Government College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad-415 124, India.
The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.
Pharm Biol. 2011 Apr ;49 (4):354-61 21428863
Evaluation of antidiarrheal and in vitro antiprotozoal activities of extracts of leaves of Alocasia indica.
Department of Pharmacology, Government College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad, Maharashtra, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
CONTEXT Alocasia indica Schott (Araceae) is used in several regions of India, especially in rural communities, by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhea. However, no scientific data are available to justify the traditional potentials of the plant species in gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the antidiarrheal and in vitro antiprotozoal activities of extracts of leaves of Alocasia indica using various pharmacological models. MATERIALS AND METHODS In vitro antidiarrheal activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alocasia indica was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method. In vivo antidiarrheal activity of the extracts was studied against recinolic acid-induced diarrhea and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. The effect of the extracts on normal intestinal transit, recinolic acid-induced intestinal transit, recinolic acid-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) and gastric emptying was assessed. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alocasia indica was studied against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis. RESULTS The aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited significant in vitro antidiarrheal activity compared to the standard drug ciprofloxacine (10 µg/mL). The plant extracts showed significant (P <0.05) and dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity comparable to that of the reference drug, loperamide (10 mg/kg). The plant extracts exhibited significant in vitro antiprotozoal activity against both protozoa compared to the standard amebicidal and giardicidal drugs, metronidazole and emetine. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The results showed that the extracts of Alocasia indica have significant antidiarrheal and in vitro antiprotozoal activities which support its use in traditional herbal medicine practice.
Pharm Biol. 2011 Apr ;49 (4):335-40 21281245
Antihyperglycemic activity and antioxidant role of Terminalia arjuna leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Moulisha Biswas, Biswakanth Kar, Sanjib Bhattacharya, R B Suresh Kumar, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh, Pallab Kanti Haldar
Bengal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kalyani, Nadia, India.
CONTEXT Terminalia arjuna Roxb.(Combretaceae), commonly known as Arjuna, is a large tree grown throughout the Indian peninsula and used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate antihyperglycemic and antioxidant role of methanol extract of T. arjuna leaf (META) in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hyperglycemia was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg body weight). Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with META orally at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg, orally) was used as reference drug. The fasting blood glucose levels were measured on every fifth day during the 15-day treatment. Serum biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, and total protein were estimated. Antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating hepatic lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION META at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally significantly (P < 0.001) and dose-dependently reduced and normalized blood glucose levels as compared with that of STZ control group. Serum biochemical parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) restored toward normal levels in META-treated rats as compared with STZ control. META treatment also significantly (P < 0.001) decreased lipid peroxidation and recovered GSH level and CAT activity toward normal as compared with STZ control. CONCLUSION The present study infers that T. arjuna leaf demonstrated remarkable antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The potential antihyperglycemic action is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.
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Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India. email@example.com
PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to suggest the fuzzy quality function deployment (QFD) method to assess LIFENET customers' spoken and unspoken needs in order to achieve the various objectives like: how to decide optimum portfolio for health services strategically; how to assess competitors' market position in order to reckon the market position of LIFENET; and how to set the revised target in order to satisfy the customers' demand and to fetch profit in order to satisfy managers' mission and vision in a competitive market. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH A fuzzy QFD method has been devised to take care of the various LIFENET objectives. Fuzzy logic's use has been recommended to remove the uncertainty, vagueness, and impreciseness from data obtained to assess customers' spoken and unspoken needs. Symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers (STFNs) may be used to assess various needs to enhance data accuracy. House of quality (HOQ), an in-built QFD matrix, may be constructed to take care of LIFENET's various requirements in order to satisfy internal and external customers. FINDINGS Fuzzy QFD plays a vital role in assessing customers' need in terms of WHATs. Various WHATs thus obtained can be accomplished by incorporating technical parameter HOWs'. The QFD HOQ offers various vital comparisons for instance, WHATs vs HOWs, HOWs vs HOWs, NOWs vs WHATs, etc. to obtain important inferences, which help to revise target to remain competitive in the market Fuzzy QFD helps devise a management strategy to follow customers' needs in health industry successfully. ORIGINALITY/VALUE Accessing Indian customers' needs poses many challenges as the decision to opt for a given healthcare service is most uncertain because it varies from person to person. The set of parameters that influence individual decisions to opt for healthcare services are costs, treatment response time, disease/risk, and health service satisfaction. Fuzzy QFD may help LIFENET promoters to consider customers' favored health services thereby helping strategically in their attempt for major expansion, in order to get the most benefits of becoming first-movers in the sector. Fuzzy QFD may also help LIFENET to avert major investment decisions that looked attractive in short-term, but in fact were unfruitful, in long-term.
Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE Indian healthcare is in the process of offering a plethora of services to customers hailing largely from India and from neighboring countries. The Indian hospital sector consists of private "nursing homes" and government and charitable missionary hospitals. Government and missionary hospitals determine their charges according to patients' income levels and treat poor patients freely. Nursing homes charged higher, market-determined rates. They offer services in just a few medical specialties, owned and operated by physicians who worked with them. Nursing homes cannot afford the latest medical technology, but they provide more intimate settings than government hospitals. This case study aims to demonstrate the various strategic options available to a for-profit hospital, in an emerging economy with a burgeoning middle-class population and how it can choose which services that it can best offer to its target population. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH Diagnosing and treating complex ailments in nursing homes could be a time-consuming and expensive proposition as visits to several nursing homes with different specialties may be necessary. This paper demonstrates how an hospital can develop new customer-oriented services and eliminate the hassle for patients needing to run around different healthcare outlets even for minor ailments. FINDINGS The paper finds that large government hospitals generally have better facilities than nursing homes, but they were widely believed to provide poor-quality care. They failed to keep up with advanced equipment, train their technicians adequately and did not publicize their capabilities to doctors who might refer patients. Many missionary and charitable hospitals were undercapitalized and did not offer all services. These conditions left an unsatisfied demand for high-quality medical care. In 1983, LIFENET opened in Madras, becoming the first comprehensive, for-profit hospital in India. LIFENET, invested in a cardiology laboratory and clinics with capacity to diagnose heart and lung ailments, which grew through referrals it received from other doctors. ORIGINALITY/VALUE Out of promoters' shared vision and the persistence to overcome financial and regulatory hurdles, LIFENET turned into a super specialty hospital. In early 2004, LIFENET promoters considered several options for expansion. In addition to building more hospitals, they considered licensing the brand name and establishing India's first health maintenance organization.
Government College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad 415 124, India.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium. This plant species contains 5,7,2-4 tetrahydroxy isoflavone 6-6 glucoside which are potent antioxidant and are believed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Cardiotonic effect of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Calcium free Ringer solution was used as vehicle for administration of aqueous extract of P. marsupium as a test extract and digoxin as a standard. A significant increase in height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at a very low concentration (0.25 mg/ml) was observed with test extract as compared to the same dose of a standard digoxin. The present results indicated that a significant increase in height of force of contraction with decrease in heart rate was observed as the dose of test extract increased. The test extract produced cardiac arrest at 4 mg/ml, a higher concentration, as compared to standard, digoxin (0.5 mg/ml). Compared to digoxin, a drug with narrow therapeutic window, P. marsupium showed wide therapeutic window.
Simultaneous strumal ovarii and lymphoma with emphasis on the diagnostic usefulness of immunohistochemical stains.
Departments of Laboratories, Surgery, and Medicine, North Shore University Hospital-New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 10030, USA.
Strumal ovarii has been rarely associated with other tumors, such as carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, and primary ovarian malignant lymphoma. We report the coexistence of a strumal ovarii and ovarian involvement by malignant lymphoma in a 70-year-old woman. The tumors were detected 10 years following exposure to ionizing radiation during the Chernobyl nuclear tragedy.
Department of Diagnostic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV DNA and RNA and the morphologic localization of HIV in the oral cavity of HIV-seropositive subjects. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of saliva, buccal scrapings and buccal biopsies from HIV-seropositive injecting drug users (IDUs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Whole saliva, buccal mucosal scrapings and buccal biopsies were obtained from HIV-seropositive and seronegative IDUs. Presence of HIV DNA and RNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). RT in situ PCR was used to detect HIV tat/rev RNA in buccal mucosal scrapings. Host-cell integrated HIV-proviral DNA in buccal biopsies was detected by in situ PCR. Presence of intact HIV viral particles in buccal scrapings was assessed by electron microscopy. RESULTS: HIV DNA was detected in 40%(18/45) and HIV RNA in 69.2%(25/36) of saliva samples from HIV-seropositive IDUs. Viral particles consistent with HIV were localized in inter-epithelial spaces by electron microscopy. RT in situ PCR revealed the presence of HIV tat/rev RNA in 36%(8/22) of the seropositive samples tested. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that epithelial cells can be productively infected by HIV. Epithelial cells in buccal mucosa may acquire HIV in the basal layers through contact with submucosal HIV-positive lymphocytes and/or Langerhans' cells. HIV infection may also spread by inter-epithelial cell contact. As HIV infected cells mature they travel to more superficial layers and are shed into the oral cavity.
Department of Radiology, beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10003, USA.
In a case of alobar holoprosencephaly, a neonate who died several minutes after birth was found to have multiple facial and intracranial malformations, including cyclopia. Postmortem MR and CT findings included a single midline orbit, with two globes that contained separate lenses supplied by a single optic nerve. There were two separate superior orbital fissures and two separate lateral rectus muscles.
Department of Dental Medicine, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York 10003, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a significant association occurs between the presence of various periodontal diseases and recoverable infectious HIV-I in the saliva of injecting drug users. DESIGN: Five hundred and fifty-one injecting drug users were recruited from various programs associated with the Beth Israel Medical Center. Examiners were 'blinded' to the subject's HIV-I serostatus. A socio-economic and risk factors' survey was conducted and a complete oral examination, including periodontal disease indices was performed. Whole saliva and blood were collected for virus culture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Recovery of infectious HIV-I in saliva related to presence of periodontal diseases. RESULTS: Those HIV-I seropositive subjects with periodontal diseases did not differ from those HIV-I seropositive subjects without periodontal disease in mean age and immune status. Less than 1% of the HIV-I seropositive subjects had cultivable HIV-I in their saliva while it was present in 78% of PBMCs and 35% of the sera. There was no significant association between infectious HIV-I in saliva, serum, or PBMCs and any of the various periodontal diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of periodontal disease in HIV-I seropositive injecting drug users does not appear to be a potential risk factor for infectious HIV-I in saliva, probably due to the various anti-viral components of saliva.
Inhibition of Acanthamoeba species by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: rationale for their selective exclusion in corneal ulcers and contact lens care systems.
Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York 10029.
Cocultivation of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga with live Pseudomonas aeruginosa and with broth filtrates of P. aeruginosa proved equally lethal to the Acanthamoeba spp. The P. aeruginosa-induced amebicidal activity is apparently toxin mediated and has two operative modes: it can function through binding of P. aeruginosa to the ameba membrane and in the presence of one or more P. aeruginosa exoproducts.
A peptide inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus infection binds to novel human cell surface polypeptides.
Guthrie Research Institute, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840.
Putative cell surface human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp41 receptor proteins of 45 and 80 kDa (p45 and p80, respectively) were identified on human cells using a 17-amino acid peptide, referred to as CS3. In contrast, murine P815 cells expressed a peptide binding protein of 80 kDa only. A segment of 8 amino acids within CS3 contains the minimum sequence able to inhibit binding of radiolabeled CS3 to p80 and p45, as shown by competitive binding studies. Human p45 was purified from CD4+ RH9 cells by CS3 peptide affinity chromatography. Human p80 was partially purified from RH9 cell lysates by size exclusion chromatography followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; a rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against this preparation. Anti-p80 antibody inhibited HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. The CS3 region of gp41 has been been shown previously to be exposed on viral particles and envelope-expressing cells predominately after conformational changes in the HIV envelope occur due to the interaction of CD4 with gp120. These results, together with those from previous studies, suggest that following the interaction of gp120 with CD4, there may be a second receptor interaction necessary for virus entry/fusion.
Correlation of nonspecific antiviral activity with the ability to isolate infectious HIV-1 from saliva.
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Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. METHODS: The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. RESULTS: Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 mug/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSIONS: Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment.
Molecules. 2012 ;17 (9):11185-98 22992785
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity Potential of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants.
Chong Grace-Lynn, Ibrahim Darah, Yeng Chen, Lachimanan Yoga Latha, Subramanion L Jothy, Sreenivasan Sasidharan
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia. email@example.com.
Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenoids present in the leaves of the plant <em>Lantana camara.</em> In the present study,<em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of lantadene A was evaluated using established <em>in vitro</em> models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (OH•), nitric oxide radical (NO•), superoxide anion<em></em>scavenging activities and ferrous ion chelating assay. Interestingly, lantadene A showed considerable <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity activities in a dose dependant manner when compared with the standard antioxidant in nitric oxide scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating assay. These findings show that the lantadene A possesses antioxidant activity with different mechanism of actions towards the different free radicals tested. Since lantadene A is a very popular drug in modern medicine, it is a promising candidate for use as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent.
ISRN Pharmacol. 2012 ;2012 :563267 22919511
Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Aerial Parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
Context. Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Objective. The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of aerial parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis. Materials and Methods. In vitro antioxidant activities of the plant extract were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Superoxide anion radical activity was measured by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium as compared with standard antioxidants. Total phenolic contents and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and serial tube dilution method, respectively. Results. Plants showed significant radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed as IC(50). n-Propyl gallate and 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole were used as standards for antioxidant assay. All the extracts of both plants showed comparable IC(50) to those of standards. Plants extract exhibited high phenolic contents and antibacterial activities were comparable with standard drug, Ciprofloxacin. Discussion and Conclusion. The present study provides evidence that Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis prove to be potent natural antioxidants and could replace synthetic antioxidants. Plants can also be used against pathogenic bacterial strains.
Toxicol Int. 2012 Jan ;19 (1):31-4 22736900
Research Officer Biochemistry, National Research Institute for Panchakarma,Cheruthuruthy, Kerala, India.
Herbal and natural products have been used in folk medicine for centuries throughout the world. There has been renewed interest in screening higher plants for novel biologically active compounds, particularly those that effectively intervene in human ailments in the field of chronic diseases. The present study has been taken up to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of Premna serratifolia leaf in various in vitro model systems. The methanolic extract of P. serratifolia leaf was obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were determined. The tumor cell suppression cell potential was determined in three different cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) by SRB assay. The study showed that the methanolic extract of P. serratifolia was having free radical scavenging activity against superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value showed the efficacy was dose dependent. The test extract showed cytotoxic activity against MCF7, HepG2 and A549 cells. The GI50, TGI and LC50 values were determined against each cell line and compared with standard drug Adriamycin. The present study proved the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of P. serratifolia leaf in the selective in vitro model systems. The further study has to be carried out in the aspects of isolation of functional molecules of the extract.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Haryana, India.
In this study, the antioxidative potential of a hydroalcoholic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJE) rhizomes was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, total antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion systems, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power activity. These various antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, tocopherol, catechin, and L-ascorbic acid. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of NJE was also determined by a colorimetric method. The extract exhibited high reduction capability and powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH and superoxide anions as well as a moderate effect on NO. Moreover, the peroxidation inhibiting activity of NJE was demonstrated in the linoleic acid emulsion system. The results obtained in the present study clearly established the antioxidative potency of NJE, which may account for some of the medical claims attributed to this plant.
OMICS. 2012 May ;16 (5):257-62 22339410
Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of Maytenus emarginata.
Department of Biotechnology, Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a metabolic side product of oxidative stress process, which causes several diseases like atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. In defense of ROS, antioxidants play a key role in combating them. As the process of aging increases, the level of antioxidants in our body decreases and thereby needs utmost attention for its repair process, which is generally administered externally. Plant products serve a best source for controlling these activities by its own metabolic pathway. Studies on the antioxidant activities of Maytenus emarginata leaf extracts are lacking. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Maytenus emarginata was determined by DPPH free radical nitric oxide scavenging assays, superoxide ion scavenging assays, ABTS, and iron chelating methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extract of Maytenus emarginata leaves possesses phenols, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and triterpenoids. The extract showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays compared to the standard antioxidant (ascorbic acid) in a dose-dependent manner, and remarkable activities to scavenge ROS may be attributed by the presence of the above active compounds in the leaves. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH, ABTS, Nitric oxide, superoxide, and iron chelating IC(50) values of the methanolic extracts were 12.44, 24.27, 22.41, 5.85, and 2.74 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 10.69 mg CA/g, whereas the total flavonoid was 1.56 mg CAE/g. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to standard could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content.
Chem Cent J. 2012 ;6 (1):12 22305477
Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill.
Department of Biotechnology University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK, Pakistan. email@example.com.
UNLABELLED ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments associated with liver, lungs and kidneys. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of nonpolar (hexane, SAHE; ethyl acetate, SAEE and chloroform, SACE) and polar (methanol, SAME) crude extracts of the whole plant. METHODS To achieve these goals, several parameters including free-radical (DPPH•, ABTS•+, H2O2 and •OH) scavenging, iron chelating activity, scavenging of superoxide radicals, total flavonoids and total phenolic content (TPC) were examined. RESULTS The SA extracts presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge all the tested reactive species with IC50 values being found at the μg ⁄ ml level. The SAME was shown to have the highest TPCs while lowest IC50 values for the DPPH•, ABTS•+ radical scavenging capacities and iron chelating scavenging efficiency, moreover, SAME had best activities in scavenging of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide as well as potently scavenged the hydroxyl radicals. CONCLUSION These results suggest the potential of S. asper as a medicine against free-radical-associated oxidative damage.
Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil-yielding crop, against CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats.
Mahadevappa Paramesha, Chapeyil K Ramesh, Venkatarangaiah Krishna, Yelegara S Ravi Kumar, Karur M M Parvathi
Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Sahyadri Science College (Autonomous), Kuvempu University, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India.
BACKGROUND The present investigation evaluates the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of methanolic extract and its isolated constituent, dehydroabietylamine, in Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil yielding crop. MATERIALS AND METHODS The hepatoprotective effects were estimated for the parameters viz, total bilirubin, total protein, serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and along with the pathological findings of hepatotoxicity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging assays: DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity. RESULTS Both the methanolic extract (at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw) and dehydroabietylamine (at 50 mg/kg bw) showed significant liver protection against CCl(4)-induced liver damage that was comparable with the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg bw), in reducing the elevated serum enzyme markers. The liver sections of the animals treated with dehydroabietylamine elicit a significant liver protection compared with the methanolic extract against CCl(4)-induced liver damage. Further, both the methanolic extract and dehydroabietylamine exhibited a considerable and dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. Similarly, in the reducing power assay, the results were very persuasive. In addition, the Fe(2+) chelating activity and the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extract and its isolated constituent. Among the two experimental samples, dehydroabietylamine proved to be more effective for the said parameters. CONCLUSION The potent antioxidant and its correlative hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and isolated constituent dehydroabietylamine is therefore attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.
Department of Pharmacognosy, NMT Gujarati College of Pharmacy, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.
In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity cycloart-23-ene-3β,-25-diol (B2) isolated from Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre).
Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Paud Road, Erandwane, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol (called as B2) isolated from stem bark of Pongamia pinnata. METHODS In vitro antioxidant activity of B2 was determined by methods for determination of DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating and nitric oxide radical scavenging at the doses of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. β-tocopherol with same concentration was used as a standard antioxidant. In vitro antimicrobial activity of B2 was determined by cup plate method in different concentration range of 10-100 μg/mL. RESULTS The results indicated that dose dependent % reduction against DPPH radical, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging by B2 and β-tocopherol. CONCLUSIONS It is concluded that cycloart 23-ene-3β, 25 diol (B2) showed dose dependent antioxidant activity. B2 showed more DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal chelating scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than β-tocopherol and in case of antimicrobial activity B2 exhibited broad-spectrum activity against bacteria and strong activity against yeast type of fungi.