS The mean of HbA1c was higher in diabetic patients compared to the healthy group, and the difference was statistically significant p<0.001. Serum MDA in diabetics was higher compared to those of healthy subjects p<0.001. There were significant differences in activities of SOD and GPx between the 2 studied groups indicating lower activity in diabetic patients p<0.001. There was a significant relationship between MDA and HbA1c in diabetic and healthy subjects. CONCLUSION The data showed an increase in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in diabetes and also indicated a positive correlation between the degree of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative status and choosing the appropriate treatment may help to support antioxidant defense in these patients.
Supplementation of Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and Zinc Attenuates Oxidative Stress in Burned Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.
Eliana Barbosa, Joel Faintuch, Emilia Moreira, Viviane Gonçalves da Silva, Maurício Pereima, Regina Fagundes, Danilo Filho
From the *Postgraduate Program in Nutrition, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; daggerBurn Unit, Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital, Florianopolis, Brazil; double daggerDepartment of Gastroenterology, São Paulo University Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; section signDepartment of Pediatrics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; and paragraph signDepartment of Ecology and Zoology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc on the oxidative stress in burned children. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 32 patients were randomized as no supplementation (n = 15) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 17) groups. Supplementation consisted of the antioxidant mixture of vitamin C (1.5 times upper intake level), vitamin E (1.35 times upper intake level), and zinc (2.0 times recommended dietary allowance) administered during 7 days starting on the second day of admittance into the hospital. Energy requirement was calculated by the Curreri equation, and protein input was 3.0 g/kg of ideal body mass index (percentile 50 degrees ). Total antioxidant capacity of plasma and malondialdehyde were used to monitor oxidative stress. The time of wound healing was evaluated as the main clinical feature. Patients (age 54.2 +/- 48.9 months, 65.6% males), who exhibited 15.5 +/- 6.7% of total burn area, showed no differences in age and sex, when compared with controls. Intake of the administered antioxidants was obviously higher in treated subjects (P =.005), and serum differences were confirmed for vitamin E and C, but not for zinc (P =.180). There was a decrease in lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level)(P =.006) and an increase in vitamin E concentrations in the antioxidant supplementation group (P =.016). The time of wound healing was lower in the supplemented group (P <.001). The antioxidant supplementation through vitamin E and C and the mineral zinc apparently enhanced antioxidant protection against oxidative stress and allowed less time for wound healing.
Should obesity be the main game? Or do we need an environmental makeover to combat the inflammatory and chronic disease epidemics?
Health and Applied Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia. email@example.com
There is a link between obesity and chronic disease. However, the causal relationship is complicated. Some forms of obesity are associated with low-level systemic inflammation, which is linked to disease. But lifestyle behaviours that may not necessarily cause obesity (poor diet, inadequate sleep, smoking, etc.) can independently cause inflammation and consequent disease. It is proposed here that it is the environment driving modern lifestyles, which is the true cause of much chronic disease, rather than obesity per se, and that obesity may be a marker of environmental derangement, rather than the primary cause of the problem. Attempts to clinically manage obesity alone on a large scale are therefore unlikely to be successful at the population level without significant lifestyle or environmental change. Environmental factors influencing obesity and health have now also been implicated in ecological perturbations such as climate change, through the shift to positive energy balance in humans caused by the exponential use of fossil fuels in such areas as transport, and consequent rises in carbon emissions into the atmosphere. It is proposed therefore that a more policy-based approach to dealing with obesity, which attacks the common causes of both biological and ecological 'dis-ease', could have positive effects on both chronic disease and environmental problems. A plea is thus made for a greater health input into discussions on environmental regulation for chronic disease control, as well as climate change.
Other papers by authors:
Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the genotype of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among hepatitis patients in Eastern Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran. METHODS A total of 100 HBV-infected patients were enrolled in this study. Among these, 40 samples were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, whereas 60 samples were HBsAg positive and HBe Agnegative. Patients' sera were subjected to DNA extraction and the genotype determined by PCR using type-specific primers. RESULTS The results of genotyping revealed that genotype D was the only identified genotype in both acute and chronic patients in the study region. Analysis of sequencing results showed 98%- 99% homology with the previously reported HBV genotype D sequences. CONCLUSION Genotype D was recognized as the predominant HBV genotype in the studied area. There was no significant relationship between genotype D of HBV and different types of infections.
Fluids Barriers CNS. 2012 ;9 (1):8 22494846
In vitro effects of fetal rat cerebrospinal fluid on viability and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.
Faculty of Life sciences, The University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fetal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors and has been shown to be capable of supporting viability, proliferation and differentiation of primary cortical progenitor cells. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells have been widely used as an in vitro model of neuronal differentiation since they differentiate into sympathetic neuron-like cells in response to growth factors. This study aimed to establish whether PC12 cells were responsive to fetal CSF and therefore whether they might be used to investigate CSF physiology in a stable cell line lacking the time-specific response patterns of primary cells previously described. METHODS: In vitro assays of viability, proliferation and differentiation were carried out after incubation of PC12 cells in media with and without addition of fetal rat CSF. An MTT tetrazolium assay was used to assess cell viability and/or cell proliferation. Expression of neural differentiation markers (MAP-2 and β-III tubulin) was determined by immunocytochemistry. Formation and growth of neurites was measured by image analysis. RESULTS: PC12 cells differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to bFGF. Viability and cell proliferation of PC12 cells cultured in CSF-supplemented medium from E18 rat fetuses were significantly elevated relative to the control group. Neuronal-like outgrowths from cells appeared following the application of bFGF or CSF from E17 and E19 fetuses but not E18 or E20 CSF. Beta-III tubulin was expressed in PC12 cells cultured in any media except that supplemented with E18 CSF. MAP-2 expression was found in control cultures and in those with E17 and E19 CSF. MAP2 was located in neurites except in E17 CSF when the whole cell was positive. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal rat CSF supports viability and stimulates proliferation and neurogenic differentiation of PC12 cells in an age-dependent way, suggesting that CSF composition changes with age. This feature may be important in vivo for the promotion of normal brain development. There were significant differences in the effects on PC12 cells compared to primary cortical cells. This suggests there is an interaction in vivo between developmental stage of cells and the composition of CSF. The data presented here support an important, perhaps driving role for CSF composition, specifically neurotrophic factors, in neuronal survival, proliferation and differentiation. The effects of CSF on PC12 cells can thus be used to further investigate the role of CSF in driving development without the confounding issues of using primary cells.
Gene. 2012 May 25;500 (1):124-33 22441127
Mehdi Moghanibashi, Ferdous Rastgar Jazii, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Maryam Zare, Aliasghar Karkhane, Kazem Parivar, Parisa Mohamadynejad
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. email@example.com
Although the highest incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has repeatedly been reported from Persia (Iran), nevertheless the so far proteomic published reports were limited to one study on tissue specimens. Here we report the proteome of a newly established cell line from Persian ESCC patients and compare it with the normal primary cell proteome. Among polypeptides, whose expression was different in cell line sixteen polypeptides were identified by MALDI/TOF/TOF spectrometry. S100-A8 protein, annexin A1, annexin A2, regulatory subunit of calpain, subunit alpha type-3 of proteasome and glutamate dehydrogenase 1 were proteins down-regulated in cell line while peroxiredoxin-5, non-muscle myosin light polypeptide 6, keratin 1, annexin A4, keratin 8, tropomyosin 3, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 and albumin were found to be subject of up-regulation in cell line compared to the primary normal cells. The proteomic results were further verified by western blotting and RT-PCR on annexin A1 and keratin 8. In addition, among the aforementioned proteins, glutamate dehydrogenase 1, regulatory subunit of calpain, subunit alpha of type-3 proteasome and annexin A4 are proteins whose deregulation in ESCC is reported for the first time by this study.
Expression analysis elucidates the roles of MAML1 and Twist1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma aggressiveness and metastasis.
Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard, Omeed Moaven, Moein Farshchian, Mehdi Montazer, Reza Raeisossadati, Abbas Abdollahi, Meysam Moghbeli, Taher Nejadsattari, Kazem Parivar, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
BACKGROUND Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has recently attracted great attention in studying the malignant progression of cells through a converging pathway of oncogenesis and metastasis. Twist1 and Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1) are major regulators of EMT through different pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological relevance of the expression of MAML-1 and Twist1 genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS Tumoral and corresponding normal tissues from 55 treatment-naive ESCC patients were subjected for expression analysis with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS Overexpression of MAML-1 and Twist1 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and the surgical staging of tumor. Overexpression of Twist1 was associated with tumor depth of invasion. Mean relative expression (MRE) of MAML1 was significantly higher in patients with metastasis to lymph nodes (3.07 ± 0.51 vs. 0.86 ± 0.58, P =.008). MRE of Twist1 was significantly higher in patients with invasion of tumor to adventitia (T3, T4)(1.97 ± 0.29 vs. 0.39 ± 0.73, P =.036). In advanced stages of tumor (stage III, IV), a significantly higher MRE of Twist1 (2.47 ± 0.41 vs. 1.25 ± 0.36, P =.035) and MAML1 (3.05 ± 0.45 vs. 1.07 ± 0.59, P =.021) mRNA was observed. CONCLUSIONS We introduce Twist1 and MAML1 as new molecular markers of advanced tumor, which determine the characteristics and aggressive behavior of ESCC. Along with the emerging evidence of their role in different cellular processes and aberrations in various cancers, they are suggested as potentially interesting therapeutic targets to reverse a broad spectrum of functional aberrations that promote ESCC development.
Sina Mirzaahmadi, Golnaz Asaadi-Tehrani, Mojgan Bandehpour, Nooshin Davoudi, Leila Tahmasbi, Nahid Hosseinzadeh, Hasan Mirzahoseini, Kazem Parivar, Bahram Kazemi
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
The variety of recombinant protein expression systems have been developed as a resource of FVII gene expression. In the current study, the authors used a novel protein expression system based on the Iranian Lizard Leishmania, a trypanosomatid protozoan as a host for expression of FVII. Plasmid containing cDNA encoding full-length human FVII was introduced into Lizard Leishmania and positive transfectants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, biological activity of purified protein was detected by PT assay. The recombinant strain harboring a construct was analyzed for expression of FVII at the mRNA and protein level. Purified rFVII was obtained and in order to confirm the purified compound was in fact rFVII. Western blot analysis was carried out. Clotting time in PT assay was reduced about 30 seconds with the purified rFVII. In Conclusion, this study has demonstrated, for the first time, that Leishmania cells can be used as an expression system for producing recombinant FVII.
Investigations with spectroscopy, zeta potential and molecular modeling of the non-cooperative behaviour between cyclophosphamide hydrochloride and aspirin upon interaction with human serum albumin: binary and ternary systems from multi-drug therapy.
Zahra Omidvar, Kazem Parivar, Hamideh Sanee, Zeinab Amiri-Tehranizadeh, Ali Baratian, Mohammad Reza Saberi, Ahmad Asoodeh, Jamshidkhan Chamani
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.
The interaction between cyclophosphamide hydrochloride (CYC) and aspirin (ASA) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by various kind of spectroscopic, ζ potential and molecular modeling under physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that the binding of drugs to proteins caused strong static fluorescence quenching. The analysis of the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems displayed that ASA was affected by the complex formed between CYC and HSA. Moreover, CYC was influenced by the HSA-ASA complex. The inherent binding information, including the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, effective quenching constant, fraction of the initial fluorescence and thermodynamic parameters were measured by the fluorescence quenching technique at various temperatures. In addition, according to the synchronous fluorescence spectra of HSA, the results showed that the fluorescence quenching of HSA originated from the Trp and Tyr residues, and indicated a conformational change of HSA with the addition of the drugs. Far-UV CD spectra of HSA were recorded before and after the addition of ASA and CYC as binary and ternary systems. An increase in intensity of the positive CD peak of HSA was observed in the presence of the drugs. The results were interpreted by excited interactions between the aromatic residues of the HSA binding sites and the drugs bound to them. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained by the Forster energy according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and found to be 2.35 nm and 1.78 nm for CYC and ASA, respectively. This confirmed the existence of static quenching for proteins in the presence of CYC and ASA. Furthermore, docking studies pointed at a reduction of the affinity of each of the drug compounds to the protein in the presence of the other in meaningful amounts. Pre-binding of any of the said compounds forced the second to bind in a non-optimized location and orientation. The potential at the electrokinetic shear surface of the protein-drug solution were measured at several concentrations of the drugs by the ζ potential technique, which confirmed experimental and theoretical results.
Curr HIV Res. 2011 Apr ;9 (3):140-7 21443517
Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Rouhollah Vahabpour, Seyed Davar Siadat, Arash Memarnejadian, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Kazem Parivar
Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Poonak, Hesarak Ave, Tehran, 1477893855, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a worldwide health problem and a protective vaccine is desperately needed to control the AIDS pandemics. To address this concern, we previously constructed single-cycle replicable (SCR) HIV-1 virions, which completely maintained the antigenic structures of HIV-1. Herein, to optimize a vaccination strategy, we studied the immunogenicity of produced SCR virions and adjuvant-formulated HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) in homologous and heterologous prime-boosting regimens. Accordingly, BALB/c mice received three doses of immunogens in 3-week intervals and their immune responses were evaluated using ELISA, cytokine and IFN-γ ELISpot assays. These analyses not only indicated the superiority of SCR prime-VLP boosting for strong induction of specific IFN-γ producing cells, but also showed the capability of this strategy over the others for better stimulation of humoral response, which was evidenced with the detection of highest titer of total IgG against HIV ENV glycoprotein. Furthermore, determination of IgG subclasses and IFN-γ/IL4 secretion ratio in cultured splenocytes demonstrated the efficient augmentation of mixed responses with the dominancy of Th1 immunity following SCR/VLP immunization strategy. Our results additionally pointed towards the applicability of Montanide ISA 720 + CpG as a potent Th1-directing adjuvant mixture. Overall, this study suggests SCR prime-VLP boosting as a promising approach in HIV vaccine development.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran 99999, Iran. email@example.com
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and severe neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain including nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) that play an important role in learning and memory. There are few therapeutic regimens that influence the underlying pathogenic phenotypes of AD, however, of the currently available therapies, exercise training is considered to be one of the best strategies for attenuating the pathological phenotypes of AD for people with AD. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of treadmill running on spatial memory in Alzheimer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were split into two groups namely shams (n=7) and lesions with the lesion group subdivided further into the lesion-rest (n=7) and lesion-exercise (n=7). The lesion-exercise and shams were subjected to treadmill running at 17 meters per minute (m/min) for 60 min per day (min/day), 7 days per week (days/wk), for 60 days. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Maze test in the rats after 60 days of Alzheimer induction and the exercise. Our data demonstrated that spatial memory was indeed impaired in the lesion group compared with the shams. However, exercise notably improved spatial memory in the lesion-exercised rats compared to lesion-rested group. The present results suggest that spatial memory is affected under Alzheimer conditions and that treadmill running improves these effects. Our data suggested that treadmill running contributes to the alleviation of the cognitive decline in AD.
The effect of silybin on passive avoidance learning and pathological changes in hippocampal CA1 and DG regions in male Wistar rats offspring.
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
Silybin, an extract from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is known to have hepato-protective, anticarcinogenic, and estrogenic effects. Given that estrogen effects on memory have been reported, silybin may cause structural changes in the hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and as a result it may enhance learning and memory. Wistar rats were provided with silybin (from day 7 of gestational age up to 4 weeks after birth) with 2 dosages of 18 mg/kg in the experimental group 1 (Exp1) and 9 mg/kg in the experimental group 2 (Exp2). Offspring memory retention was compared by duration of step-through latency in passive avoidance apparatus. Furthermore, histological changes were investigated in experimental groups and control group (CG). Both the experimental groups showed significantly longer step-through latency than CG (p < 0.001 for Exp1 and p < 0.01 for Exp2). The average number of pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 and granular cells in hippocampal DG was remarkably higher in Exp1 and Exp2 compared with CG. The difference was significant between Exp1 and Exp2 for pyramidal cells (p < 0.05) but not for granular cells. Silybin administration during pregnancy resulted in histological changes in hippocampus and better memory function. These data may lay the ground work using silybin in memory impairment diseases.
Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Medical School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE To investigate and prove that Aspirin as an antioxidant protects, or at least attenuates Gentamicin ototoxicity in humans. METHODS A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 60 patients that completed all requirements. This study was conducted in the Department of Otolaryngology and Orthopedics, Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran, between December 2007 and November 2008. The patients were divided into 2 groups, the experimental and the control groups that were similar with respect to gender, age, and weight. The treatment group received 1.5 g/day (500 mg every 8 hours) Aspirin, and the control group received placebo similar to the other group. RESULTS Comparison of the pure tone audiometry (PTA) at 1000 Hertz (Hz)(p=0.03), 2000 Hz (p=0.003), 4000 Hz (p=0.001), and 8000 Hz (p=0.0010) showed significant differences between mean of PTA at the beginning, 8th, and 15th day. The threshold of PTA at 250 Hz was significantly different only at the 8th and 15th day (p=0.004), also at the frequency of 500 Hz, the difference between the beginning within 15th day and 8th day with 15th day was significant (p=0.001). CONCLUSION In the present study, we had shown that Aspirin can protect the ototoxic effect of gentamicin in patients.
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Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil.
Department of Biochemistry, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala India ; Department of Biochemistry, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala 682026 India.
In this study, we compared the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes of normal and diabetic subjects consuming two different types of oil as cooking medium. 70 normal, healthy subjects were taken as controls and 70 subjects with Type 2 diabetes were recruited in patient group. Each group was further subdivided into two subgroups of 35 subjects each, consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively as cooking medium. Samples of blood were collected and analyzed for serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions. Total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes and superoxide dismutase in serum. Triacylglycerols, LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels were high in the diabetic subjects compared to the controls. Total glutathione and glutathione peroxidase values showed significant decrease in diabetic subjects as compared to the controls, while superoxide dismutase values showed significant difference between coconut oil consuming groups. Though lipid profile parameters and oxidative stress were high in Type 2 diabetic subjects compared to controls, no pronounced changes for these parameters were observed between the subgroups (coconut oil vs. sunflower oil).
Effect of short term supplementation of tomatoes on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in type-II diabetes.
Department of Biochemistry, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bypass road, Bhanpur, 462010 Bhopal,(M.P.).
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the beneficial effect of tomatoes, which are rich source of Lycopene, relatively a new carotenoid known to play an important role in human health and disease. In this study lipid peroxidation rate was measured by estimating Malondialdehyde and the levels of serum enzymes involved in antioxidant activities like Super Oxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase, Reduced Glutathione, in type-II diabetic group (n=40) and age matched control group (n=50), and observed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and very high lipid peroxidation rate in type-II diabetes when compared to control group (p<0.001). Short term supplementation with tomatoes (cooked) to diabetic group for a period of 30 days, showed a significant improvement in antioxidant enzyme levels (p<0.001) and decreased lipid peroxidation rate (p<0.001) suggesting the supplementation with tomato lycopene may serve as the best method of preventing the oxidative stress in diabetic patients.
Comparison between erythrocyte hemoglobin and spectrin glycosylation and role of oxidative stress in type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Dept. of Biochemistry, Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur.
New findings on organization of blood cell cytoskeleton represent an exciting aspect of modem cell biology and hematology, which is an interesting investigation to study diabetes. The present study was undertaken in 150 subjects. Out of these, 30 subjects were controls (Group I) and 30 were type-2 diabetics without any complication (Group II), while remaining 90 subjects were type-2 diabetics with complication (Group III). We determined erythrocyte spectrin and hemoglobin glycosylation and also estimated plasma lipid peroxide, nitric oxide and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity to assess the status of oxidative stress. There was a significant increase in spectrin (P<0.001) and hemoglobin (P<0.001) glycosylation in Group II and III as compared to Group I and spectrin glycosylation was nearly three times more as compared to hemoglobin, whereas plasma levels of lipid peroxide (P<0.001) as well as nitric oxide (P<0.001) were found to be significantly increased and GPx activity (P<0.001) was significantly decreased in Group II and III as compared to Group I. However, it was also observed that spectrin (P>0.05) and hemoglobin (P>0.05) glycosylation was not significantly different in Group II and III. In contrast, there was significant rise in lipid peroxide (P<0.001), nitric oxide (P<0.001) and fall in GPx activity (P<0.001) in Group III when compared to Group II. Increased erythrocyte protein glycosylation and oxidative stress is clearly evident from our study. However, to understand the exact interplay between these two mechanisms, further studies are required.
Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats.
Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Nutraceutical Biotechnology, Shih Chien University, Taipei City 10462, Taiwan.
Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20 mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Aug 15;: 22939938
The methanolic fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum seed downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and hyperglycemia in STZ-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
This study aimed to ascertain the potential of Centratherum anthelminticum plant seeds (CAMFs) for the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated complications, CAMFs was initially tested on β-TC6 cells for H(2)O(2)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation effects. The result displayed that CAMFs significantly inhibited NF-κB translocation from cytoplasm into the nucleus, dose-dependently. Furthermore, a 12-week sub-chronic CAMFs study was carried out on streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic model rats to evaluate glycemia, essential biochemical parameters, lipid levels, oxidative stress markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Our study revealed that CAMFs reduced hyperglycemia by significantly increasing serum insulin, C-peptide, total protein, and albumin levels. In contrast, elevated blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipids and enzyme activities were restored to near normal. CAMFs confirmed antioxidant potential by elevating glutathione (GSH) and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in diabetic rats. Interestingly, CAMFs also down-regulated elevated tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the tissues and serum of the diabetic treated rats. We conclude that CAMFs exerted apparent antidiabetic effects and demonstrated as a valuable candidate nutraceutical for insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes and its associated complications such as dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation.
J Affect Disord. 2012 Jul 25;: 22840610
(")Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115, Iasi, Romania.
Oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) could play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the specific activity of the main peripheral antioxidant defences (superoxide dismutase-SOD and glutathione peroxidase-GPX) and the level of malondialdehyde-MDA (a lipid peroxidation maker), in depressed patients, as compared to an age-matched control group. Also, we were interested to see if there are any differences between first episode vs. recurrent depression groups, in terms of oxidative stress markers. Additionally, we want it to investigate the effects of different antidepressant medication (mirtazapine, venlafaxine, tianeptine and escitalopram) on oxidative status of depressed patients. Our results showed an increased oxidative stress status in the serum of patients with MDD, expressed by a significant decrease of both SOD and GPX specific activities and a significant increase of the lipid peroxidation marker MDA, as compared to the control group. When we analyzed the oxidative stress status in depressed patients based on chronicity we observed significant decrease of SOD and GPX specific activities in recurrent depression group, as compared to the first episode group. Moreover, a very significant increase in MDA concentration was observed in recurrent depression patients, as compared to the first episode group. Our work provides additional evidences of increased oxidative stress in MDD, expressed by altered antioxidant enzyme activity and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Also, it seems that sub-classifying depression into different subtypes, based on chronicity, can predict differences in the levels of some various oxidative stress markers.
The relationship between coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymes activities and coronary artery disease.
School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, No 110, Section 1, Jianguo N Road, Taichung 40201, Taiwan.
A higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coenzyme Q10 concentration and lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities and the risk of CAD. Patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n = 51). The control group (n = 102) comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were measured. Subjects with CAD had significant lower plasma coenzyme Q10, CAT and GPx activities and higher MDA and SOD levels compared to those of the control group. The plasma coenzyme Q10 was positively correlated with CAT and GPx activities and negatively correlated with MDA and SOD. However, the correlations were not significant after adjusting for the potential confounders of CAD with the exception of SOD. A higher level of plasma coenzyme Q10 (≥ 0.52 μmol/L) was significantly associated with reducing the risk of CAD. Our results support the potential cardioprotective impact of coenzyme Q10.
Anemia. 2012 ;2012 :767501 22570773
Association of oxidative stress markers with atherogenic index of plasma in adult sickle cell nephropathy.
Department of Chemical Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano 700001, Nigeria.
This paper evaluates the association of oxidative stress and atherogenic index of plasma in order to assess the cardiovascular risk in Sickle cell nephropathy especially as lipoprotein levels are lower in SCD than non-SCD patients. Antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde(MDA), urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate were evaluated in 110 confirmed sickle cell disease patients: 65 males in steady state, aged 21.1 ± 6.0 years, 30 males with macroalbuminuria, aged 24.5 ± 7.0, years and 15 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), aged 31.8 ± 2.0 years. The mean activity levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), and catalase (CAT) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in SCD with macroalbuminuria and CKD while MDA was higher (P < 0.001) in SCD with macroalbuminuria and CKD compared with controls. There was negative correlation between GPx (P < 0.001), Cu/ZnSOD (P < 0.02), and Atherogenic index of plasma in SCD with CKD, while MDA shows a positive correlation (P < 0.001) with AIP in SCD with CKD. There was however no correlation between CAT and AIP. Decreased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes and low HDL-cholesterol concentration were confirmed in adult SCD with CKD in Nigerians. The increase oxidative stress and high atherogenic index in CKD may accelerate the process of cardiovascular complications in adult SCD patients. Atherogenic index of plasma was negatively correlated with antioxidant enzymes and positively with MDA.
Correlation between oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in South Indian urban vegetarians and non-vegetarians.
Department of Biochemistry, J.N. Medical College Belgaum, KLE University, Karnataka, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The diet is a key environmental factor implicated in health and disease. Oxidative stress, antioxidant status and their relation to diet is a subject of interest in recent years. The objective of the study was to compare lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in healthy vegetarians and non-vegetarians. METHODS The present study comprises 100 healthy individuals (50 vegetarians and 50 non-vegetarians) residing in Belgaum urban area. All the participants were in the age group of 40-60 years of both sexes. This cross-sectional study was done in one year period from April 2007 to March 2008. Malondialdehyde (MDA)(lipid peroxidation product) was estimated by thiobarbituric acid method, glutathione peroxidase by Beutler's method, Vitamin A and Vitamin E by Bessay et al and Quife et al methods respectively. RESULTS Our study revealed that the blood MDA level was significantly increased (p value < 0.001) in non-vegetarians compared to lactovegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians. There was significant decrease in the level of enzymatic antioxidant glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic antioxidants Vitamin A and Vitamin E in non-vegetarians compared to lactovegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians (p value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Results of this investigation present study indicate that there was an increased lipid peroxidation and a low antioxidant status in non-vegetarians compared to vegetarians. Vegetarian nutrition provides adequate antioxidants which effectively prevent free radicals generation.
Effect of vitamin C supplementation on postprandial oxidative stress and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients.
Zohreh Mazloom, Najmeh Hejazi, Mohammad-Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Hamid-Reza Tabatabaei, Afsane Ahmadi, Hasti Ansar
Department of Nutrition, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most wide spread endocrine disorders and an important developing health problem in the world. Cardiovascular disease is a common complication of type 2 diabetes. Several risk factors for coronary heart disease cosegregate in type 2 diabetes, including hyperglycemia, hyperlipaemia, increases production of free radical and decrease in antioxidant defense system. In this study we evaluated the effect of vitamin C supplementation on fasting and postprandial oxidative stress and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. 30 patients with type 2 diabetes from Nader Kazemi Clinic, Shiraz, Iran were randomly divided into 2 groups; vitamin C treatment group (1000 mg d(-1)) and placebo group from May to September 2010. Fasting and postprandial lipid profile and Malondialdehyde (MDA) level were measured at the beginning of the study and after six weeks of supplementation. Data analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test with p < 0.05 being significant by SPSS software version 16.The result of the study showed a significantly decrease in fasting (p = 0.006) and postprandial MDA (p < 0.001) in vitamin C group compare to placebo group but not in lipid profile. This study suggests that vitamin C supplementation can decrease fasting and postprandial oxidative stress and may prevent diabetes complication.