Borrelia-like organism in heart capillaries of patient with Lyme-disease seen by electron microscopy.
A case of a patient who developed an acute myocarditis due to Lyme disease is reported. An increased serum antibody titer to Borrelia burgdorferi suggested a diagnosis and in addition of basic clinical methods, endomyocardial biopsy performed and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The lumen of myocardial capillaries was founded mostly filled with detritus and fibrin precipitate, between them several bacterial fragments were identified. The electron-microscopic characteristics of the microorganisms in this specimen, revealing irregularly coiled appearance and consistent thickness of 0.2 μm, correspond to the spiral-like structure of Lyme disease borrelia. The presence of fibrin deposits on the capillary endothelium and necrosis of myocardiocytes, suggests that the cardiopathy in our patient was represent borrelia-mediated damage of the heart microcirculation.
Int J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 10;: 20226549
Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina, Clinic of Cardiology, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia.
A 36year old male patient presented to emergency cardiology department because of fatigability. ECG revealed high grade II atrio-ventricular block and bradycardia of 31beats/min. An erythema increasing in size to up to 7-8cm in diameter appeared a month earlier and spontaneously resolved within 10days. ELISA testing for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi IgM was positive and IgG titer was 1:40. Intravenous ceftriaxone 2g qod, and 0.5g metronidazole tid lead to regression of grade II block to grade I block within 2days. Grade I block persisted for an additional 10days. This is a relatively rare case of early occurrence of Lyme carditis within one month of exposure as the first sign of Lyme disease dissemination.
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Pathology Department, Institute for Lung Diseases of Vojvodina, 21234, Sremska Kamenica, Serbia. firstname.lastname@example.org.
UNLABELLED ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND This study aims to analyze the structure and quantities of cellular elements in sarcoid granulomas. METHODS We investigated 34 transbronchial lung biopsy samples obtained from 34 sarcoid patients. The quantity and composition of the cellular elements inside a granuloma were determined by the quantitative stereometry method, employing the numerical density as a stereological method. RESULTS A total of 102 sarcoid granulomas were analyzed. The central part of all granulomas was occupied by epithelioid cells. Besides these, giant cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and plasma cells were also seen. The mean numerical density of all the cells in the central part of a sarcoid granuloma was 111,751 mm-3. Lymphocytes prevailed in number, exceeding the total count of all other cells. With a mean numerical density of 74,321 mm-3, lymphocytes were twice as numerous as both epithelioid cells and macrophages with a mean numerical density of 37,193 mm-3. CONCLUSIONS Lymphocytes are the predominant cell type in the central part of a sarcoid granuloma, significantly exceeding both epithelioid cells and macrophages in number, raising the question if the term "epithelioid granuloma", routinely used to designate sarcoid granulomas, is correct, or if it would be more logical to call them "lymphocytic-epithelioid granulomas" instead. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection Grant Number 175006/2011.
Goran Kekovic, Milka Culic, Ljiljana Martac, Gordana Stojadinovic, Ivan Capo, Dusan Lalosevic, Slobodan Sekulic
Institute for Biological Research "S. Stankovic", University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, Belgrade, Serbia. email@example.com
Aluminium interferes with a variety of cellular metabolic processes in the mammalian nervous system and its intake might increase a risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). While cerebral involvement even at the early stages of intoxication is well known, the role of cerebellum is underestimated. Our aim was to investigate cerebral and cerebellar electrocortical activity in adult male rats exposed to chronic aluminium treatment by nonlinear analytic tools. The adult rats in an aluminium-treated group were injected by AlCl(3), intraperitoneally (2 mg Al/kg, daily for 4 weeks). Fractal analysis of brain activity was performed off-line using Higuchi's algorithm. The average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in aluminium-treated animals was lower than the average fractal dimension of electrocortical activity in the control rats, at cerebral but not at cerebellar level. The changes in the stationary and nonlinear properties of time series were more expressed in cerebral electrocortical activity than in cerebellar activity. This can be useful for developing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative diseases.