Pediatr Neurosurg. 2010 ;46 (1):62-5 20516743
Department of Neurosurgery,'Attikon' University Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org
Other papers by authors:
Sugammadex antagonising rocuronium in three patients with liver dysfunction undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.
Wound infiltration with levobupivacaine: an alternative method of postoperative pain relief after inguinal hernia repair in children.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of post-incisional wound infiltration with levobupivacaine in preventing the postoperative pain associated with inguinal hernia repair in children. Thirty boys, ASA I - II, aged 2 - 12 yrs., undergoing unilateral inguinal hernioplasty under general anaesthesia as day-case patients were allocated randomly to have postoperative analgesia either with post-incisional wound infiltration with levobupivacaine 1.25 mg/kg or with paracetamol 30 mg/kg administered rectally. Postoperative pain was assessed initially in the Post-Anaesthesia Care Unit and on the ward by an observer and afterwards for the next 24 h by the parents, using the Poker Chip Tool for preschoolers and the Visual Analogue Scale for older children, respectively. Postoperative pain was managed by giving paracetamol. The duration of the postoperative analgesia was estimated based on the time when rescue analgesia was first given. Assessment of the quality of postoperative analgesia was based on the children's behaviour. The wound infiltration group showed an increased duration of postoperative analgesia (p < 0.001) and early mobilisation, while the efficacy of postoperative analgesia tended to be more adequate, although no statistically significant difference was noted.
Transfus Med. 2007 Apr ;17 (2):115-8 17430467
G Kostopanagiotou, A Pandazi, P Matsota, N Arkadopoulos, N Dalamanga, M Politou, O Traulou, V Smyrniotis
Second Department of Anaesthesiology, Attikon Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. email@example.com
Our study aimed at evaluating the effect of blood transfusion - allogeneic or autologous - on plasma levels of fibronectin during liver resections. Thirty-five patients scheduled for liver resection were randomly allocated to receive autologous (group autologous blood transfusion (ABT), n= 19) or allogeneic (homologous)(homologous blood transfusion (HBT), n= 16) packed red blood cell to maintain serum haemoglobin concentration above 9 g. Serum levels of fibronectin were measured before induction of anaesthesia, at the end of operation and at first, third and sixth postoperative day. Perioperative morbidity and survival rate were also recorded. Serum fibronectin levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the autologous group than in the allogeneic, at the first (134 +/- 49 microg mL(-1) vs. 89 +/- 31 microg mL(-1)) and third (178 +/- 51 microg mL(-1) vs. 96 +/- 41 microg mL(-1)) postoperative day. No differences in survival and complication rate between the two groups were observed. Concentrations of serum fibronectin seem to be adversely affected by allogeneic blood transfusion during liver resection surgery, although this does not seem to affect patients' morbidity and mortality.
Endocrine response to cataract surgery under total intravenous anaesthesia, local anaesthesia under sedation or local anaesthesia alone: a comparative study.
The impact of intraoperative propofol administration in the prevention of postoperative pruritus induced by epidural morphine.
G Kostopanagiotou, A Pandazi, S Matiatou, S Kontogiannopoulou, P Matsota, D Niokou, M Kitsou, E Crepi, K Christodoulaki, I Grigoropoulou
University of Athens, Attikon Hospital, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE We examined the efficacy of intraoperative propofol administration to prevent pruritus induced by epidural morphine. METHODS Seventy patients ASA I-II undergoing combined epidural and general anaesthesia for hysterectomy were randomly assigned to two groups, Group P where anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained with propofol-nitrous oxide and Group S in which anaesthesia was induced with thiopental and fentanyl and maintained with sevoflurane-nitrous oxide. All patients received a ropivacaine epidural bolus with 3 mg morphine 1 h before the end of surgery. The incidence and severity of pruritus were evaluated every 4 h for the first 12 h postoperatively by blinded observers. RESULTS The total incidence of pruritus was significantly higher (P = 0.024) in Group S (65.6%) compared to Group P (29%) between 4 and 8 h postoperatively. There were also significantly more patients (P = 0.03) reporting severe pruritus in Group S (22%) compared to Group P (0). CONCLUSION Propofol-based general anaesthesia compared to thiopental-sevoflurane-based anaesthesia reduces the incidence and severity of pruritus induced by a single injection of 3 mg epidural morphine with ropivacaine.
Ultrasound-guided combined intermediate and deep cervical plexus nerve block for regional anaesthesia in oral and maxillofacial surgery.
1Department of Cranio-, Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
OBJECTIVES: We examined the application of an ultrasound-guided combined intermediate and deep cervical plexus nerve block for regional anaesthesia in patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery. METHODS: A total of 19 patients receiving ultrasound-guided combined intermediate and deep cervical plexus anaesthesia followed by neck surgery were examined prospectively. The sternocleidomastoid and levator of the scapula muscles as well as the cervical transverse processes were used as easily depicted ultrasound landmarks for the injection of local anaesthetics. Under ultrasound guidance, a needle was advanced in the fascial band between the sternocleidomastoid and levator of scapula muscles and 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.75% were injected. Afterwards, the needle was advanced between the levator of the scapula and the hyperechoic contour of the cervical transverse processes and a further 15 ml of ropivacaine 0.75% was injected. The sensory block of the cervical nerve plexus, the analgesic efficacy of the block within 24 h after injection and potential block-related complications were assessed. RESULTS: All patients showed a complete cervical plexus nerve block. No patient required analgesics within the first 24 h after anaesthesia. Two cases of blood aspiration were recorded. No further cervical plexus block-related complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided combined intermediate and deep cervical plexus block is a feasible, effective and safe method for oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures.
Emergency lung ultrasound examination for the diagnosis of massive-clotted haemothorax in two cardiac surgery patients.
Procalcitonin and sepsis: recent data on diagnostic utility prognostic potential and therapeutic implications in critically ill patients.
Second Critical Care Department,"Attiko" University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece - firstname.lastname@example.org.
Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as the most specific biomarker for bacterial infection. As clinicians become more familiar with its use, a multitude of observational studies have reported on its diagnostic potential in distinct types of infections and various clinical situations, such as in neutropenia or in the postoperative period. In the Intensive Care Unit setting, however, the prognostic value of a single PCT measurement at the time of admission on a patient with sepsis is suboptimal. Especially in cases of community-acquired pneumonia, cardiovascular biomarkers, such as mid-regional proadrenomedullin, seem to carry stronger prognostic potential than PCT. Nevertheless, the study of PCT kinetics may still be of use as a risk assessment tool for the general population of critically ill patients with sepsis syndrome. The most recent significant development in the field of PCT monitoring, is the publication of several randomized controlled trials that investigated its use as a decision making tool for the initiation and/or the duration of antibiotic treatment. Currently, the available evidence suggests that the incorporation of PCT measurements to assist with the duration of antibiotic stewardship programs may decrease antibiotic use without compromising clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, this strategy still needs further validation in large prospective studies.
Combined ultrasound imaging and hydrolocalization technique for accurate placement of perineural catheters.
Influence of propofol and volatile anaesthetics on the inflammatory response in the ventilated lung.
K Kalimeris, K Christodoulaki, P Karakitsos, A Batistatou, M Lekka, M Bai, E Kitsiouli, G Nakos, G Kostopanagiotou
2nd Department of Anaesthesiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Greece. email@example.com
BACKGROUND The immunomodulatory effects of volatile anaesthetics in vitro and the protective effect of propofol in lung injury spurred us to study the effects of volatile anaesthetics and propofol on lung tissue in vivo. METHODS Twenty-seven pigs were randomized to 4-h general anaesthesia with propofol (8 mg/kg/h, group P, n=9), sevoflurane [minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)=1.0, group S, n=9) or desflurane (MAC=1.0, group D, n=9). Four healthy animals served as the no-ventilation group. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained to measure the cell counts, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AcH), phospholipase A(2)(PLA(2)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Lung tissues were evaluated histologically and for caspase-3 expression. RESULTS Volatile anaesthetics reduced PAF-AcH levels without affecting PLA(2) activity and resulted in decreased alveolar macrophage and increased lymphocyte counts in BALF (sevoflurane: 29 ± 23%; desflurane: 26 ± 6%, both P<0.05 compared with 4 ± 2% in the no-ventilation group). These findings were accompanied by atelectasis and inflammatory cells' infiltration in the inhalational anaesthetics groups. Also, sevoflurane reduced SOD activity and both sevoflurane and desflurane induced significant caspase-3 expression. In contrast, propofol resulted in a minor degree of inflammation and preserved BALF cells' composition without triggering apoptosis. CONCLUSION Halogenated anaesthetics seem to trigger an immune lymphocytic response in the lung, inducing significant apoptosis and impairment of PAF-AcH. In contrast, propofol preserves anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant defences during mechanical ventilation, thus preventing the emergence of apoptosis.
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Neuromodulation. 2012 Oct 25;: 23106918
Silicone Septum Leakage at the Origin of a Drug Overdose in a Patient Implanted With an Intrathecal Pump.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Center for Neuromodulation, Ensemble Hospitalier de la Côte (EHC), Morges, Switzerland.
INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal (IT) pump failures usually result in decreased drug administration and symptom reoccurrence with or without withdrawal syndrome. We report a case of a leaking silicone septum associated to a systemic drug overdose. CASE REPORT: An 84-year-old patient treated with IT clonidine for chronic back pain presented with a state of confusion, visual hallucinations, and hypertension two hours after an unremarkable pump (SynchroMed EL, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) refill. The reservoir was emptied and 14 mL (8.4 mg of clonidine) was found to be missing (difference between retrieved and expected volumes). The pump was refilled and a check on the next day showed again a loss of 3.5 mL. A malfunction was suspected and the pump was replaced (SynchroMed II, Medtronic). The inspection of the external surface of the pump revealed severe damage to the silicone septum with multiple gouges due to needle scarring. A fluid leak also was clearly seen through the septum. DISCUSSION: The signs and symptoms presented by this patient are consistent with clonidine overdose that resulted from a combination of a possible accidental pocket fill and a definite septum leak into the subcutaneous tissue. The damage to the silicone could be due to the loss of the nontraumatic properties of the Huber needles that are rubbed against the metallic case in attempting to locate the injection port during refill procedures. CONCLUSION: This observation is the first description of a silicone septum damage contributing to a pump dysfunction and drug overdose despite the use of appropriate needles for refilling.
Takuya Uchiyama, Kinya Nakanishi, Norihito Fukawa, Hiromasa Yoshioka, Saori Murakami, Naoki Nakano, Amami Kato
Department of Neurosurgery, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine.
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a treatment for intractable spasticity due to a variety of causes. Continuous intrathecal administration of baclofen, an agonist of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, inhibits excitation of motor neurons at the spinal level and thus suppresses spasticity. This therapy was introduced clinically in the Europe and the United States in the 1990s, and was finally approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan in 2005. Clinical use has been permitted since 2006, and reports of therapeutic efficacy are now appearing in Japan. ITB therapy is a non-destructive treatment that enables administration of baclofen from an implantable pump under the control of a programmer, and represents an outstanding treatment method offering both reversibility and adjustability. Indications for ITB therapy have been expanding in recent years to include not only spasticity, but also various causes dystonia. And ITB therapy can greatly improve activities of daily living and quality of life, and this treatment is attracting attention as a neuromodulatory therapy that also affects metabolic and respiratory functions and even state of consciousness. We here report the surgical methods and therapeutic outcomes for 22 patients who underwent ITB therapy for spastic and dystonic patients in our hospital, together with an investigation of the effects on metabolic and respiratory functions.
ISRN Neurol. 2012 ;2012 :575168 22548189
Pediatric Neurology and Movement Disorder Program, Oakwood Health System, Dearborn, MI, USA.
Increasingly, spasticity is managed with surgically implanted Intrathecal Baclofen pumps. Intrathecal Baclofen pump revision surgery unrelated to programmable pump end-of-life is not uncommon, requiring special attention during pre-, intra-, and postoperative management. We aimed to identify and describe complications of Intrathecal Baclofen pump as well as to report avoidance and management of complications. Methods and Materials. Through 2002-2006, at the department of neurosurgery, Henry Ford and Oakwood Health Systems, Intrathecal Baclofen pumps were implanted in 44 patients: 24 children versus 20 adults; 30 "primary-implant-patients"; 14 "revision-only patients". We evaluated reasons for revision surgeries and diagnostic workup requirements. Results. Eight primary-implant-patients required 14 revisions and 7 of revision-only patients needed 13 procedures. Seven patients with slowly increasing baclofen-resistant spasticity had either (i) unsuspected pump-catheter connector defects,(ii) an X-ray-documented pump-catheter connector defect,(iii) X-ray-demonstrated fractured catheter with intrathecal fragment. Implant infections occurred in 4 cases. Scintigraphy revealed occult CSF leakage N=1 and intrinsic pump failure N=1. Conclusion. Intrathecal Baclofen pumps, although very gratifying, have a high, technique-related complication incidence during implant life. Meticulous technique, high clinical suspicion, appropriate workup, and timely surgical management can reduce surgical complications of Intrathecal Baclofen pump implantation.
Department of Neurosurgery, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
INTRODUCTION Intrathecal baclofen testing is usually performed via a catheter inserted at the lumbar spine. However, in patients with scoliosis, the distorted anatomy and bone fusion from corrective spinal surgery obviates access at the lumbar spine. PATIENTS AND METHODS We report a method for inserting the intrathecal catheter via a posterior cervical approach and discuss our outcome. We describe our experience in 20 patients in whom intrathecal baclofen test catheter was inserted at the lower cervical spine. Data was collected prospectively. DISCUSSION The procedure was successful in all 20 patients. There were no complications as a result of surgery or from baclofen test dose administration via a cervical catheter. Of the 20 patients, 15 went on to have baclofen pump implantation via a cervical catheter. In one patient, subsequent pump implantation procedure was unsuccessful due to presence of extradural scar tissue. In the remaining four patients pump implantation was declined due impending corrective spinal surgery or social reasons. CONCLUSION Our experience shows that low cervical catheter insertion for administration of a test dose of intrathecal baclofen and feasible and safe to perform via the method described.
Benjamin Berger, Barbara Vienenkoetter, Mirjam Korporal, Andrea Rocco, Hans-Michael Meinck, Thorsten Steiner
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany, email@example.com.
BACKGROUND Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with severe spasticity. Intoxications are rare and usually iatrogenic, with reported intrathecal boluses varying between 0.050 and 30 mg. METHODS We here report the case of a 47-year-old woman with severe spastic paraplegia due to multiple sclerosis who, during a routine filling procedure, accidentally received a bolus of 60 mg ITB because of injection into the side-port instead of the reservoir of her ITB pump (Archimedes(®), Codman, Germany). RESULTS After a short period of dizziness, she lost consciousness and stopped breathing. She was immediately intubated, mechanically ventilated, and admitted to the intensive care unit. As specific treatment, she received cerebrospinal fluid drainage through a newly implanted lumbar catheter. A series of generalized and complex partial seizures were treated with levetiracetam and lacosamide. Acute autonomic dysfunction with episodic arterial hypo- and hypertensions was controlled by catecholamines and clonidine, respectively. Recurrent hyperthermia, however, responded neither to drugs nor to physical treatment. After 3 weeks, the patient was discharged without any relevant new neurologic signs or symptoms. CONCLUSIONS This case demonstrates that even excessive doses of ITB can let the patients survive without sequelae if treated promptly and offensively. A pertinent problem during detoxification is the question of when to restart ITB to avoid drug withdrawal.
Clinical protocols for titrating constant flow implantable pumps in patients with pain or spasticity.
Crowfield Pain Center, Inc., Ladson, South Carolina, Köln University Hospital, Köln, Germany Metzger Pain Management, Shrewsbury, New Jersey.
Objectives The objective of this paper is to report the clinical protocols that we have developed and used for titrating constant flow implantable pumps to an effective dose in de novo pain and spasticity pump patients and, thereby, highlight the similarities and differences in our techniques. As a group, we have implanted over 1600 pumps and currently manage over 800 pump patients. Materials and Methods We used our collective experience of implanting over 1600 pumps to create protocols for performing the drug trial and the initial titration of constant flow implantable pumps in de novo patients. Results In creating our protocols, we found that constant flow pumps can be titrated to an effective dose with two to six adjustments over a period of 1-6 months. This compares favorably to reports of programmable pumps requiring 5.3 ± 3.5 adjustments over a period of 3-6 months to reach an effective dose. Conclusions A comparison of our protocols shows that after an initial stabilization period, dose adjustments can be made at subsequent refill, that it is not necessary to adjust the dose by prematurely emptying and filling constant flow pumps, and that it is not necessary to adjust the dose as often as has been done with programmable pumps.
Stability and Analgesic Efficacy of Di-acetyl Morphine (Diamorphine) Compared with Morphine in Implanted Intrathecal Pumps In Vivo.
Departments of Pain Management and Pathology, Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Trust, West Midlands, United Kingdom.
The objective of this study was to investigate di-acetyl morphine as an alternative opioid analgesic for use in implanted intrathecal drug delivery systems because of its greater solubility through evaluation of its stability in vivo and analgesic efficacy in the period between pump refills. Contents of intrathecal drug delivery system reservoirs (SynchroMed, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) that had been filled with di-acetyl morphine dissolved in saline (21), bupivacaine (9), or in both bupivacaine and clonidine (19) were sampled in vivo between 1 and 125 days after refill. The samples were assayed for di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Prospective daily numerical pain scores between pump refills, using 11-point Likert scales, on 24 patients with implanted SynchroMed pumps (12 delivering di-acetyl morphine in saline, 12 were delivering morphine in saline) were collected. Results showed that di-acetyl morphine immediately started to decay to mono-acetyl morphine in implanted Synchromed pumps with half-life of 50 days. Mono-acetyl morphine decayed to morphine with a maxima estimated at 125 days. There was no clinically significant change in average weekly pain scores for up to ten weeks in either group (range, 2.5 to 2.8 for diamorphine and 2.7 to 3.1 for morphine)(2-way repeated ANOVA, F(9,220) = 0.98, n.s.). We conclude that di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products, 6 mono-acetyl morphine and morphine, provide similar analgesia to morphine alone when administered by intrathecal pump for a period of at least ten weeks and may be a useful alternative when a more soluble agent is favored.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Clinical safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL infusion pumps.
Felix E Diehn, Christopher P Wood, Robert E Watson Jr, William D Mauck, Michelle M Burke, Christopher H Hunt
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Diehn.email@example.com
Patients with implanted SynchroMed spinal infusion pumps (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) routinely undergo magnetic resonance imaging at our institution. In August 2008, Medtronic issued an urgent medical device correction report regarding several pumps. Because of the rare potential "for a delay in the return of proper drug infusion" and "for a delay in the logging of motor stall events,""a patient's pump must be interrogated after MRI exposure in order to confirm proper pump functionality." This is particularly important in patients receiving intrathecal baclofen, for whom a delay in return of proper pump infusion could lead to life-threatening baclofen withdrawal syndrome. The objective of this report is to present our experience and protocol of performing magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL pumps. We retrospectively reviewed records of 86 patients with implanted SynchroMed EL spinal infusion pumps who underwent 112 examinations on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners from September 1, 1998 to July 7, 2004. No SynchroMed EL pumps were damaged by magnetic resonance imaging, and the programmable settings remained unchanged in all patients. Our data suggest that SynchroMed EL pump malfunction is indeed rare after routine clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging examinations. However, based on the Medtronic correction report, we perform pump interrogation before and after imaging.
Consciousness recovery induced by intrathecal baclofen administration after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Department of Neurosurgery, Ogaki Municipal Hospital.
Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage recovered consciousness after intrathecal baclofen administration using an implanted intrathecal baclofen pump delivering 50 mug per day using a simple infusion mode. Intrathecal baclofen resulted in significant reduction of spasticity 3 months after the implantation. Case 1 was reduced to a completely bedridden state with spasticity and could slightly move her fingers following commands. However, the patient could eat food and wash her face with minimal assistance at 3 months after the implantation, and could stand up in the parallel bars with assistance and speak several words at 8 months. Case 2 was in a completely bedridden state at 10 months after onset and could neither drink water nor follow instructions. However, the patient became oriented and could eat by herself within 3 to 4 weeks of implantation. She could walk with a cane and use the stairs with minimal assistance at 2 and 3 months after implantation. The patient could speak fluently within 6 months of implantation. Flatulence and dysuria happened during the screening test, but these symptoms were not repeated after implantation of a pump-catheter-system and continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion. Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion caused both improvement in muscle tone and spasms and consciousness recovery from the vegetative state. This therapy is a strong candidate treatment for patients with spasticity and consciousness disturbance.