Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Trongha Phan, Sung Han, Hongbing Wang, Guy C-K Chan, Zachary S Scheiner, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathways have critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. We found that extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and cAMP underwent a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus that was paralleled by changes in Ras activity and the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The nadir of this activation cycle corresponded with severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent fear conditioning under both light-dark and free-running conditions. Circadian oscillations in cAMP and MAPK activity were absent in memory-deficient transgenic mice that lacked Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Furthermore, physiological and pharmacological interference with oscillations in MAPK phosphorylation after the cellular memory consolidation period impaired the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend on reactivation of the cAMP/MAPK/CREB transcriptional pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Apr 26;: 21521363
Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition upregulates NMDA-evoked currents in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Department of Pharmacology, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China Pharmacy Department, Hebei University of Science and Technology, 70 Yuhua East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050018, China Department of Toxicology, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050017, China.
Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in hippocampus play very important roles in the regulation of learning and memory. Here, we showed that dihydroouabain (DHO, 10(-5)-10(-3) m), a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, significantly potentiated NMDA current in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by PP2 (the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and PD-98059 [the selective inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) cascade]. These findings reported here uncover that Src mediates the cross-talk between Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NMDA receptor to transduce the signals from Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to the MAPK cascade and provide new insights into therapeutic target for deeper understanding of the nature of cognitive disorder.
Early growth response-1 induction by fibroblast growth factor-1 via increase of mitogen-activated protein kinase and inhibition of protein kinase B in hippocampal neurons.
Institut für Anatomie III, Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3476 Genetics and Biotechnology, 425 Henry Mall, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. email@example.com
There has been considerable progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that contribute to memory formation and the generation of circadian rhythms. However, it is not well understood how these two processes interact to generate long-term memory. Recent studies in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have shown time-of-day effects on neurophysiology and memory formation, and have revealed a possible role for cycling molecules in memory persistence. Together, these studies suggest that common mechanisms underlie circadian rhythmicity and long-term memory formation.
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2441 E. Hartford Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA.
Memory consolidation requires transcription and translation of new protein. Arc, an effector immediate early gene, and zif268, a regulatory transcription factor, have been implicated in synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. This study explored the temporal expression profiles of these proteins in the rat hippocampus following fear conditioning. We observed a time-dependent increase of Arc protein in the dorsal hippocampus 30-to-90-minute post training, returning to basal levels at 4 h. Zif268 protein levels, however, gradually increased at 30-minute post training before peaking in expression at 60 minute. The timing of hippocampal Arc and zif268 expression coincides with the critical period for protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation following fear conditioning. However, the expression of Arc protein appears to be driven by context exploration, whereas, zif268 expression may be more specifically related to associative learning. These findings suggest that altered Arc and zif268 expression are related to neural plasticity during the formation of fear memory.
Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH 44195, USA.
Deficiency of the transcription factor BMAL1, a core component of the circadian clock, results in an accelerated aging phenotype in mice. The circadian clock regulates many physiological processes and was recently implicated in control of brain-based activities, such as memory formation and the regulation of emotions. Aging is accompanied by the decline in brain physiology, particularly decline in the response and adaptation to novelty. We investigated the role of the circadian clock in exploratory behavior and habituation to novelty using the open field paradigm. We found that mice with a deficiency of the circadian transcription factor BMAL1 display hyperactivity in novel environments and impaired intra- and intersession habituation, indicative of defects in short- and long-term memory formation. In contrast, mice double-deficient for the circadian proteins CRY1 and CRY2 (repressors of the BMAL1-mediated transcription) demonstrate reduced activity and accelerated habituation when compared to wild type mice. Mice with mutation in theClock gene (encoding the BMAL1 transcription partner) show normal locomotion, but increased rearing activity and impaired intersession habituation. BMAL1 is highly expressed in the neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region associated with spatial memory formation; BMAL1 deficiency disrupts circadian oscillation in gene expression and reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the brain, which may be among the possible mechanisms involved. Thus, we suggest that the BMAL1:CLOCK activity is critical for the proper exploratory and habituation behavior, and that the circadian clock prepares organism for a new round of everyday activities through optimization of behavioral learning.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California-Irvine, Irvine CA 92697, USA.
In recent years spectacular advances in the field of epigenetics have taken place. Multiple lines of evidence that connect epigenetic regulation to brain functions have been accumulating. Neurons daily convert a variety of external stimuli into rapid or long-lasting changes in gene expression. Control is achieved through several covalent modifications that occur both on DNA and chromatin. Specific modifications mediate many developmental processes and adult brain functions, such as synaptic plasticity and memory. In this review, we focus on crucial chromatin remodeling events that mediate long-lasting neuronal responses. The challenging goal is to reach sufficient understanding of these epigenetic pathways in the brain so that they may be useful for future development of specific pharmacological strategies.
Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
The endogenous circadian clock modulates cognitive performance over the daily 24-h cycle. Environmental disturbance of the clock, such as shift work or jet lag schedules, compromises sleep, alertness and problem solving. What is not generally appreciated, however, is that the circadian clock also modulates cognitive activity independently of time spent awake. The molecular identification of circadian clock genes in higher eukaryotes has revealed a conserved intracellular mechanism that, if disrupted by mutation, can have significant implications for mental and physical health. These molecular clocks tick away in different brain areas, and their circadian phases and anatomical relationships to the central brain pacemakers indicate new ways for understanding the mechanisms of interaction between circadian clocks, sleep and cognition.
PER2 rhythms in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).
Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI- 48824, USA; Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI- 48824, USA.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the central pacemaker that controls circadian rhythms in mammals. In diurnal grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus), many functional aspects of the SCN are similar to those of nocturnal rodents, making it likely that the difference in the circadian system of diurnal and nocturnal animals lies downstream from the SCN. Rhythms in clock genes expression occur in several brain regions outside the SCN that may function as extra-SCN oscillators. In male grass rats PER1 is expressed in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST-ov) and in the central and basolateral amygdala (CEA and BLA, respectively); several features of PER1 expression in these regions of the grass rat brain differ substantially from those of nocturnal species. Here we describe PER2 rhythms in the same three brain regions of the grass rat. In the BNST-ov and CEA PER2 expression peaked early in the light period Zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 and was low during the early night, which is the reverse of the pattern of nocturnal rodents. In the BLA, PER2 expression was relatively low for most of the 24-hour cycle, but showed an acute elevation late in the light period (ZT10). This pattern is also different from that of nocturnal rodents that show elevated PER2 expression in the mid to late night and into the early day. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that diurnal behavior is associated with a phase change between the SCN and extra-SCN oscillators.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
There is much interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for interactions among stress, aging, memory and Alzheimer's disease. Glucocorticoid secretion associated with early life stress may contribute to the variability of the aging process and to the development of neuro- and psychopathologies. Maternal separation (MS), a model of early life stress in which rats experience 3 h of daily separation from the dam during the first 3 weeks of life, was used to study the interactions between stress and aging. Young (3 months) MS rats showed an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, depressive-like behavior in the Porsolt swimming test and cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze and new object recognition test that persisted in aged (18 months) rats. Levels of insulin receptor, phosphorylated insulin receptor and markers of downstream signaling pathways (pAkt, pGSK3beta, pTau, and pERK1 levels) were significantly decreased in aged rats. There was a significant decrease in pERK2 and in the plasticity marker ARC in MS aged rats compared with single MS or aged rats. It is interesting to note that there was a significant increase in the C99 : C83 ratio, Abeta levels, and BACE1 levels the hippocampus of MS aged rats, suggesting that in aged rats subjected to early life stress, there was an increase in the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). These results are integrated in a tentative mechanism through which aging interplay with stress to influence cognition as the basis of Alzheimer disease (AD). The present results may provide the proof-of-concept for the use of glucocorticoid-/insulin-related drugs in the treatment of AD.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 24 February 2010; doi:10.1038/npp.2010.13.
ABSTRACT: Studies into the mechanisms of corticosteroid action continue to be a rich bed of research, spanning the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology through to immunology and metabolism. However, the vast literature generated, in particular with respect to corticosteroid actions in the brain, tends to be contentious, with some aspects suffering from loose definitions, poorly-defined models, and appropriate dissection kits. Here, rather than presenting a comprehensive review of the subject, we aim to present a critique of key concepts that have emerged over the years so as to stimulate new thoughts in the field by identifying apparent shortcomings. This article will draw on experience and knowledge derived from studies of the neural actions of other steroid hormones, in particular estrogens, not only because there are many parallels but also because 'learning from differences' can be a fruitful approach. The core purpose of this review is to consider the mechanisms through which corticosteroids might act rapidly to alter neural signaling.
Other papers by authors:
Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Trongha Phan, Sung Han, Hongbing Wang, Guy C K Chan, Zachary S Scheiner, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal transduction pathways have critical roles in the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. We found that extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 MAPK phosphorylation and cAMP underwent a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus that was paralleled by changes in Ras activity and the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The nadir of this activation cycle corresponded with severe deficits in hippocampus-dependent fear conditioning under both light-dark and free-running conditions. Circadian oscillations in cAMP and MAPK activity were absent in memory-deficient transgenic mice that lacked Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. Furthermore, physiological and pharmacological interference with oscillations in MAPK phosphorylation after the cellular memory consolidation period impaired the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory. These data suggest that the persistence of long-term memories may depend on reactivation of the cAMP/MAPK/CREB transcriptional pathway in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle.
The diurnal oscillation of MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and adenylyl cyclase activities in the hippocampus depends on the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
Trongha X Phan, Trongha H Phan, Guy C-K Chan, Carlos B Sindreu, Kristin L Eckel-Mahan, Daniel R Storm
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7750, USA.
Consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory is dependent on activation of the cAMP/Erk/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus. Recently, we discovered that adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities undergo a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus and that inhibition of this oscillation impairs contextual memory. This suggests the interesting possibility that the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory depends upon the reactivation of MAPK in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. A key unanswered question is whether the circadian oscillation of this signaling pathway is intrinsic to the hippocampus or is driven by the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To address this question, we ablated the SCN of mice by electrolytic lesion and examined hippocampus-dependent memory as well as adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities. Electrolytic lesion of the SCN 2 d after training for contextual fear memory reduced contextual memory measured 2 weeks after training, indicating that maintenance of contextual memory depends on the SCN. Spatial memory was also compromised in SCN-lesioned mice. Furthermore, the diurnal oscillation of adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities in the hippocampus was destroyed by lesioning of the SCN. These data suggest that hippocampus-dependent long-term memory is dependent on the SCN-controlled oscillation of the adenylyl cyclase/MAPK pathway in the hippocampus.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Cocaine sensitization is produced by repeated exposure to the drug and is thought to reflect neuroadaptations that contribute to addiction. Here, we identify the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 (AC1) and type 8 (AC8), as novel regulators of this behavioral plasticity. We show that, whereas AC1 and AC8 single knock-out mice (AC1(-/-) and AC8(-/-)) exhibit Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in striatal membrane fractions, AC1/8 double-knock-out (DKO) mice do not. Furthermore, DKO mice are acutely supersensitive to low doses of cocaine and fail to display locomotor sensitization after chronic cocaine treatment. Because of the known role for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity and its coupling to calcium-stimulated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus, we measured phosphorylated ERK (pERK) levels in the striatum. Under basal conditions, pERK is upregulated in choline acetyltransferase-positive interneurons in DKO mice relative to wild-type (WT) controls. After acute cocaine treatment, pERK signaling is significantly suppressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of DKO mice relative to WT mice. In addition to the lack of striatal ERK activation by acute cocaine, signaling machinery downstream of ERK is uncoupled in DKO mice. We demonstrate that AC1 and AC8 are necessary for the phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (pMSK1) at Ser376 and Thr581 and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) at Ser133 after acute cocaine treatment. Our results demonstrate that the Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases regulate long-lasting cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity via activation of the ERK/MSK1/CREB signaling pathway in striatonigral MSNs.
Ca-stimulated type 8 adenylyl cyclase is required for rapid acquisition of novel spatial information and for working/episodic-like memory.
Ming Zhang, Changjong Moon, Guy C-K Chan, Lan Yang, Fei Zheng, Alana C Conti, Lisa Muglia, Louis J Muglia, Daniel R Storm, Hongbing Wang
Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
Ca-stimulated adenylyl cyclases (ACs) transduce neuronal stimulation-evoked increase in calcium to the production of cAMP, which impinges on the regulation of many aspects of neuronal function. Type 1 and type 8 AC (AC1 and AC8) are the only ACs that are directly stimulated by Ca. Although AC1 function was implicated in regulating reference spatial memory, the function of AC8 in memory formation is not known. Because of the different biochemical properties of AC1 and AC8, these two enzymes may have distinct functions. For example, AC1 activity is regulated by both Ca and G-proteins. In contrast, AC8 is a pure Ca sensor. It is neither stimulated by G(s) nor inhibited by G(i). Recent studies also suggested that AC1 and AC8 were differentially concentrated at different subcellular domains, implicating that Ca-stimulated signaling might be compartmentalized. In this study, we used AC8 knock-out (KO) mice and found behavioral deficits in memory retention for temporal dissociative passive avoidance and object recognition memory. When examined by Morris water maze, AC8 KO mice showed normal reference memory. However, the acquisition of newer spatial information was defective in AC8 KO mice. Furthermore, AC8 KO mice were severely impaired in hippocampus-dependent episodic-like memory when examined by the delayed matching-to-place task. Because AC8 is preferentially localized at the presynaptic active zone, our results suggest a novel role of presynaptic cAMP signaling in memory acquisition and retention, as well as distinct mechanisms underlying reference and working/episodic-like memory.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Specific subcellular targeting and spatial arrangement of signaling molecules are important for efficient signal transduction. The neuro-specific type-I adenylyl cyclase (AC1) is stimulated by Ca2+, and plays an essential role in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity. We generated hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged AC1 to study its subcellular localization in cultured neurons. The HA-tagged AC1 has similar enzymatic activity and regulatory properties to that of non-tagged protein. HA-AC1 targeted to both apical and basolateral domains in the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and it was found in both axons and dendrites in cultured hippocampal neurons as well as in cerebellar granule neurons. Interestingly, AC1 showed a distinct punctate form of immunostaining in MDCK cells and transfected neurons, suggesting it targets to specific subcellular domains. By immunostaining with different synaptic markers, we found that AC1 puncta were located at the excitatory synapses in cerebellar granule neurons. Our data provide a possible cellular mechanism for the physiological role of AC1 in neuroplasticity.
Bidirectional synaptic plasticity and spatial memory flexibility require Ca2+-stimulated adenylyl cyclases.
Department of Physiology, Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
When certain memory becomes obsolete, effective suppression of the previously established memory is essential for animals to adapt to the changing environment. At the cellular level, reversal of synaptic potentiation may be important for neurons to acquire new information and to prevent synaptic saturation. Here, we investigated the function of Ca(2+)-stimulated cAMP signaling in the regulation of bidirectional synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation in double knock-out mice (DKO) lacking both type 1 and 8 adenylyl cyclases (ACs). In anesthetized animals, the DKO mutants showed defective long-term potentiation (LTP) after a single high-frequency stimulation (HFS) or two spaced HFSs at 100 Hz. However, DKO mice showed normal LTP after a single HFS at 200 Hz or two compressed HFSs at 100 Hz. Interestingly, reversal of synaptic potentiation as well as de novo synaptic depression was impaired in DKO mice. In the Morris water maze, DKO mice showed defective acquisition and memory retention, although the deficits could be attenuated by overtraining or compressed trainings with a shorter intertrial interval. In the reversal platform test, DKO animals were impaired in both relearning and old memory suppression. Furthermore, the extinction of the old spatial memory was not efficient in DKO mice. These data demonstrate that Ca(2+)-stimulated AC activity is important not only for LTP and spatial memory formation but also for the suppression of both previously established synaptic potentiation and old spatial memory.
The type 3 adenylyl cyclase is required for novel object learning and extinction of contextual memory: role of cAMP signaling in primary cilia.
College of Life Science, Hebei University, Baoding, People's Republic of China.
Although primary cilia are found on neurons throughout the brain, their physiological function remains elusive. Human ciliopathies are associated with cognition defects, and transgenic mice lacking proteins expressed in primary cilia exhibit defects in learning and memory. Recently, it was reported that mice lacking the G-protein-coupling receptor somatostatin receptor-3 (SSTR3), a protein expressed predominately in the primary cilia of neurons, have defective memory for novel object recognition and lower cAMP levels in the brain. Since SSTR3 is coupled to regulation of adenylyl cyclase, this suggests that adenylyl cyclase activity in primary cilia of CNS neurons may be critical for some forms of learning and memory. Because the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) is expressed in primary cilia of hippocampal neurons, we examined AC3(-/-) mice for several forms of learning and memory. Here, we report that AC3(-/-) mice show no short-term memory for novel objects and fail to exhibit extinction of contextual fear conditioning. They also show impaired learning and memory for temporally dissociative passive avoidance. Since AC3 is exclusively expressed in primary cilia, we conclude that cAMP signals generated within primary cilia contribute to some forms of learning and memory, including extinction of contextual fear conditioning.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.
BACKGROUND A recent study of obesity in Swedish men found that polymorphisms in the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) are associated with obesity, suggesting the interesting possibility that AC3 may play a role in weight control. Therefore, we examined the weight of AC3 mice over an extended period of time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We discovered that AC3(-/-) mice become obese as they age. Adult male AC3(-/-) mice are about 40% heavier than wild type male mice while female AC3(-/-) are 70% heavier. The additional weight of AC3(-/-) mice is due to increased fat mass and larger adipocytes. Before the onset of obesity, young AC3(-/-) mice exhibit reduced physical activity, increased food consumption, and leptin insensitivity. Surprisingly, the obesity of AC3(-/-) mice is not due to a loss of AC3 from white adipose and a decrease in lipolysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE We conclude that mice lacking AC3 exhibit obesity that is apparently caused by low locomotor activity, hyperphagia, and leptin insensitivity. The presence of AC3 in primary cilia of neurons of the hypothalamus suggests that cAMP signals generated by AC3 in the hypothalamus may play a critical role in regulation of body weight.
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, 2226 B Gillespie NRF, Irvine, California 92697-4625, USA.
The influence of circadian rhythms on memory has long been studied; however, the molecular prerequisites for their interaction remain elusive. The hippocampus, which is a region of the brain important for long-term memory formation and temporary maintenance, shows circadian rhythmicity in pathways central to the memory-consolidation process. As neuronal plasticity is the translation of numerous inputs, illuminating the direct molecular links between circadian rhythms and memory consolidation remains a daunting task. However, the elucidation of how clock genes contribute to synaptic plasticity could provide such a link. Furthermore, the idea that memory training could actually function as a zeitgeber for hippocampal neurons is worth consideration, based on our knowledge of the entrainment of the circadian clock system. The integration of many inputs in the hippocampus affects memory consolidation at both the cellular and the systems level, leaving the molecular connections between circadian rhythmicity and memory relatively obscure but ripe for investigation.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
Although molecular mechanisms for hippocampus-dependent memory have been extensively studied, much less is known about signaling events important for remote memory. Here we report that mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) are able to establish and retrieve remote contextual memory but unable to sustain it as long as wild-type mice. Interestingly, mice overexpressing AC1 show superior remote contextual memory even though they exhibit normal hippocampus-dependent contextual memory. These data illustrate that calcium coupling to cAMP contributes to the stability of remote memory and identifies AC1 as a potential drug target site to improve long-term remote memory.