Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box, 56478, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle.
Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium. email@example.com
Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne trematode is the lungfluke (Paragonimus spp.). Traditionally, these parasitic zoonoses are most common in Asia because of the particular food practices and the importance of aquaculture. However, some of these parasites may emerge in other continents through aquaculture and improved transportation and distribution systems. Because of inadequate systems for routine diagnosis and monitoring or reporting for many of the zoonotic parasites, the incidence of human disease and parasite occurrence in food is underestimated. Of particular concern in industrialised countries are the highly resistant waterborne protozoal infections as well as the increased travel and immigration, which increase the exposure to exotic diseases. The increased demand for animal proteins in developing countries will lead to an intensification of the production systems in which the risk of zoonotic infections needs to be assessed. Overall, there is an urgent need for better monitoring and control of food-borne parasites using new technologies.
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Financial loss estimation, prevalence and characterization of hydatidosis of cattle slaughtered at Debre Markos Municipality abattoir, Ethiopia.
Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 56478, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. email@example.com
The study was conducted from May 2005 to December 2006 in Bahir Dar Abattoir to assess the current status of hydatidosis in cattle and sheep. Hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted based on routine meat inspection. Of the total 420 cattle and 340 sheep slaughtered in Bahir Dar Abattoir 143 (34.05%) and 36 (10.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts respectively. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 202 and 54 visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts in cattle and sheep respectively. Differences in prevalence rates between the two species of animals were highly significant (P < 0.001). The infection of the lung, liver, kidney, spleen and heart were found to be 57.9%, 36.6%, 3%, 1.5%, 1% in cattle and 50%, 48.1% and 1.9% in sheep respectively. From the total of 864 in cattle and 138 in sheep hydatid cysts counted 315 (36.4%), 268 (31.0%), 65 (7.5%), 216 (25.0%) in cattle and 92 (66.7%), 20 (14.5%), 1 (0.7%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 484 (56.0%), 164 (18.9%), 216 (25%) in cattle and 35 (25.4%), 78 (56.5%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. Viability rates of 62.2% in cattle and 78.2% in sheep were observed. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung for both cattle and sheep.
Aklilu Lemma institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle. Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 74 visceral organ were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. The infection of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were found to be 45.94% 45.94%, 6.75% and 1.35% respectively. From the total of 283 hydatid cysts counted 153(54.06%), 17(6.00%), 5(1.76%), 108(38.16%) were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 170(60.28%), 5(1.76%) and 108(38.16%) were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung. Hydatid cyst viability rate of 40% was observed.
The burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2.7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. RESULTS: This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. CONCLUSION: Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.
BMC Res Notes. 2012 Aug 7;5 (1):415 22870897
Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthy young adults in a country with high tuberculosis burden and BCG vaccination at birth.
Alemnew F Dagnew, Jemal Hussein, Markos Abebe, Martha Zewdie, Adane Mihret, Ahmed Bedru, Menberework Chanyalew, Lawrence Yamuah, Girmay Medhin, Peter Bang, T Mark Doherty, Asrat Hailu, Abraham Aseffa
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: One third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-gamma release assays including QuantiFERON(R)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth. METHODS: Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7%(95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST greater than or equal to 10 mm), 43.9%(95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9%(95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST greater than or equal to 10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa = 0.83, p value=0.000). CONCLUSION: The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence.
Sodium stibogluconate (SSG)& paromomycin combination compared to SSG for visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: a randomised controlled trial.
Ahmed Musa, Eltahir Khalil, Asrat Hailu, Joseph Olobo, Manica Balasegaram, Raymond Omollo, Tansy Edwards, Juma Rashid, Jane Mbui, Brima Musa, Abuzaid Abdalla Abuzaid, Osama Ahmed, Ahmed Fadlalla, Ahmed El-Hassan, Marius Mueller, Geoffrey Mucee, Simon Njoroge, Veronica Manduku, Geoffrey Mutuma, Lilian Apadet, Hudson Lodenyo, Dedan Mutea, George Kirigi, Sisay Yifru, Getahun Mengistu, Zewdu Hurissa, Workagegnehu Hailu, Teklu Weldegebreal, Hailemariam Tafes, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Eyasu Makonnen, Serah Ndegwa, Patrick Sagaki, Robert Kimutai, Josephine Kesusu, Rhoda Owiti, Sally Ellis, Monique Wasunna
Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
BACKGROUND Alternative treatments for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are required in East Africa. Paromomycin sulphate (PM) has been shown to be efficacious for VL treatment in India. METHODS A multi-centre randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to compare efficacy and safety of PM (20 mg/kg/day for 21 days) and PM plus sodium stibogluconate (SSG) combination (PM, 15 mg/kg/day and SSG, 20 mg/kg/day for 17 days) with SSG (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) for treatment of VL in East Africa. Patients aged 4-60 years with parasitologically confirmed VL were enrolled, excluding patients with contraindications. Primary and secondary efficacy outcomes were parasite clearance at 6-months follow-up and end of treatment, respectively. Safety was assessed mainly using adverse event (AE) data. FINDINGS The PM versus SSG comparison enrolled 205 patients per arm with primary efficacy data available for 198 and 200 patients respectively. The SSG & PM versus SSG comparison enrolled 381 and 386 patients per arm respectively, with primary efficacy data available for 359 patients per arm. In Intention-to-Treat complete-case analyses, the efficacy of PM was significantly lower than SSG (84.3% versus 94.1%, difference = 9.7%, 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.6 to 15.7%, p = 0.002). The efficacy of SSG & PM was comparable to SSG (91.4% versus 93.9%, difference = 2.5%, 95% CI:-1.3 to 6.3%, p = 0.198). End of treatment efficacy results were very similar. There were no apparent differences in the safety profile of the three treatment regimens. CONCLUSION The 17 day SSG & PM combination treatment had a good safety profile and was similar in efficacy to the standard 30 day SSG treatment, suggesting suitability for VL treatment in East Africa. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00255567.
Local increase of arginase activity in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia.
Tamrat Abebe, Asrat Hailu, Mihretu Woldeyes, Woinshet Mekonen, Kassahun Bilcha, Thomas Cloke, Lionel Fry, Nafisa-Katrin Seich Al Basatena, Karina Corware, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Ingrid Müller, Pascale Kropf
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
BACKGROUND Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is in Ethiopia mainly caused by the parasite Leishmania aethiopica. This neglected tropical disease is common in rural areas and causes serious morbidity. Persistent nonhealing cutaneous leishmaniasis has been associated with poor T cell mediated responses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have recently shown in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis that arginase-induced L-arginine metabolism suppresses antigen-specific T cell responses at the site of pathology, but not in the periphery. To test whether these results translate to human disease, we recruited patients presenting with localized lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assessed the levels of arginase activity in cells isolated from peripheral blood and from skin biopsies. Arginase activity was similar in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy controls. In sharp contrast, arginase activity was significantly increased in lesion biopsies of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis as compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the expression levels of CD3ζ, CD4 and CD8 molecules were considerably lower at the site of pathology as compared to those observed in paired PBMCs. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that increased arginase in lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis might play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease by impairing T cell effector functions.
Human intestinal schistosomiasis in communities living near three rivers of jimma town, South Western ethiopia.
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Hawassa University, P. O. Box: 1560 Hawassa, Ethiopia.
BACKGROUND Schistosoma mansoni is one of the parasites with high public and medical importance in Ethiopia. However, information is scarce about S. mansoni epidemiology in people living with higher risk of infection in Jimma town. This study was designed to determine point prevalence, intensity and risk factors of S. mansoni infection among residents nearby three rivers of Jimma town and assess the rate of Biomphalaria species shading cercariae from January to April, 2007. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities residing nearby three rivers of Jimma town. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on socio- demographic and behavioral risk factors. After physical examination, stool samples were collected from 517 study participants and processed with Kato-Katz technique for microscopic examination and quantification of egg load. Snails were collected for identification of Biomphalaria species and then checked for cercarial shading. RESULTS The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.3 % with intensity ranging 24 to 936 eggs per gram of stool. Participants in the age group 10-19 years, OR = 2.19 (95% CI; 1.10 - 4.34), and those living near the Awetu River, OR = 2.67 (95% CI; 1.06 - 6.75), had higher risk of S. mansoni infection. Moreover, water contact while crossing a river, OR = 3.77 (95% CI; 1.79 - 7.95), and swimming, OR = 2.59 (95% CI; 1.37 - 4.91, was significantly associated with infection. Biomphalaria snails collected from Chore and Awetu Rivers shaded higher rate of cercariae compared with Kito River. CONCLUSION A moderate prevalence of S. mansoni infection was shown in the study population. Infection rate among the residents correlated with rate of cercarial shading Biomphalaria snails. Treatment of targeted groups, appropriate health education and environmental measures (e.g. snail control) are needed to improve the situation.
Lymphatic filariasis in western Ethiopia with special emphasis on prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia in and around onchocerciasis endemic areas.
Welelta Shiferaw, Tadesse Kebede, Patricia M Graves, Lemu Golasa, Teshome Gebre, Aryc W Mosher, Abiot Tadesse, Heven Sime, Tariku Lambiyo, K N Panicker, Frank O Richards, Asrat Hailu
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (DMIP); Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Lymphatic filariasis is known to be endemic in Gambella Region, western Ethiopia, but the full extent of its endemicity in other regions is unknown. A national mapping program for Ethiopia was initiated in 2008. This report summarizes initial data on the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia based on surveys carried out in a sampled population of 11685 individuals living in 125 villages (112 districts) of western Ethiopia. The overall prevalence rate was 3.7%, but high geographical clustering and variation in prevalence (ranging from 0% to more than 50%) was found. The prevalence of hydrocele (in males) and lymphoedema of limbs was 0.8% and 3.6% respectively. Significantly higher (χ(2)=49.6; P<0.01) prevalence of antigenaemia was noted in known onchocerciasis endemic districts (4.7%) compared to non-onchocerciasis endemic districts (2.3%). Thirty-four of the 112 districts, with a population of 1547685 in 2007, were found to be endemic. Of these, the numbers of districts with prevalence rates of >20%, 10-20% and 5-9% were nine, 14 and 20 respectively. Twenty-nine of these 34 endemic districts were found in three regions: Gambella Region (seven districts), Beneshangul-Gumuz Region (13 districts), and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region (SNNPR)(nine districts). The other five were from Amhara (two districts) and Oromia (three districts) regions. A tentative distribution map has been drawn to facilitate the launching of the Ethiopia LF elimination program.
Ethiop Med J. 2011 Jul ;49 (3):221-9 21991755
Ten years experience of directly observed treatment short-course (dots) therapy for tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology. P.O.Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia. email@example.com
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is still the leading cause of death worldwide accounting for 2.5% of the global burden of disease and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) programme in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 1998-2007. METHODS Institutional-based retrospective study was employed Reports using world health organization (WHO) format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all Sub-cities of the city to the Federal Ministry of Health were collected RESULTS Between the years (1998-2007), 133,340 patients with all form of TB were registered. Of these, 40,929 (31%) were AFB + ve Pulmonary TB (PTB+ve), 48,491 (36%) were AFB-ve Pulmonary TB (PTB-ve), and 43,920 (33%) were Extra Pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases. The trend of case detection rate (CDR) for new smear positive pulmonary TB cases has increased from 73% in 1998 to its peak 113% in 2000 and then it decreased to 68% in 2007. The treatment success rate (TSR) has value with an average and standard deviation of 80% and 3.2, respectively from 1999 to 2007. CONCLUSION It is possible to achieve the recommended WHO target (70% CDR & 85% TSR) as can be seen how closely these targets were approached (68%& 81%, respectively) in the city in 2007; However, this requires seeking alternative case finding mechanisms.
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J Helminthol. 2012 Jan 20;:1-3 22260813
Clinical Veterinary Medicine Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, PO Box 199, Karditsa GR-43100, Greece.
This study reports seven rare cases of non-cerebral coenurosis in sheep. The sheep were slaughtered in abattoirs of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) but originated from India, Iran, Oman and Sudan. The prevalence of infection with non-cerebral coenurosis was 0.008%. The locations of the cysts were the triceps brachii muscle, the diaphragm, the infraspinatus muscle of the shoulder, the muscles of the thigh and the abdomen, and the ommentum. The Coenurus cysts were surrounded by a fibrous, semi-opaque membrane, cloudy white in colour. Altogether, 12 cysts were recovered and all contained a single bladderworm. Cysts had a volume of 7.3 ± 1.30 cm3 (ml), with 7.3 ± 4.0 clusters of scolices, and an average number of scolices 75.3 ± 24.4. These features in sheep were similar to those reported for non-cerebral Coenurus cysts in goats. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord of any of the infected sheep. No clinical evidence of non-cerebral coenurosis had been recorded during the antemortem veterinary inspection of the infected sheep.
Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.
V E Soares, M A De Andrade Belo, P C B Rezende, V T Soccol, R T Fukuda, G P De Ooliveira, A J Da Costa
Camilo Castelo Branco University, Descalvado, SP, Brazil.
A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite.
Detection of a morphogenetically novel Sarcocystis hominis-like in the context of a prevalence study in semi-intensively bred cattle in Italy.
Lorenzo Domenis, Simone Peletto, Luciano Sacchi, Emanuela Clementi, Marco Genchi, Lucia Felisari, Carla Felisari, Patrizia Mo, Paola Modesto, Fabio Zuccon, Chiara Campanella, Cristiana Maurella, Cristina Guidetti, Pier Luigi Acutis
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sarcosporidiosis in semi-intensively bred cattle in northwestern Italy. A diagnostic protocol was setup in which infected animals were identified by rapid histological examination of the esophagus, diaphragm, and heart and the detected Sarcocystis spp. were subsequently typed using conventional electron microscopy in combination with molecular techniques. Sarcosporidia cysts were detected in 78.1% of the animals and were seen most often in the esophagus. The cattle is intermediate host for Sarcocystis hominis (final host, humans and some primates), Sarcocystis cruzi (final host, domestic and wild canids), and Sarcocystis hirsuta (final host, wild and domestic cats).All these three species of Sarcocystis were identified, variously associated, with the following prevalence: S. cruzi (74.2%), S. hirsuta (1.8%), and S. hominis (42.7%). Furthermore, a new S. hominis-like (prevalence 18.5%), characterized by hook-like structures of villar protrusion and a different sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, was identified. The cattle sheds testing positive for zoonotic Sarcocystis were assessed for risk factors contributing to the maintenance of the parasite's life cycle. Significant associations emerged between consumption of raw meat by the farm owner, mountain pasturing, and absence of a sewerage system on the farm and cattle breed. Our study demonstrates that sarcosporidiosis may constitute a public health problem in Italy and indicates several issues to be addressed when planning surveillance and prevention actions. The applied diagnostic approach revealed that cattle can harbor a further type of Sarcocystis, of which life cycle and zoonotic potential should be investigated.
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Queensland 4072, Australia. email@example.com
Prevalence, biology, and distribution pattern of Sarcocystis infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Iran.
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, distribution pattern, and the Sarcocystis species involved in slaughtered water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the Khuzestan, Iran by macroscopic and histological examination. The esophagus, heart, diaphragm, tongue, masseter, and thigh muscles were investigated. Esophagus and thigh muscles of only 3 of the 100 examined water buffaloes (3%) were infected with macroscopic Sarcocystis, whereas at microscopic level Sarcocystis were found in 83 of the 100 examined animals (83%). The highest prevalence rate of microscopic cysts was found in masseter muscle (57.1%) and then followed by tongue, diaphragm, esophagus, heart, and finally, thigh muscles (30.0%). There was no significant difference between males (83.6%) and females (82.0%) or between two investigated age groups (<or=2 years old, 78% versus >2 years old, 88%). Based on the size of the sarcocysts, thickness of the walls and location of the cysts, Sarcocystis buffalonis as a macroscopic form and Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis dubeyi as the microscopic forms were diagnosed in the examined muscles of the buffaloes of this area. Sarcocystis fusiformis was not seen in the examined organs of these buffaloes. The high prevalence rate of microscopic Sarcocystis in this region indicates that dogs have a more significant role than cats in transmission of these protozoa.
Res Vet Sci. 2011 Feb ;90 (1):84-8 20493507
Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.
Welber D Z Lopes, Thaís R Santos, Vando E Soares, Jorge L N Nunes, Rafael P Mendonça, Roberto C A de Lima, Cláudio A M Sakamoto, Gustavo H N Costa, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Gilson P Oliveira, Alvimar J Costa
CPPAR-Animal Health Research Center-Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donatto Castellani, s/n CEP:14884-900 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org
The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02%(6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98%(2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23%(5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae.
Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010 Apr 10;: 20379775
Prevalence of thin-walled Sarcocystis cruzi and thick-walled Sarcocystis hirsuta or Sarcocystis hominis from cattle in Iran.
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran, email@example.com.
Bovine sarcocystosis is caused by Sarcocystis cruzi and is known to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. This species is distributed worldwide in cattle and is the most prevalent of the Sarcocystis species infecting cattle. There is high infection rate of sarcocyst in cattle in Iran, but to our knowledge, there is no study about identification of Sarcocystis species. This work aimed to survey prevalence of S. cruzi cyst in slaughtered cattle of Isfahan, Iran. In this study, esophageal and diaphragmatic muscles of 100 cattle were collected from Fesaran abattoir of Isfahan and examined for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. cysts macroscopically and microscopically. No macroscopic sarcocysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 89 out of 100 cattle (89%) had thin-walled cysts of S. cruzi, while 21 out of them (21%) had thick-walled sarcocysts. In addition to light microscopy, ultrastructural features of the thin-walled cyst confirmed the presence of S. cruzi.
Study on the prevalence of cystic hydatidosis and its economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, Ethiopia.
College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia, firstname.lastname@example.org.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2008 to March 2009 to assess the status of cystic hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. Out of the total 632 cattle examined visually and manually (palpation and incision), 333 (52.69%) were found harboring hydatid cysts. A significantly higher infection was detected in older cattle (P < 0.05, chi (2)= 4.36) than young. Regarding body condition score, no significant variation (P > 0.05, chi (2)= 2.148) was observed as the prevalence was 54.55% for lean cattle followed by medium (53.83%) and fat (46.88%). Of the total 333 infected, 123 (36.9%) had hydatid cysts only in the lung, 23 (6.9%) in the liver, 12 (3.6%) in the spleen, five (1.5%) in the heart, and three (0.9%) in the kidney while the rest 167 (50.2%) had multiple organ infections. Of the 530 viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest (52.83%) was lung followed by liver (34.15%), spleen (9.06%), heart (3.39%), and kidney (0.56%). Size assessment made on 874 cysts indicated that 308 (35.3%) were small, 251 (28.7%) medium, 89 (10.2%) large, and 226 (25.9%) were calcified. The distribution of characterized cysts in different organs based on their size was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, out of the total 874 cysts collected, 26.9% were fertile, 47.3% sterile, and 25.9% calcified or purulent cysts. There was a significant difference in fertility of cyst from different organs (P < 0.05, chi (2)= 27.96), those of lung origin being highly fertile. Likewise, out of the 121 fertile cysts subjected for viability test, 68 (56.2%) were viable. Considering the current result, the total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to bovine hydatidosis at Hawassa Municipal abattoir was estimated at 1,791,625.89 Ethiopian Birr (ETB; 1USD = 12.93ETB). Results in the study were discussed in light of the situation in different parts of Ethiopia and abroad, and finally, relevant recommendations were forwarded.
Addis Ababa City Urban Agricultural Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid cysts were found in 206 (19.94%) and 102 (16%) of the sheep and goats inspected, respectively. Statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the two species. Likewise, there was significant difference in infection rates between the two sexes and different age groups in both sheep and goats (P < 0.5). The study showed that hydatidosis is prevalent in Ethiopia. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures to minimize the rate of infection and reduce the ensuing economic losses.
Hydatidosis: prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia.
Haramaya University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box, 13, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997-2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence of the parasite during this period. A total of 1152 ruminants (852 cattle, 92 sheep and 208 goats) were inspected following slaughter. Hydatidosis was prevalent in 46.8% cattle, 29.3% sheep, and 6.7% goats. In cattle, 326 (55.2%) of the lung, 219 (37.1%) of the liver, 21 (3.6%) of the spleen, 15 (2.5%) of the heart and 10 (1.7%) of the kidney were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. In sheep, hydatid cysts were recovered from 22 (55.0%) of the lung, 16 (40.0%) of the liver and 2 (5.0%) of the spleen while none of the heart and kidney were recorded positive. In goats, the degree of infection was 6 (33.3%) of lung, 10 (55.6%) of liver, 1 (5.6%) of spleen and kidney each. According to the retrospective data, a total of 107,333 cattle were slaughtered and during this period 13,519 of the liver, 18,304 of the lung, 1142 of the kidneys, 537 of the hearts and 150 of the spleens were found to be infected with hydatidosis. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir was estimated to be to 52,828 ETB (5869.8 USD). The current results suggest that a thorough investigation that leads to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of hydatidosis.