Caroline G L Cao, Matthew B Weinger, Jason Slagle, Chuan Zhou, Jennie Ou, Shakha Gillin, Bryant Sheh, William Mazzei
School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.
OBJECTIVE This study examined whether anesthesia residents (physicians in training) performed clinical duties in the operating room differently during the day versus at night. BACKGROUND Fatigue from sleep deprivation and working through the night is common for physicians, particularly during residency training. METHODS Using a repeated-measures design, we studied 13 pairs of day-night matched anesthesia cases. Dependent measures included task times, workload ratings, response to an alarm light latency task, and mood. RESULTS Residents spent significantly less time on manual tasks and more time on monitoring tasks during the maintenance phase at night than during the day. Residents reported more negative mood at night than during the day, both pre- and postoperation. However, time of day had no effect on the mood change between pre- and postoperation. Workload ratings and the response time to an alarm light latency task were not significantly different between night and day cases. CONCLUSIONS Because night shift residents had been awake and working for more than 16 hr, the observed differences in task performance and mood may be attributed to fatigue. The changes in task distribution during night shift work may represent compensatory strategies to maintain patient care quality while keeping perceived workload at a manageable level. APPLICATIONS Fatigue effects during night shifts should be considered when designing work-rest schedules for clinicians. This matched-case control scheme can also be applied to study other phenomena associated with patient safety in the actual clinical environment.
Assessment of subjective workload in an anaesthesia simulator environment: reliability and validity.
Christian M Schulz, Matthias Skrzypczak, Erich Schneider, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Jan Martin, Eberhard F Kochs, Gerhard Schneider
Department of Anaesthesiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE For the subjective assessment of workload, Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale is a global measure of perceived workload during anaesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence in the real workplace. In the present study, validity and reliability of the RPE scale were analysed for a full-scale simulator environment using scenarios of induction of general anaesthesia with and without critical incidents. METHODS Seventeen anaesthetists (professional experience 1-30 years) participated in this randomised cross-over trial. Each participant rated their workload using the RPE scale after three different simulator sessions. No critical incident was simulated in the 1st session. In a randomised order, workload was increased by simulation of a critical incident in the 2nd or 3rd session. For the analysis of validity and reliability, univariate and multivariate regression analysis and the concordance correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS RPE scores were significantly increased after managing a simulated critical incident [13.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.6-14.5] compared to normal anaesthesia induction (9.4, 95% CI 8.2-10.6; P < 0.001). Reliability was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.55; 95% CI 0.13-0.80) for uneventful sessions. CONCLUSION RPE scores were significantly increased after critical incidents during simulated anaesthesia induction and indicate good construct validity. Reliability may be impaired by the fact that the first session was announced to be without a critical incident. The RPE scale is easy to administer and a valid tool for subjective workload assessment in simulator settings. Reliability is moderate.
Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 251 East Huron Street, F5-704, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. email@example.com
Simulation, a strategy for improving the quality and safety of patient care, is used for the training of technical and nontechnical skills and for training in teamwork and communication. This article reviews simulation-based research, with a focus on anesthesiology, at 3 different levels of outcome:(1) as measured in the simulation laboratory,(2) as measured in clinical performance, and (3) as measured in patient outcomes. It concludes with a discussion of some current uses of simulation, which include the identification of latent failures and the role of simulation in continuing professional practice assessment for anesthesiologists.
Steven S Lipman, Kay I Daniels, Brendan Carvalho, Julie Arafeh, Kimberly Harney, Andrea Puck, Sheila E Cohen, Maurice Druzin
Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 9430, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Monitoring with head-mounted displays in general anesthesia: a clinical evaluation in the operating room.
BEng(Hons), Department of Anesthesiology, 30 North 1900 East, 3C444 SOM, Salt Lake City, UT 84132-2304. email@example.com.
BACKGROUND: Patient monitors in the operating room are often positioned where it is difficult for the anesthesiologist to see them when performing procedures. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists by superimposing a display of the patient's vital signs over the anesthesiologist's field of view. Simulator studies indicate that by using an HMD, anesthesiologists can spend more time looking at the patient and less at the monitors. We performed a clinical evaluation testing whether this finding would apply in practice. METHODS: Six attending anesthesiologists provided anesthesia to patients undergoing rigid cystoscopy. Each anesthesiologist performed 6 cases alternating between standard monitoring using a Philips IntelliVue MP70 and standard monitoring plus a Microvision Nomad ND2000 HMD. The HMD interfaced wirelessly with the MP70 monitor and displayed waveform and numerical vital signs data. Video was recorded during all cases and analyzed to determine the percentage of time, frequency, and duration of looks at the anesthesia workstation and at the patient and surgical field during various anesthetic phases. Differences between the display conditions were tested for significance using repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Video data were collected from 36 cases that ranged from 17 to 75 minutes in duration (median 31 minutes). When participants were using the HMD, compared with standard monitoring, they spent less time looking toward the anesthesia workstation (21.0% vs 25.3%, P = 0.003) and more time looking toward the patient and surgical field (55.9% vs 51.5%, P = 0.014). The HMD had no effect on either the frequency of looks or the average duration of looks toward the patient and surgical field or toward the anesthesia workstation. CONCLUSIONS: An HMD of patient vital signs reduces anesthesiologists' surveillance of the anesthesia workstation and allows them to spend more time monitoring their patient and surgical field during normal anesthesia. More research is needed to determine whether the behavioral changes can lead to improved anesthesiologist performance in the operating room.
The impact of a single 24 h working day on cognitive and psychomotor performance in staff anaesthesiologists.
Nenad Karanovic, Mladen Carev, Goran Kardum, Renata Pecotic, Maja Valic, Sandra Karanovic, Ante Ujevic, Zoran Dogas
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Split, Croatia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The profession of anaesthesiologist is demanding and potentially hazardous. Extended work shifts combined with intensive work load may adversely affect physicians' performance. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a single in-hospital 24 h shift on the cognitive and psychomotor performance of anaesthesiologists in a surgical emergency department. METHODS Following ethical and institutional approval, 11 staff anaesthesiologists [six men, five women, age 48 (35-50), years of experience 17 (7-20), median (range)] successfully completed the study protocol. Four computer-generated psychological tests (CRD, Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac, Croatia) consisting of light signal position discrimination (CRD 311), simple visual orientation (CRD 21), simple arithmetic operations (CRD 11), and complex psychomotor coordination (CRD 411) were used to measure objective parameters of cognitive and psychomotor performance at four time points (D1 = 8:00 a.m., D2 = 3:00 p.m., D3 = 11:00 p.m.; and D4 = 7:00-8:00 a.m. next day) during the 24 h working day. The control testing on an ordinary working day was performed at two time points (C1 = 8:00 a.m., C2 = 3:00 p.m.). Three parameters were recorded: total test solving time (TTST), total variability, and total number of errors for all four tests. RESULTS TTST was significantly impaired during the 24 h shift in all tests, and TTST was prolonged in CRD 21 test at different time points from 1.6 +/- 1.4 to 5.5 +/- 1.6 s compared with the control (F = 6.39, P = 0.001). The reaction times were prolonged from 1.3 +/- 1.8 to 5.4 +/- 1.2 s (F = 3.49, P = 0.009) in CRD 311, from 3.8 +/- 9.0 to 34.3 +/- 5.8 s (F = 5.05, P = 0.002) in CRD 11 TTST, and from 0.8 +/- 3.0 to 16.3 +/- 8.6 s (F = 2.67, P = 0.034) in CRD 411. Total variability was significantly altered during the 24 h shift only in CRD 411 (F = 2.63, P = 0.036). There was no difference in the total number of errors between the 24 h shift and the ordinary working day. CONCLUSION Anaesthesiologists' 24 h working day in the emergency department altered cognitive and psychomotor function in comparison with ordinary working days. Speed, reliability and mental endurance (measured by TTST) were significantly impaired in all four tests. Stability and reaction time (measured by total variability) were only slightly impaired. Paradoxically, attention and alertness (measured by total number of errors) were not adversely affected. In conclusion, anaesthesiologists' psychomotor performance was impaired during the single 24 h shift.
Effects of intraoperative reading on vigilance and workload during anesthesia care in an academic medical center.
Center for Perioperative Research in Quality, Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA. Jason.firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND During routine cases, anesthesia providers may divert their attention away from direct patient care to read clinical (e.g., medical records) and/or nonclinical materials. The authors sought to ascertain the incidence of intraoperative reading and measure its effects on clinicians' workload and vigilance. METHODS In 172 selected general anesthetic cases in an academic medical center, a trained observer categorized the anesthesia provider's activities into 37 possible tasks. Vigilance was assessed by the response time to a randomly illuminated alarm light. Observer- and subject-reported workload were scored at random intervals. Data from Reading and Non-Reading Periods of the same cases were compared to each other and to matched cases that contained no observed reading. The cases were matched before data analysis on the basis of case complexity and anesthesia type. RESULTS Reading was observed in 35% of cases. In these 60 cases, providers read during 25 +/- 3% of maintenance but not during induction or emergence. While Non-Reading Cases (n = 112) and Non-Reading Periods of Reading Cases did not differ in workload, vigilance, or task distribution, they both had significantly higher workload than Reading Periods. Vigilance was not different among the three groups. When reading, clinicians spent less time performing manual tasks, conversing with others, and recordkeeping. CONCLUSIONS Anesthesia providers, even when being observed, read during a significant percentage of the maintenance period in many cases. However, reading occurred when workload was low and did not appear to affect a measure of vigilance.
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J Healthc Qual. 2011 Apr 7;: 22059640
Interventions such as mandatory "time-outs" have contributed to intraoperative safety but improvements are still necessary. We present data provided by 3 professions always present in the intraoperative setting that suggest next steps in the quest for improvements. We describe the differences and similarities in operating room (OR) nurses', anesthesia providers', and surgeons' beliefs about team function, case difficulty, nonroutine event (NRE), and error causation using a qualitative design at 3 Veterans' Administration hospitals. Intraoperative errors are costly in lives, suffering, and dollars. A quality improvement tenet states that workers are a rich information source regarding the context within which quality can be improved. Identifying and describing OR providers' beliefs are necessary steps in devising novel approaches to quality improvement. Intraoperative NRE and error prevention opportunities exist within and outside of the OR. There may be "cascade" and "perfect storm conditions" before and during operative procedures that increase the likelihood of NREs. Confirmation of these phenomena could improve prediction and prevention of NREs. Exploration of differences in team definition and team performance ratings by provider type may also identify avenues for improvement.
San Diego Center for Patient Safety, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. email@example.com
To enhance patient safety, data about actual clinical events must be collected and scrutinized. This paper has two purposes. First, it provides an overview of some of the methods available to collect and analyze retrospective data about medical errors, near misses, and other relevant patient safety events. Second, it introduces a methodological approach that focuses on non-routine events (NRE), defined as all events that deviate from optimal clinical care. In intermittent in-person surveys of anesthesia providers, 75 of 277 (27%) recently completed anesthetic cases contained a non-routine event (98 total NRE). Forty-six of the cases (17%) had patient impact while only 20 (7%) led to patient injury. In contrast, in the same hospitals over a two-year period, we collected event data on 135 cases identified with traditional quality improvement processes (event incidence of 0.7-2.7%). In these quality improvement cases, 120 (89%) had patient impact and 74 (55%) led to patient injury. Preliminary analyses not only illustrate some of the analytical methods applicable to safety data but also provide insight into the potential value of the non-routine event approach for the early detection of risks to patient safety before serious patient harm occurs.
Changes in intensive care unit nurse task activity after installation of a third-generation intensive care unit information system.
Anesthesiology Service, Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, and Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at Irvine, USA.
UNLABELLED OBJECTIVE To determine the percentage of time that intensive care unit (ICU) nurses spend on documentation and other nursing activities before and after installation of a third-generation ICU information system. DESIGN Prospective data collection using real-time time-motion analysis, before and after installation of the ICU information system. SETTING A ten-bed surgical ICU at a Veterans Affairs medical center. SUBJECTS ICU nurses. INTERVENTIONS Installation of a third-generation ICU information system. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ten ICU nurses were studied before and after installation of the ICU information system. Each ICU nurse's activities and tasks, during 4-hr observation periods, were categorized in real-time by a nurse observer and recorded in a laptop computer. Each recorded task was automatically time-stamped and logged into a data file. The percentage of time spent on documentation decreased from 35.1 +/- 8.3% to 24.2 +/- 7.6%(p =.025) after the ICU information system was installed. The percentage of time providing direct patient care increased from 31.3 +/- 9.2% to 40.1 +/- 11.7%(p =.085). The percentage of time doing patient assessment, a direct patient care task, increased from 4.0 +/- 4.7% to 9.4 +/- 4.4%(p =.001). CONCLUSIONS Installation of a third-generation ICU information system decreased the percentage of time ICU nurses spent on documentation by >30%. Almost half of the time saved on documentation was spent on patient assessment, a direct patient care task.
Assessment of the intrarater and interrater reliability of an established clinical task analysis methodology.
Anesthesia Ergonomics Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California 92161-5085, USA.
BACKGROUND Task analysis may be useful for assessing how anesthesiologists alter their behavior in response to different clinical situations. In this study, the authors examined the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of an established task analysis methodology. METHODS During 20 routine anesthetic procedures, a trained observer sat in the operating room and categorized in real-time the anesthetist's activities into 38 task categories. Two weeks later, the same observer performed task analysis from videotapes obtained intraoperatively. A different observer performed task analysis from the videotapes on two separate occasions. Data were analyzed for percent of time spent on each task category, average task duration, and number of task occurrences. Rater reliability and agreement were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS Intrarater reliability was generally good for categorization of percent time on task and task occurrence (mean intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.84-0.97). There was a comparably high concordance between real-time and video analyses. Interrater reliability was generally good for percent time and task occurrence measurements. However, the interrater reliability of the task duration metric was unsatisfactory, primarily because of the technique used to capture multitasking. CONCLUSIONS A task analysis technique used in anesthesia research for several decades showed good intrarater reliability. Off-line analysis of videotapes is a viable alternative to real-time data collection. Acceptable interrater reliability requires the use of strict task definitions, sophisticated software, and rigorous observer training. New techniques must be developed to more accurately capture multitasking. Substantial effort is required to conduct task analyses that will have sufficient reliability for purposes of research or clinical evaluation.
Pediatrics. 2012 Nov 19;: 23166342
Laura P Richardson, Elizabeth McCauley, Carolyn A McCarty, David C Grossman, Mon Myaing, Chuan Zhou, Julie Richards, Carol Rockhill, Wayne Katon
Departments of Pediatrics, and.
OBJECTIVE:To examine predictors of depression persistence after a positive screening test to inform management protocols for screened youth.METHODS:We conducted a cohort study of 444 youth (aged 13-17 years) from a large health care delivery system. Youth with depressive symptoms, based on a 2-item depression screen, were oversampled for the baseline interview. Baseline assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) depression screen as well as clinical factors that were hypothesized to influence depression persistence (family history of depression, functional impairment, perceived social support, anxiety symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and medical comorbidity). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with the persistence of depression at 6 months postbaseline.RESULTS:Of 113 youth with a positive baseline screen (PHQ-9 ≥11), 47% and 35% continued to be positive at 6-week and 6-month follow-up, respectively. After controlling for treatment status, only 2 factors were significantly associated with depression persistence at 6 months: baseline depressive symptom score and continuing to have a positive screen at 6 weeks. For each 1-point increase on the PHQ-9 score at baseline, youth had a 16% increased odds of continuing to be depressed at 6 months (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.34). Youth who continued to screen positive 6 weeks later had almost 3 times the odds of being depressed at 6 months (odds ratio: 2.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-7.61).CONCLUSIONS:Depressive symptom severity at presentation and continued symptoms at 6 weeks postscreening are the strongest predictors of depression persistence. Patients with high depressive symptom scores and continued symptoms at 6 weeks should receive active treatment.
Molecular Genetic Analysis of Sexual Rejection: Roles of Octopamine and Its Receptor OAMB in Drosophila Courtship Conditioning.
Chuan Zhou, Hai Huang, Susy M Kim, Hsuanwen Lin, Xianglan Meng, Kyung-An Han, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Jing W Wang, Renjie Jiao, Yi Rao
Institute of Biophysics and the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, People's Republic of China; Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093; Brain Research Center & Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsinghua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, People's Republic of China; Department of Biological Sciences, Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968; and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences at Peking University School of Life Sciences, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.
After Drosophila males are rejected by mated females, their subsequent courtship is inhibited even when encountering virgin females. Molecular mechanisms underlying courtship conditioning in the CNS are unclear. In this study, we find that tyramine β hydroxylase (TβH) mutant males unable to synthesize octopamine (OA) showed impaired courtship conditioning, which could be rescued by transgenic TβH expression in the CNS. Inactivation of octopaminergic neurons mimicked the TβH mutant phenotype. Transient activation of octopaminergic neurons in males not only decreased their courtship of virgin females, but also produced courtship conditioning. Single cell analysis revealed projection of octopaminergic neurons to the mushroom bodies. Deletion of the OAMB gene encoding an OA receptor expressed in the mushroom bodies disrupted courtship conditioning. Inactivation of neurons expressing OAMB also eliminated courtship conditioning. OAMB neurons responded robustly to male-specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that OA plays an important role in courtship conditioning through its OAMB receptor expressed in a specific neuronal subset of the mushroom bodies.
Acad Pediatr. 2012 Sep 12;: 22980727
The Frequency of Outdoor Play for Preschool Age Children Cared for at Home-Based Child Care Settings.
Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Wash; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVE: Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. RESULTS: Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. CONCLUSIONS: At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed.
Home environment relationships with children's physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differ by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the effects of family SES on children's PA and sedentary behavior. METHODS: Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child's accelerometer-measured activity levels and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. RESULTS: Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9%) but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83%) compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0). Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than engage in PA. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5 days/week). Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children's daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children's bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.
Acad Pediatr. 2012 May 31;: 22694878
Improving Parental Adherence with Asthma Treatment Guidelines: a Randomized Controlled Trial of an Interactive Website.
Dimitri A Christakis, Michelle M Garrison, Paula Lozano, Hendrika Meischke, Chuan Zhou, Frederick J Zimmerman
Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Wash; University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.
BACKGROUND: Controllers are underprescribed for children with asthma, and when they are, adherence is suboptimal. We sought to test whether an interactive website grounded in social cognitive theory can improve the dispensing of controller medications and adherence with them where indicated. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Parents of eligible patients were randomized to be prompted to assess their child's asthma each month for 6 months and receive tailored feedback on controller use and adherence strategies. For the next 6 months, participation in the site was optional. Outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 603 families were enrolled. At baseline, 176 (29%) children had mild-to-severe persistent asthma, whereas 71% of children met criteria for mild intermittent asthma. Among patients who should have been on controllers at baseline but were not, there was no statistically significant increase in controller prescriptions at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.63-14.04], P =.17). There was a trend to improved adherence with controllers among users at 6 months (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.90-2.63, P = .10). Among patients who used controller medicine at both baseline and at 6 months, users in the intervention arm had significantly greater adherence than those in control arm at 6 months (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.05-3.55; P =.02). For patients with persistent asthma at baseline and who were on controller medicine at both time points, patients in the intervention arm had significantly better adherence than those in the control arm at 6 months (OR 3.33; 95% CI 1.20-10.07, P =.01). However, there were no discernible differences at the 12-month assessment. CONCLUSION: A tailored interactive website shows some benefit in improving controller medication adherence during a period of active intervention.
A pilot study of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in estrogen signaling and infant male genital phenotypes.
Sheela Sathyanarayana, Shanna H Swan, Federico M Farin, Hui-Wen Wilkerson, Michael Bamshad, Richard Grady, Chuan Zhou, Stephen M Schwartz
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. email@example.com
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that influence development of the male reproductive tract have been associated with male genitourinary abnormalities. However, no studies have tested the relationship between SNPs and intermediate phenotypes such as anogenital distance (AGD), anoscrotal distance (ASD) and penile width (PW). We tested whether 24 common SNPs in eight genes that influence male genital development were associated with intermediate phenotypes in 106 healthy male infants from the Study for Future Families. We used DNA from buccal smears and linear regression models to assess the relationship between anogenital measurements and SNP genotypes with adjustment for covariates. We found that the rs2077647 G allele, located in the coding region of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), was associated with a shorter AGD (P=0.02;-7.3 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI):-11.6 to -3.1), and the rs10475 T allele, located in the 3' untranslated region of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), was associated with a shorter ASD (-4.3 mm, 95% CI:-7.2 to -1.4), although this result was not significant (P=0.07) after controlling for multiple comparisons. We observed no association between PW and the SNPs tested. Minor alleles for two SNPs in genes that regulate estrogen signaling during male genital development were associated with AGD and ASD, although the significance of the association was marginal. Our findings suggest that AGD and ASD are influenced by heritable factors in genes known to be associated with frank male genital abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism.
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Fifteen-hour day shifts have little effect on the performance of taskwork by anaesthesia trainees during uncomplicated clinical simulation.
Sleep Wake Research Centre, Massey University, Wellington Campus, Wellington, New Zealand.
Shiftwork and work-hour limits for junior doctors are now well established in hospital work patterns. In order to ensure that trainees have adequate exposure to daytime elective surgical procedures, there is a tendency to have long shifts that include an after-hours component. However, long shifts can cause performance decrement due to time-on-task fatigue. In addition, shifts that encroach upon sleep time result in sleep loss. Using a high-fidelity patient simulation environment, we undertook a randomised, controlled trial to examine fatigue effects. A within-subjects comparison was used to evaluate the effect of 15-hour day shifts on the performance of 12 anaesthesia registrars. Preoperative assessment, machine check and taskwork using 42 task categories were evaluated. In both conditions, there was failure to meet current guidelines for preoperative evaluation or machine check, and when fatigued there was a 'trend'(P=0.06) to a reduction in the number of items in the machine check. With increase in time awake, there was an increase in time taken for explanation to the patient, an increase in mean duration of explanation to the patient, more time looking at the intravenous line or fluids when multi-tasking but less time adjusting the intravenous fluid. These effects are minor during routine uncomplicated induction of anaesthesia, but further investigation is needed to examine fatigue effects during non-routine circumstances.
Sleep. 2012 ;35 (8):1137-46 22851809
Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts.
Clare Anderson, Jason P Sullivan, Erin E Flynn-Evans, Brian E Cade, Charles A Czeisler, Steven W Lockley
STUDY OBJECTIVES Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. DESIGN A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. SETTING Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3(rd) day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P < 0.0005), and also cumulatively with each successive EDWS: Performance on the fifth and sixth shift was significantly worse than on the first shift (P < 0.01). Controlling for time of day, there was a significant acute (time on shift) and chronic (successive EDWS) interaction on psychomotor vigilance testing response times (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Chronic sleep deficiency caused progressive degradation in residents' neurobehavioral performance and exacerbated the effects of acute sleep loss inherent in the 24- to 30-h EDWS that are commonly used in resident schedules. CITATION: Anderson C; Sullivan JP; Flynn-Evans EE; Cade BE; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1137-1146.
Residency training: the King-Devick test and sleep deprivation: study in pre- and post-call neurology residents.
Departments of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.
OBJECTIVE The current study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on the speed and accuracy of eye movements as measured by the King-Devick (K-D) test, a <1-minute test that involves rapid number naming. METHODS In this cohort study, neurology residents and staff from the University of Pennsylvania Health System underwent baseline followed by postcall K-D testing (n = 25); those not taking call (n = 10) also completed baseline and follow-up K-D testing. Differences in the times and errors between baseline and follow-up K-D scores were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Residents taking call had less improvement from baseline K-D times when compared to participants not taking call (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test). For both groups, the change in K-D time from baseline was correlated to amount of sleep obtained (r(s)=-0.50, p = 0.002) and subjective evaluation of level of alertness (r(s)= 0.33, p = 0.05) but had no correlation to time since last caffeine consumption (r(s)=-0.13, p = 0.52). For those residents on their actual call night, the duration of sleep obtained did not correlate with change in K-D scores from baseline (r(s)= 0.13, p = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS The K-D test is sensitive to the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functioning, including rapid eye movements, concentration, and language function. As with other measures of sleep deprivation, K-D performance demonstrated significant interindividual variability in vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Severe fatigue appears to reduce the degree of improvement typically observed in K-D testing.
Med Teach. 2012 ;34 (3):232-9 22364456
A global template for reforming residency without work-hours restrictions: decrease caseloads, increase education. Findings of the Japan Resident Workload Study Group.
Gautam A Deshpande, Kumiko Soejima, Yasushi Ishida, Osamu Takahashi, Joshua L Jacobs, Brian S Heist, Haruo Obara, Hiroshi Nishigori, Tsuguya Fukui
Center for Clinical Epidemiology, St. Luke's Life Science Institute, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND Japanese physician training programs are currently not subject to rigorous national standardization. Despite residency restructuring in 2004, little is known about the current work allocation of residents in Japan. AIMS We quantified the amount of time that Japanese junior residents spend in service versus education in the context of caseload, fatigue, and low-value administrative work. METHODS In this prospective, time-and-motion study, the activity of 1st- and 2nd-year residents at three Japanese community hospitals was observed at 5-min intervals over 1 week, and categorized as patient care, academic, non-patient care, and personal. Self-reported sleep data and caseload information were simultaneously collected. Data were subanalyzed by gender, training level, hospital, and shift. RESULTS A total of 64 participating residents spent substantially more time in patient care activities than education (59.5% vs. 6.8%), and little time on low-value, non-patient work (5.1%). Residents reported a median 5 h of sleep before shifts and excessive sleepiness (median Epworth score, 12). Large variations in caseload were reported (median 10 patients, range 0-60). CONCLUSIONS New physicians in Japan deliver a large volume of high-value patient care, while receiving little structured education and enduring substantial sleep deprivation. In programs without work-hour restrictions, caseload limits may improve safety and quality.
Acad Med. 2012 Apr ;87 (4):395-402 22361798
What do residents do when not working or sleeping? A multispecialty survey of 36 residency programs.
Education Division, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Chicago, Illinois 60654, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE To determine how residents spend their time when not working or sleeping, and to examine correlates of these outside activities. METHOD In 2009, the authors surveyed 36 internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology programs. Residents answered questions about their recently completed first and second residency years, including,"During your past year of residency, outside of working hours, about how often did you…," followed by 10 listed activities and a four-point rating scale (1 ="less than once a week"; 4 ="almost daily"). RESULTS The most frequent activity reported across all 634 respondents was using the Internet, followed by watching television and doing household tasks. The lowest reported activity was moonlighting, followed by seeing a movie. K-cluster analyses divided residents into three clusters:(1)"Friend Focused," reporting higher means for time with friends, Internet use, physical exercise, and watching television,(2)"Family Focused," reporting higher means for time with family, Internet use, household tasks, and watching television, and (3)"Low Activity," reporting the lowest ratings for all activities. Comparisons among these three clusters showed the Low Activity residents to have significantly higher scores on validated depression, anxiety, and sleepiness scales; higher stress; more reported work hours and sleep deprivation; and lower ratings for satisfaction, time with attendings, and learning. Scores for Friend-Focused and Family-Focused clusters were similar to each other. CONCLUSIONS These data provide new information about the residency experience and suggest that activities outside of work and sleep hours correlate highly with residents' mood, learning, and satisfaction.
Nurs Times. ;107 (44):12-3 22165560
Faculty of nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Many nurses deliver care when they are fatigued and sleep deprived, which may place them and patients at risk. A qualitative study found restorative napping on breaks during night shifts helped to improve energy, mood, decision-making and vigilance. This article looks at the benefits night napping can offer nurses doing shift work.
Ir Med J. 2011 Jun ;104 (6):171-3 22111392
Beaumont Hospital RCSI, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9. firstname.lastname@example.org
Sleep deprivation is an established part of the working life for Non-Consultant Hospital Doctors (NCHDs) in Ireland. Concern exists about the effect of extended NCHD work hours. We utilised a Nintendo Wii to evaluate motor function of NCHDs both prior to their on-call shift and the day afterwards. Data was exported to SPSS ver. 15 for statistical analysis with p < 0.05 considered significant. A total of 72 NCHDs were invited to participate in this study. There was a 62.5%(45) rate of follow-up. Overall 27 (60%) NCHDs were on medical call, with 18 (40%) on surgical call. There was no statistically significant difference between NCHDs pre-and post-call motor assessment scores. The majority of study participants (75.5%, n = 34) had four or more hours sleep. On-call duty allows for a greater than anticipated amount of sleep per on-call shift and therefore has a negligible effect on the motor skills of medical staff.
Med Lav. ;102 (5):455-63 22022764
Pediatric Division, Soroka University Medical Center, Israel.
Fatigue among medical residents is a well-known and widely discussed phenomenon that has generated much debate. We wanted to evaluate self-reported fatigue and sleep deprivation, as well as some of the major consequences that have been identified in the period after the medical residents'strike in 2000. A cross sectional study. Seventy-six medical residents at Soroka university medical centre, who were asked to answer a questionnaire about their personal lives and fatigue level. DATA AND RESULTS: The average work-week was 68.1 +/- 12.4 hours. Residents reported 6.0 +/- 1.3 hours of sleep per night on a regular day and an average of 1.1 +/- 0.5 hours during a 24-hour on-call shift. The ESS score was 11.5 +/- 5.4 points. The number of hours worked per week correlated significantly with the ESS score. Of the residents who drove after a night shift, 29.3% reported falling asleep at least once while driving, and 13.9% of drivers reported that they were involved in a motor vehicle accident. In view of these results, we express a deep concern for the future of Israeli medical residents and their patients. We call upon the authorities to develop appropriate working conditions that will ensure the safety of patients and residents.
Use of an appreciative inquiry approach to improve resident sign-out in an era of multiple shift changes.
Adam S Helms, Thomas E Perez, Joseph Baltz, Gerald Donowitz, George Hoke, Ellen J Bass, Margaret L Plews-Ogan
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Healthsystem, P.O. Box 800744, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
BACKGROUND Resident duty hour restrictions have resulted in more frequent patient care handoffs, increasing the need for improved quality of residents' sign-out process. OBJECTIVE To characterize resident sign-out process and identify effective strategies for quality improvement. DESIGN Mixed methods analysis of resident sign-out, including a survey of resident views, prospective observation and characterization of 64 consecutive sign-out sessions, and an appreciative-inquiry approach for quality improvement. PARTICIPANTS Internal medicine residents (n = 89). INTERVENTIONS An appreciative inquiry process identified five exemplar residents and their peers' effective sign-out strategies. MAIN MEASURES Surveys were analyzed and observations of sign-out sessions were characterized for duration and content. Common effective strategies were identified from the five exemplar residents using an appreciative inquiry approach. KEY RESULTS The survey identified wide variations in the methodology of sign-out. Few residents reported that laboratory tests (13%) or medications (16%) were frequently accurate. The duration of observed sign-outs averaged 134 ±73 s per patient for the day shift (6 p.m.) sign-out compared with 59 ± 41 s for the subsequent night shift (8 p.m.) sign-out for the same patients (p = 0.0002). Active problems (89% vs 98%, p = 0.013), treatment plans (52% vs 73%, p = 0.004), and laboratory test results (56% vs 80%, p = 0.002) were discussed less commonly during night compared with day sign-out. The five residents voted best at sign-out (mean vote 11 ± 1.6 vs 1.7 ± 2.3) identified strategies for sign-out:(1) discussing acutely ill patients first,(2) minimizing discussion on straightforward patients,(3) limiting plans to active issues,(4) using a systematic approach, and (5) limiting error-prone chart duplication. CONCLUSIONS Resident views toward sign-out are diverse, and accuracy of written records may be limited. Consecutive sign-outs are associated with degradation of information. An appreciative-inquiry approach capitalizing on exemplar residents was effective at creating standards for sign-out.
UR2NF [Unité de Recherches en Neuropsychologie et Neuroimagerie Fonctionnelle], Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
Pseudoneglect is a slight but consistent misplacement of attention toward the left visual field, commonly observed in young healthy subjects. This leftward attentional bias is thought to result from a right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial processing. Changes in endogenous levels of alertness may modulate attentional asymmetries and pseudoneglect in particular. In line with this hypothesis, it has been shown that sleep deprived shift-workers present a reversal of their attentional bias in a landmark (LDM) task (Manly, T., Dobler, V. B., Dodds, C. M.,& George, M. A.(2005). Rightward shift in spatial awareness with declining alertness. Neuropsychologia, 43(12), 1721-1728). However, circadian disturbances and fatigue effects at the end of a shift work may have contributed to this reversal effect. In a first experiment, we show that sleep deprivation (SD) under controlled conditions does not markedly change the leftward bias, observable both at 21:00 and at 07:00 after SD. In a second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that a drastic reduction or inversion in the attentional bias would be present only when both the circadian drive for sleep propensity is maximal (i.e. around 05:00) and homeostatic sleep pressure is high. Thus participants were tested at 21:00 and under SD conditions at 05:00 and 09:00. Additionally, we used the greyscales (GS) task well-known to evidence a leftward bias in luminance judgments. Although results evidenced a consistent leftward bias both in the LDM and GS, we found a suppression of the leftward bias at the circadian nadir of alertness (05:00) after SD only for the GS, but not for the LDM. Noticeably, the leftward bias in the GS vanished at 05:00 after SD but reappeared at 09:00 despite continued SD, suggesting a predominant circadian influence on attentional asymmetries in the GS. Additionally, inter-sessions correlations evidenced a reproducible, consistent bias both in the LDM and GS, with no consistent relationship between the two tasks, suggesting independence of the neural networks subtending performance in LDM and GS. Overall, our results suggest that SD per se does not impede the leftward bias both in LDM and GS, whereas circadian-related variations in vigilance may impact attentional asymmetries in luminance judgments.