Department of Pharmacology, Gajara Raja Medical College, Gwalior--474 009, India. email@example.com
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves as well as its interaction with conventional anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs using elevated plus maze and tail suspension test in mice. Albino mice were treated with AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, po), imipramine (20 mg/kg, po), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po), and combination of sub-effective dose of AM with imipramine or fluoxetine. Effects were observed on (a) time spent on (b) number of entries into (c) number of stretch attend postures (d) number of head dips in arms of elevated plus maze and on duration of immobility in tail suspension test. Effects of pretreatment with prazosin (0.062 mg/kg, po), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, po) and baclofen (10 mg/kg, po) were also studied on AM induced decrease in duration of immobility. Effects of AM (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg po) were observed on locomotor activity using photoactometer. Results showed that AM significantly (P<0.05) and dose dependently increased proportionate time spent on and number of entries into open arms while decreased number of stretch attend postures and head dips in closed arms. Dose dependent and significant (P<0.05) anti-immobility effect was found in mice treated with AM. Combination of AM (75 mg/kg, po) with imipramine (5 mg/ kg, po) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, po) also produced significant (P<0.05) anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity of AM (150 mg/kg, po) was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by prazosin, haloperidol and baclofen. Methanol extract showed insignificant (P>0.05) effect on locomotor activity of mice. It is concluded that AM possess potential anxiolytic and antidepressant activities and it enhances the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of imipramine and fluoxetine.
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Department of Anaesthesiology, G. R. Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Acharya & B.M. Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bangalore (India).
In this paper, a study of different concentration of HPMC K 15 M exerts influence on the drug release process from a new controlled drug delivery system has been realized in order to obtain a constant release rate during a prolonged period of time, for a programmed drug release. The drug release profiles obtained for the different batches have shown an interesting relationship between the particle size of the channeling agent used and the length of different operational periods.
Acta Pol Pharm. ;68 (5):687-92 21928713
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).
Department of Pharmacology, Gajara Raja Medical College, Gwalior,(M.P.), India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents.
Acta Pol Pharm. ;68 (2):291-4 21485304
Department of Pharmacology, Gajara Raja Medical College, Gwalior, M.P., India. email@example.com
Present study was aimed to elucidate hypolipidemic effect of fresh Triticum aestivum (common wheat) grass juice (GJ) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats and to investigate its role in cholesterol excretion. Hypercholesterolemia was induced experimentally in rats by including 0.75 g% cholesterol and 1.5 g% bile salts in normal diet for 14 days. Hypercholesterolemic rats were administered fresh Triticum aestivum GJ at the dose of 5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg and the standard drug atorvastatin 0.02% w/v in 2% gum acacia suspension at the dose of 1 mg/kg for 14 days by gavage. Blood samples were collected after 24 h of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fecal cholesterol levels were estimated using standard methods. Fresh GJ administration at 5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg resulted in dose dependent significant decline in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels in hypercholesterolemic rats. Further, in comparison to atorvastatin, GJ administration at the dose of 10 mL/kg resulted in comparable decrease of TC, LDL-C, TG and VLDL-C levels (p > 0.05). Fecal cholesterol excretion was significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced by Triticum aestivum GJ administration. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinol, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sterols in fresh wheat grass juice. The results of present study revealed hypolipidemic effect of Triticum aestivum GJ in hypercholesterolemic rats by increasing fecal cholesterol excretion. Fresh GJ could have potentially beneficial effect in atherosclerosis associated with hyperlipidemia.
Department of Anaesthesiology, G. R. Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Medication error is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in medical profession, and anaesthesia and critical care are no exception to it. Man, medicine, machine and modus operandi are the main contributory factors to it. In this review, incidence, types, risk factors and preventive measures of the medication errors are discussed in detail.
Department of Pharmacology, Gajara Raja Medical College, Gwalior - 474 001, India.
OBJECTIVE To study the hypolipidemic activity of fresh grass juice of Triticum aestivum in normal rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Freshly prepared Triticum aestivum grass juice was administered to normal rats at the dose of 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg orally once daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected after 24 hours of last administration and used for estimation of lipid profile. Fresh grass juice was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. RESULTS Fresh grass juice administration produced dose related significant (P < 0.05) reduction in total chloesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in normal rats as compared to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and sterols in Triticum aestivum grass. CONCLUSION The results of the present study lndicate hypolipidemic activity of fresh Triticum aestivum grass juice.
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Ismail O Ishola, Manavi Chatterjee, Santoshkumar Tota, Narender Tadigopulla, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi, Gautam Palit, Rakesh Shukla
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Idi-Araba PMB 12003 Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR), Lucknow-226 001, India.
The root decoction of Cnestis ferruginea (CF) Vahl DC (Connaraceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the management of painful inflammatory and psychiatric disorders. This study presents the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of amentoflavone (CF-2) isolated from the methanolic root extract of C. ferruginea. The antidepressant effect was studied using the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST) while the hole-board, elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark tests were used to evaluate the anxiolytic effect. Acute treatment with CF extract and amentoflavone significantly (P<0.001) reduced the duration of immobility in FST and TST with peak effects observed at 100 and 50mg/kg respectively in comparison to control treated. In addition, the antidepressant effects of CF and amentoflavone were significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared to imipramine in FST but comparable to fluoxetine treated group in TST. The pretreatment of mice with metergoline (4mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist), prazosin (62.5μg/kg, i.p., an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), and yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), but not sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (3mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist), atropine (1mg/kg, i.p., a muscarinic receptor antagonist) 15min before the administration of amentoflavone (50mg/kg; p.o.) significantly prevented its anti-immobility effect in the FST. CF extract and CF-2 significantly (P<0.05) attenuated anxiety by increasing the number of head-dips in hole-board test, time spent on the open arms in the EPM, and exploration of light chamber in the light/dark test. Pretreatment with flumazenil (3mg/kg, i.p.) 15min before oral administration of amentoflavone (25mg/kg) significantly reduced the time spent in the open arms in EPM. The results indicate that the antidepressant effect of amentoflavone is dependent on its interaction with serotonergic (5-HT(2) receptor) and noradrenergic (α(1)-, and α(2)-adrenoceptors) system while the anxiolytic effect of amentoflavone involved blockade of ionotropic GABA receptor.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 4;: 22884868
Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.(Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.
André R S Colla, Daniele G Machado, Luis E B Bettio, Guilherme Colla, Michele D A Magina, Inês M C Brighente, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Department of Biochemistry, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. RESULTS: The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Edmund beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined with a sub-effective dose of Eugenia brasiliensis decreased the immobility time in the TST. Furthermore, the combined administration of sub-effectives doses of Eugenia brasiliensis with fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion produced an antidepressant-like effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study show, for the first time, the antidepressant-like effect of species of the genus Eugenia, especially Eugenia brasiliensis, whose effects in the TST seem to be mediated by serotoninergic (5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors), noradrenergic (α(1)-adrenoceptor) and dopaminergic (dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors) systems.
Ayu. 2011 Oct ;32 (4):590-3 22661860
Lecturer, Department of Kaya Chikitsa, Guru Nanak Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital, Muktsar, Punjab, India.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activity of Sarasvata choorna. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated in elevated plus maze (EPM) and the anti-depressant activity was evaluated in forced swimming test (FST). The efficacy of Sarasvata choorna was compared with the standard anti-anxiety (diazepam 2 mg/kg) and anti-depressant (imipramine - 5 mg/kg) drugs. It was observed that Sarasvata choorna at the dose of 390 mg/kg is as effective as standard drugs used in anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities in mice by increasing time spent in open arm and entries to open arm in EPM model and increasing immobility time in FST model respectively. Hence it can be concluded that Sarasvata choorna may be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating anxiety and depressive disorders.
Claudia Vanzella, Paula Bianchetti, Sabrina Sbaraini, Samanta I Vanzin, Maria Is Melecchi, Elina B Caramao, Ionara R Siqueira
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hibiscus tiliaceus L.(Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. METHODS: Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. RESULTS: Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.
Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). MATERIALS AND METHODS Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. RESULTS The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. CONCLUSION In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders.
Division of Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, University of Çukurova, 01330 Balcali, Adana, Turkey. email@example.com
In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on exploratory locomotion behaviours in the Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice, which differ in their locomotion behaviours. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine at three different doses (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, 0.1 ml/10 gr body weight) was performed on adult male Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. The same volume of saline was applied to the control group. The open-field and elevated plus maze apparatus were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion. In the open-field test, Balb/c mice less spend time in the centre of the field and was decreased locomotor activity compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.01). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in locomotor activity and an increase in the amount of time spent in the centre in the open-field test, compared to the control group (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, ketamine treatment (1 and 10 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, the three different doses of ketamine application each caused a decrease in the frequency of centre crossing (p<0.001) and the spent time in the centre (p<0.05). In the elevated plus maze, the number of open-arm entries, the percentage of open-arm time and total arm entries were decreased in Balb/c mice compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.001). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in the open-arm activity (p<0.001). Ketamine application (10 mg/kg) decreased the open-arm activity in C57BL/6 mice (p<0.05). A subanaesthetic dose of ketamine increased exploratory locomotion in Balb/c mice. In contrast, a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine decreased exploratory locomotion in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, hereditary factors may play an important role in ketamine-induced responses.
Anna Partyka, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Bernadeta Szewczyk, Katarzyna Stachowicz, Anna Sławińska, Ewa Poleszak, Urszula Doboszewska, Andrzej Pilc, Gabriel Nowak
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Medyczna 9, PL 30-688 Kraków, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Because zinc deficiency induces depression and anxiety-like behavior in rodents, we examined the effects of zinc administration in several tests by measuring anxiolytic activity in mice and rats. We now report that zinc significantly increased the number of entries into the open arms in the elevated plus maze in rats. Moreover, zinc treatment significantly increased the number of punished crossings in the four-plate test and attenuated stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) in mice. However, no effect of zinc administration was observed in the elevated plus maze test in mice. This lack of effect in the latter case was probably due to the substantial zinc-induced reduction in locomotor activity by the doses used in mice. The present data demonstrate for the first time the anxiolytic-like activity of zinc in rodents and may indicate that zinc could be used as a novel therapeutic/adjunct agent in anxiolytic therapy.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005, India.
The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract.
Differential behavioral outcomes of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-ecstasy) in anxiety-like responses in mice.
V Ferraz-de-Paula, D Stankevicius, A Ribeiro, M L Pinheiro, E C Rodrigues-Costa, J C Florio, S F Lapachinske, R L M Moreau, J Palermo-Neto
Grupo de Pesquisa em Neuroimunomodulação, Universidade de São Paulo.
Anxiolytic and anxiogenic-like behavioral outcomes have been reported for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in rodents. In the present experiment, we attempted to identify behavioral, hormonal and neurochemical outcomes of MDMA treatment to clarify its effects on anxiety-related responses in 2-month-old Balb/c male mice (25-35 g; N = 7-10 mice/group). The behavioral tests used were open field, elevated plus maze, hole board, and defensive behavior against predator odor. Moreover, we also determined striatal dopamine and dopamine turnover, and serum corticosterone levels. MDMA was injected ip at 0.2, 1.0, 5.0, 8.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg. MDMA at 10 mg/kg induced the following significant (P < 0.05) effects: a) a dose-dependent increase in the distance traveled and in the time spent moving in the open field; b) decreased exploratory activity in the hole board as measured by number of head dips and time spent in head dipping; c) increased number of open arm entries and increased time spent in open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze; d) increased time spent away from an aversive stimulus and decreased number of risk assessments in an aversive odor chamber; e) increased serum corticosterone levels, and f) increased striatal dopamine level and turnover. Taken together, these data suggest an anxiogenic-like effect of acute MDMA treatment, despite the fact that behavioral anxiety expression was impaired in some of the behavioral tests used as a consequence of the motor stimulating effects of MDMA.
Biofactors. 2011 Jan ;37 (1):25-30 21328624
Yasushi Nishioka, Atsushi Oyagi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Takashi Ishibashi, Hideaki Hara
Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Biofunctional Evaluation, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 1-25-4 Daigaku-nishi, Gifu, Japan.
Astaxanthin is a red carotenoid pigment and is widely found in living organisms. Astaxanthin has a potent antioxidative ability and has been reported as having various biological effects on the central nerve system, such as a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury and improvement in cognitive function. In this study, to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on anxiety and depression, we performed some behavioral trials including the elevated plus maze test, hole-board test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test. Astaxanthin (100 and 300 mg/kg/day for 10 days, p.o.) significantly increased the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test and increased the head-dipping count and duration in the hole-board test. On the other hand, astaxanthin (10, 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day for 10 days, p.o.) did not change the immobility time in the forced swim test or the tail suspension test. In conclusion, in mice, astaxanthin exerted anxiolytic-like effects, but not antidepressant-like effects.