Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.
School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.
Trajectories or parental monitoring and communication and effects on drug use among urban young adolescents.
Department of Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0177, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE Identify the number and characteristics of heterogeneous trajectories of parental monitoring and communication among a sample of urban, racial/ethnic minority youth and examine the effects of these patterns on alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. METHODS The study sample (n=2,621) was predominantly African American or Hispanic (38% and 32%, respectively) and low-income (67% received free, or reduced price, lunch). They completed classroom-based surveys when in 6th-8th grades. Multilevel general growth mixture modeling was used to identify the heterogeneous trajectories of parental monitoring and communication and estimate the effects of these distinct patterns on drug use in 8th grade. RESULTS Four trajectories of parental monitoring and communication were identified:(1) High (76.4%),(2) Medium (9.1%),(3) Decreasing (6.0%) and (4) Inconsistent (8.5%). Relative to those with high monitoring/communication, youth in the decreasing and inconsistent trajectories were at significantly greater risk for past year and past month alcohol and marijuana use and having ever smoked a cigarette. After controlling for family composition, only youth in the decreasing trajectory were significantly more likely to report substance use in 8th grade. CONCLUSIONS Findings support the role of parents in preventing drug use during early adolescence and suggest that efforts to improve the level and consistency of parental monitoring and communication may be a fruitful target for prevention. Many youth initiate use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana in this critical developmental period and considered with the health and social consequences of use, engaging parents in preventing drug use should remain a priority for prevention.
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Pediatr Nurs. ;38 (2):88-95 22685868
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Parents of high school seniors with type 1 diabetes mellitus are faced with many concerns and fears as their adolescent prepares to assume primary disease management responsibility and leave the parental residence. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental separation anxiety and adolescent self-management and glycemic control. A second aim was to assess the relationship between adolescent self-management and glycemic control. Twenty-three families who had adolescents 16 to 18 years of age in or entering in their senior year of high school were recruited. Adolescents from higher income families reported better self-management skills than those from poorer families (r = 0.410, p = 0.05). Length of time since diabetes diagnosis was inversely related to glycemic control (r = 0.448, p = 0.02), indicating that adolescents who had the disease longer had poorer control. Parental separation anxiety was not related to adolescent self-management. Adolescent self-management was negatively related to glycemic control (r =-0.370, p = 0.08), suggesting that adolescents who demonstrated better self-management skills had improved glycemic control in comparison to adolescents who did not demonstrate effective self-management skills. Paternal, not maternal, separation anxiety demonstrated a significant relationship with glycemic control (r = 0.639, p < 0.001).
Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University Department of Medicine, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK.
Hepatocyte nuclear vacuolation is considered benign and associated with non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Vacuolated hepatocyte nuclei were compared with non-vacuolated hepatocyte nuclei in eight patients with advanced fibrosis and a spectrum of liver disease to explore the hypothesis that such nuclei represent senescence. Age- and sex-matched liver donors served as normal tissue. In normal liver <0.01% hepatocytes showed nuclear vacuolation. In contrast, nuclear vacuolation was present in all patients with liver disease, ranging from 0.1% to 11.7% hepatocytes, irrespective of the aetiology of liver disease and independent of insulin resistance. There was a close association between nuclear vacuolation and increased nuclear area, p21 expression, γ H(2)AX expression and the absence of Mcm-2, consistent with senescence and cell cycle arrest. Nuclear vacuolation in hepatocytes is a marker of senescence and likely to be a consequence of liver injury, unrelated to insulin resistance.
Pediatr Nurs. ;37 (6):304-10 22256691
Parents' experiences supporting self-management of middle adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL, USA.
The purpose of this article is to describe the experiences of parents regarding the fostering of self-management of diabetes mellitus with their middle adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A purposive sample of parents of 16- to 18-year-old adolescents with T1DM from 23 families who attended the endocrinology clinic of a children's hospital were interviewed about their experience with their adolescent's diabetes management and how they supported or inhibited their adolescent's diabetes self-management. Qualitative description was used to analyze the transcripts of audio-recorded interviews. Parents often described having negative experiences involving struggle, frustration, and worry about adolescent self-management. Parents supported their adolescent's self-management primarily by reminding, recognizing positive aspects of the adolescent's diabetes management, and granting more freedom. Conversely, parents inhibited their adolescents' diabetes management by scolding and judging, checking and nagging, and becoming emotional. Clinicians can help parents share their experiences, cope with their emotions, and practice effective strategies to motivate adolescent diabetes self-management in the transition to later adolescence.
Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, North Wales.
The aim of this mixed methods feasibility study was to demonstrate the acceptability, practicality, and safety of training patients who regularly use deliberate self harm (DSH) to self-administer acupuncture as an alternative coping skill for emotional distress. Ten adult patients with a diagnosis of emotionally unstable personality disorder who regularly self-harmed were recruited to the study following baseline assessment by a psychiatrist. An acupuncturist taught participants to self-acupuncture. During the 6-week intervention participants recorded their emotional distress, coping behaviors, thoughts, and feelings in a diary. Face-to-face interviews were used to explore participants' motives for DSH and their experience of acupuncture. Framework analysis was conducted on interview transcripts and diary entries to identify common themes. Mood at baseline and six weeks was measured using the BDI and changes in the use of coping behaviors and acupuncture were measured using diary entries. Subjects used acupuncture regularly through the six-week intervention and over this period there was a reduction in the frequency of DSH. Qualitative analysis identified two broad themes relating to the process and the effects of acupuncture. There was wide variation in the effects experienced by subjects which broadly mapped onto to the wide range of motives behind DSH. BDI scores showed a near significant reduction (p = 0.055) from 44.4. to 34.4 over the 6-week intervention. Patients presenting with deliberate self harm can be safely trained to self-administer acupuncture as an alternative coping skill. Acceptability and effectiveness may vary between patients depending on the complex motives underlying their self-harming behavior. While the pilot study was designed to explore the feasibility of the intervention, results from this limited sample suggest that use of self-administered acupuncture may reduce the frequency of self harming behavior and reduce emotional distress as measured using the BDI.
William Gelson, Matthew Hoare, Esther Unitt, Christopher Palmer, Paul Gibbs, Nicholas Coleman, Susan Davies, Graeme J M Alexander
Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
BACKGROUND Patients with established liver grafts may receive excessive immune suppression. Liver biopsies were analyzed in those with normal liver biochemistry to identify parameters that might identify such cases. METHODS Patients with established grafts (>3 years from engraftment) and normal liver biochemistry (normal alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin) were invited to undergo liver biopsy. Liver tissue was assessed by routine histopathology, a modified Ishak score, and immunohistochemistry for lymphocyte and cell-cycle markers. Circulating and intrahepatic lymphocytes were subjected to flow cytometry. Data were subjected to principal component analysis. RESULTS Two hundred twenty-five (40%) patients under regular review had an established graft with normal liver biochemistry; liver tissue was obtained in 55. Liver histology was normal in eight cases (14.5%). The most common abnormalities were mild nonspecific hepatitis in 25 (45.4%) and disease recurrence in 14 (25.4%). Principal component analysis identified a cluster of variables that accounted for a significant degree of variation within the dataset. These were lobular inflammation, portal inflammation, interface hepatitis, and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS Inflammation persisted in established grafted livers in most patients with normal liver biochemistry. Systematic histological and lymphocyte phenotype analysis generated an index that distinguished patient groups. Those with least inflammation and the lowest alanine transaminase may have a reduced requirement for immune suppression.
Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism.
Angiology. ;60 (5):554-61 19625265
Acute limb ischemia caused by femoral arterial line induces remote liver injury in a rabbit model of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Georgios K Glantzounis, Hemant Sheth, Cecil Thompson, Tariq S Hafez, Sanjeev Kanoria, Viniyendra Pamecha, Susan Davies, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Alexander M Seifalian, Brian R Davidson
HPB and Liver Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org
Femoral arterial lines are used for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure in experimental studies. However, placement of a catheter in the femoral artery could produce acute limb ischemia with associated systemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of femoral arterial line insertion on liver function, in a rabbit liver lobar ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model. Four groups of animals (n = 6 each) were studied: groups 1 and 2 (sham) underwent laparotomy but no liver ischemia. In groups 3 and 4 (I/R), liver lobar ischemia was induced for 60 minutes followed by 7 hours of reperfusion. In groups 1 and 3, the arterial line was placed in the femoral artery whereas in groups 2 and 4 in the ear artery. Liver function was assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, bile flow, plasma lactate levels, and histology. Results are expressed as mean +/- SEM. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lactate levels were significantly higher in the I/R femoral line group compared with the I/R ear line group at 7 hours postreperfusion. Bile production was significantly lower (75 +/- 9.6 vs 112 +/- 10 microL/min per 100 g liver weight). Histopathology showed more extensive hepatocellular necrosis and neutrophil accumulation in the I/R femoral line group compared with I/R ear line group. The sham femoral group showed liver injury, which was more marked than the ear line group (all P <.05). In conclusion, femoral artery cannulation induces remote liver injury. The use of femoral arterial lines should be avoided in experimental studies concerning liver function.
Michael J Mugavero, Hui-Yi Lin, Jeroan J Allison, Thomas P Giordano, James H Willig, James L Raper, Nelda P Wray, Stephen R Cole, Joseph E Schumacher, Susan Davies, Michael S Saag
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Racial/ethnic health care disparities are well described in people living with HIV/AIDS, although the processes underlying observed disparities are not well elucidated. METHODS A retrospective analysis nested in the University of Alabama at Birmingham 1917 Clinic Cohort observational HIV study evaluated patients between August 2004 and January 2007. Factors associated with appointment nonadherence, a proportion of missed outpatient visits, were evaluated. Next, the role of appointment nonadherence in explaining the relationship between African American race and virologic failure (plasma HIV RNA >50 copies/mL) was examined using a staged multivariable modeling approach. RESULTS Among 1221 participants, a broad distribution of appointment nonadherence was observed, with 40% of patients missing at least 1 in every 4 scheduled visits. The adjusted odds of appointment nonadherence were 1.85 times higher in African American patients compared with whites [95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.61 to 2.14]. Appointment nonadherence was associated with virologic failure (odds ratio = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.48 to 2.13) and partially mediated the relationship between African American race and virologic failure. African Americans had 1.56 times the adjusted odds of virologic failure (95% CI = 1.19 to 2.05), which declined to 1.30 (95% CI = 0.98 to 1.72) when controlling for appointment nonadherence, a hypothesized mediator. CONCLUSIONS Appointment nonadherence was more common in African American patients, associated with virologic failure, and seemed to explain part of observed racial disparities in virologic failure.
Sensitivity and specificity of multimodal and ultrasound screening for ovarian cancer, and stage distribution of detected cancers: results of the prevalence screen of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS).
Usha Menon, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Rachel Hallett, Andy Ryan, Matthew Burnell, Aarti Sharma, Sara Lewis, Susan Davies, Susan Philpott, Alberto Lopes, Keith Godfrey, David Oram, Jonathan Herod, Karin Williamson, Mourad W Seif, Ian Scott, Tim Mould, Robert Woolas, John Murdoch, Stephen Dobbs, Nazar N Amso, Simon Leeson, Derek Cruickshank, Alistair McGuire, Stuart Campbell, Lesley Fallowfield, Naveena Singh, Anne Dawnay, Steven J Skates, Mahesh Parmar, Ian Jacobs
Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Institute for Women's Health, London, UK.
BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, with most women not diagnosed until the disease is in its advanced stages. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of screening on mortality. This report summarises the outcome of the prevalence (initial) screen in UKCTOCS. METHODS Between 2001 and 2005, a total of 202 638 post-menopausal women aged 50-74 years were randomly assigned to no treatment (control; n=101 359); annual CA125 screening (interpreted using a risk of ovarian cancer algorithm) with transvaginal ultrasound scan as a second-line test (multimodal screening [MMS]; n=50 640); or annual screening with transvaginal ultrasound (USS; n=50 639) alone in a 2:1:1 ratio using a computer-generated random number algorithm. All women provided a blood sample at recruitment. Women randomised to the MMS group had their blood tested for CA125 and those randomised to the USS group were sent an appointment to attend for a transvaginal scan. Women with abnormal screens had repeat tests. Women with persistent abnormality on repeat screens underwent clinical evaluation and, where appropriate, surgery. This trial is registered as ISRCTN22488978 and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00058032. FINDINGS In the prevalence screen, 50 078 (98.9%) women underwent MMS, and 48 230 (95.2%) underwent USS. The main reasons for withdrawal were death (two MMS, 28 USS), non-ovarian cancer or other disease (none MMS, 66 USS), removal of ovaries (five MMS, 29 USS), relocation (none MMS, 39 USS), failure to attend three appointments for the screen (72 MMS, 757 USS), and participant changing their mind (483 MMS, 1490 USS). Overall, 4355 of 50 078 (8.7%) women in the MMS group and 5779 of 48 230 (12.0%) women in the USS group required a repeat test, and 167 (0.3%) women in the MMS group and 1894 (3.9%) women in the USS group required clinical evaluation. 97 of 50 078 (0.2%) women from the MMS group and 845 of 48 230 (1.8%) from the USS group underwent surgery. 42 (MMS) and 45 (USS) primary ovarian and tubal cancers were detected, including 28 borderline tumours (eight MMS, 20 USS). 28 (16 MMS, 12 USS) of 58 (48.3%; 95% CI 35.0-61.8) of the invasive cancers were stage I/II, with no difference (p=0.396) in stage distribution between the groups. A further 13 (five MMS, eight USS) women developed primary ovarian cancer during the year after the screen. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive-predictive values for all primary ovarian and tubal cancers were 89.4%, 99.8%, and 43.3% for MMS, and 84.9%, 98.2%, and 5.3% for USS, respectively. For primary invasive epithelial ovarian and tubal cancers, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive-predictive values were 89.5%, 99.8%, and 35.1% for MMS, and 75.0%, 98.2%, and 2.8% for USS, respectively. There was a significant difference in specificity (p<0.0001) but not sensitivity between the two screening groups for both primary ovarian and tubal cancers as well as primary epithelial invasive ovarian and tubal cancers. INTERPRETATION The sensitivity of the MMS and USS screening strategies is encouraging. Specificity was higher in the MMS than in the USS group, resulting in lower rates of repeat testing and surgery. This in part reflects the high prevalence of benign adnexal abnormalities and the more frequent detection of borderline tumours in the USS group. The prevalence screen has established that the screening strategies are feasible. The results of ongoing screening are awaited so that the effect of screening on mortality can be determined.
School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PROBLEM Poverty and accelerations of inequality, manifested by the increasing difference between the richest and poorest populations, have significant effects on the mental health of vulnerable groups. Adolescents are vulnerable to the effects of poverty. As a time of change and transition for youth and their families, adolescence creates both challenges and opportunities to intervene in the effects of poverty. PURPOSE The purpose of this article is to discuss the significance of poverty and its impact on adolescent mental health and mental health services. SOURCES An interdisciplinary literature search was conducted on the topic of poverty and adolescent mental health. CONCLUSIONS Results indicated that nurses need to remain active participants in the provision of mental health services to adolescents in poverty and increase their advocacy for the creation of policy changes that address mental health needs of this population.
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Pediatr Nurs. ;38 (2):73-9 22685866
Optimism bias and parental views on unintentional injuries and safety: improving anticipatory guidance in early childhood.
Community Health Center, New Haven, CT, USA.
The purpose of this integrative literature review is to improve anticipatory guidance in early childhood by reviewing the influence of optimism bias on parents' views about safety and beliefs about their children's risk for unintentional injuries. This article reviews the theory of optimism bias and recent research utilizing optimism bias to explain parental health-related behaviors. The three articles in this literature review find a link between optimism bias and parents' failure to implement safety behaviors. Currently, there is no tool to measure a parent's level of optimism bias concerning the risk of unintentional injury to his or her child. It is important for primary care providers to try and identify optimism bias in parents and address it as a barrier to implementation of safety recommendations. More research should be dedicated to developing screening tools to identify optimism bias in parents and interventions to help them accept their children's vulnerability.
Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior.
California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA. email@example.com
Change in health behaviors requires motivation on the part of the individual. The aim of this article is to compare elements of the motivation process across cultures. A secondary aim is to determine whether a Western model of behavior change for health promotion, such as the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, can be applied to Asian populations. An integrative review and critical analysis of research literature was done by reviewing 20 studies with observational survey design and 6 integrative literature reviews. Findings show that the motivation process is similar for Eastern and Western cultures, but the motivators are different. The findings identify 10 motivators, congruent with Asian culture, that would allow the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to be used in Asian settings.
Department of Epidemiology, Public Health Program, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
PURPOSE To conduct the first study to examine potential interaction between parenting style and neighborhood quality on the risk of adolescent regular smoking. METHODS We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (n = 1,213 pairs of adolescents and their parents) who participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics during 2002-2003. Regular smoking behavior and parental monitoring level were reported by adolescents. Parenting style (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) was defined by cross-classifying self-reported parental warmth and control. Based on parents' perceived neighborhood quality regarding raising children, neighborhoods were identified as either higher quality or lower quality. RESULTS Adolescents in lower-quality neighborhoods were more likely to be regular smokers (13.7% vs. 8.5%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.93, 95% CI = 1.02-3.65) than those in higher-quality neighborhoods. In lower-quality neighborhoods, adolescents of authoritarian parents (16.9%; AOR = 10.97, 95% CI = 3.36-35.84) were more likely and those of uninvolved parents (20.3%; AOR = 3.47, 95% CI = 0.91-13.17) were marginally more likely to be regular smokers than those of authoritative parents (4.3%). However, among adolescents in higher-quality neighborhoods, parenting style was independent of the risk of regular smoking. There was marginally significant interaction between authoritarian parenting style and neighborhood quality. Parental monitoring was associated with reduced risk of adolescent smoking, regardless of neighborhood quality. There was no interaction between parental monitoring and neighborhood quality. CONCLUSIONS Authoritative parenting is associated with reduced risk of adolescent regular smoking in lower-quality neighborhoods but not in higher-quality neighborhoods. Authoritative parenting style and parental monitoring may buffer adverse influences of low-quality neighborhood.
PANORG, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW Australia, Level 2, Medical Foundation Building K25, Camperdown New South Wales 2006 Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to generate composite measures quantifying a household's obesogenic potential and to examine the relationship of the composite variables with older children's eating, physical activity (PA), and small screen recreation. METHODS Data were from surveys with 1685 child-parent pairs in which the child was in grade 6, 8, or 10 (mean age: 14 years). Composite measures of the obesogenic household environment were generated from 11 measures using nonlinear principal components analysis. Associations between the composite measures and the children's healthy and unhealthy food intake, PA, and screen time were tested (adjusting for demographic characteristics). RESULTS Two scales were generated:(1) obesogenic control, which clustered together factors that mitigate risk; and (2) obesogenic risk. Higher scores on the control scale were associated with higher adolescent intake of healthy foods, lower intake of unhealthy foods, higher PA, and less screen time. Higher scores on the risk scale were associated with lower adolescent intake of healthy foods, higher intake of unhealthy foods, lower PA, and more screen time. There were significant 2-way interactions between the scales for soft drink consumption and PA. CONCLUSIONS Household obesogenic potential may be quantified as 2 factors reflecting cumulative risk and control practices. These factors have both additive associations with obesogenic behaviors and, in some cases, modify each other, suggesting that a healthy home environment requires attention to both. Health promotion messages could incorporate these 2 different but interacting factors that parents can use to modify the obesogenic potential of their household.
Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam.
Linda M Kaljee, Mackenzie Green, Porntip Lerdboon, Rosemary Riel, Van Pham, Le Huu Tho, Nguyen T Ha, Truong Tan Minh, Xiaoming Li, Xinguang Chen, Bonita Stanton
The Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics,Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths' engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths' reported and parents' perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. METHODS The cohort included 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-squared tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. RESULTS Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. The mean age of youth was 17.2 years. The mean score for parental "RH knowledge" was 24.74 (SD, 3.84; range, 15-34). Lower parental RH knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education (F = 2.983; df, 184; p =.014). Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to "comfort"(β =.17; p =.048), and "comfort" to frequency of "talk"(β =.6; p <.0001). Frequency of "talk" is not related to parents' discordant perceptions regarding their child's reported involvement in relationships (β =.002; p =.79) or sexual touching (β =.57; p =.60). CONCLUSIONS Parent and youth in Vietnam are engaged in limited communication about RH. There is a need for more data to assess the effect of these communication patterns on youths' engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication.
Relationship between adolescent risk preferences on a laboratory task and behavioral measures of risk-taking.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5223 Harry Hiles Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9101, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The goal of the study was to assess individual differences among adolescents regarding risk-taking behavior in the laboratory. The second aim was to evaluate whether the laboratory-based risk-taking behavior is associated with other behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. A total of 82 adolescents with no personal history of psychiatric disorder completed a computerized decision-making task, the Wheel of Fortune. On the basis of the choices made between clearly defined probabilities and real monetary outcomes, this task assesses risk preferences when participants are confronted with potential rewards and losses. The participants also completed a variety of behavioral and psychological measures associated with risk-taking behavior. Performance on the task varied on the basis of probability and anticipated outcomes. In the winning sub-task, participants selected low-probability-high-magnitude reward (high-risk choice) less frequently than high-probability-low-magnitude reward (low-risk choice). In the losing sub-task, participants selected low-probability-high-magnitude loss more often than high-probability-low-magnitude loss. On average, the selection of probabilistic rewards was optimal and similar to performance in adults. There were, however, individual differences in performance, and one-third of the adolescents made high-risk choice more frequently than low-risk choice while selecting a reward. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychological variables, high-risk choice on the winning task predicted "real-world" risk-taking behavior and substance-related problems. These findings highlight individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Regarding validity of the Wheel of Fortune task, the preliminary data suggest that it might be a valuable laboratory tool for studying behavioral and neurobiological processes associated with risk-taking behavior in adolescents.
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake, and physical activity; but most of the research has been cross-sectional, making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. METHODS Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were used. Adolescents (N = 2,516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. RESULTS Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower body mass index in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth and/or caring in the parent-adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent-adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted.
Thaís Moreira Spana, Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues, Laura Bacelar de Araújo Lourenço, Roberto Della Rosa Mendez, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani
Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil.
This study aimed to carry out an integrative literature review on the effectiveness of interventions in physical activity (PA) practice in the general population. The search was carried out in articles indexed in online databases: Scopus, CINAHL and Medline. Studies in English or Brazilian Portuguese were included, with evidence levels 2 or 3, published between 2004 and 2008. The final sample consisted of 14 studies. In 57.1% of the studies, interventions were effective for behavior change to practice PA. The diversity of target populations, assessment instruments and intervention designs makes it difficult to compare results and build evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for PA promotion.
Structure provided by parents in middle childhood predicts cortisol reactivity in adolescence among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and controls.
Centre for Research in Human Development, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H4B 1R6, Canada.
Recent studies suggest that childhood exposure to adversity influences later functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Parenting style in childhood, a putative moderator of adversity, may be important in determining HPA reactivity in adolescence. As part of a prospective, longitudinal study, saliva was collected at awakening and 30 and 60min later over 2 days among 27 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high risk; 16.7+/-1.5 years) and 26 offspring of parents with no mental disorders (low risk; 16.2+/-1.7 years). In addition, 24 of the high risk and 22 of the low risk adolescents completed the "Trier Social Stress Test"(TSST). Parents had rated their parenting style when their offspring were 6-13 years of age. Low levels of structure (i.e. organization and consistency) provided by parents in middle childhood were predictive of an elevated cortisol response following awakening (beta=-0.36; p<0.05) and during the TSST (beta=-0.33; p<0.05), even while controlling for risk group. These associations were independent of other indices of environmental risk, and of adolescents' mood and behavior. The level of structure provided by parents in childhood predicted independent measures of cortisol reactivity in adolescence, suggesting that parenting style may regulate different aspects of HPA reactivity.