Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Quality Inspection, Ministry of commerce, P.O. Box 122331, Riyadh 11721 Saudi Arabia. Alanazi_1@hotmail.com
From April to December 2010, blood samples were collected from 412 healthy camels in Riyadh province, Saudi Arabia and used to evaluate serological screening for Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Of the 412 camels, antibodies to N. caninum were found in sixteen in titers of 1:20 and in seven in titers of 1:40 using whole N. caninum tachyzoites as IFAT slide (VMRD Inc., Pullman, WA 99163, USA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in nineteen camels in titers 1:20 and in eight camels in titers 1:40 using whole T. gondii tachyzoites as IFAT slide.
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Echis carinatus (Serpentes: Viperidae) as a new host for Caryospora maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Saudi Arabia.
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 26213, Riyadh, 11486, Saudi Arabia.
Caryospora maxima is redescribed from the intestinal contents of the viperid snake, Echis carinatus collected from Gazan area in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. This report represents a new host and geographic location for the parasite. Sporulated oocysts of this coccidian are spherical to subspherical, 42.8 x 41.2 (40.3-45.9 x 39.6-43.8) microm, with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.9 (1.5-2.3) microm. thick. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. Some oocysts had a small polar granule. Sporocysts are broadly ellipsoid, 22.1 x 16.8 (21.0-23.3 x 15.5-17.4) microm., with a prominent stieda and substieda bodies. Sporocyst residuum is present consisting of many granules in compact mass. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, each with two refractile globules. Oocyst measurements were similar to those reported from Psammophis schokari in Jordan. Except for the presence of a spherical polar granule, the oocyst morphology was identical to the original description of C. maxima.
Eimeria gasperettii n. sp.(Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the horned viper, Cerates cerastes gasperettii in Saudi Arabia.
Departement of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 26213, Riyadh, 11486, Saudi Arabia.
Eimeria gasperettii n. sp. is described from the gall bladder of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii from Al-Thumamah, central region of Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ellipsoid in shape, measuring 38.8 x 25.5 (29-41 x 17.2-28.4) microm with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.7(1.5-2.0) microm.thick. Micropyle polar granule and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoid reaching 13.8 x 9.6 (11-14.5 x 8.0-10.3) microm. Sporocyst residuum is present. The sporocyst lacks a Stieda body. Sporozoites are crescent-shaped blunt at one end and slightly tapered at the other. Eimeria species from Viperidae are compared.
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J Parasitol. 2012 May 2;: 22551468
Prevalence of Anti-Neospora caninum and Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Dogs From Two Different Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Amazon Region.
Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino, Ana Beatriz M Cassinelli, Julia Teresa Ribeiro Lima, Herbert Sousa Soares, Antonio Francisco Malheiros, Arlei Marcili, Solange Maria Gennari
a Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Abstract Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in sera of 325 dogs in 11 villages inhabited by the Tapirapé and Karajá ethnic groups in the south of the Brazilian Amazon was determined by the use of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (cut off 1:16) to T. gondii were found in 169 (52%) and to N. caninum (cut- off 1:50) in 32 (9.8%) of 325 dogs. Seropositivity for both parasitic infections was widely prevalent in dogs from these villages and was higher in older dogs, indicating post-natal transmission.
J Parasitol. 2012 Apr 10;: 22489955
Seroprevalence study on Theileria equi and Babesia caballi antibodies in horses from Central province of Saudi Arabia.
a Department of Quality Inspection, Ministry of commerce.
Abstract In total, 241 sera from clinically healthy adult horses were collected from 6 locations and examined for Theileria equi and Babesia caballi antibodies by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies to Theileria equi were detected in 25 horses (10.4%), while the antibodies to Babesia caballi were detected in 18 horses (7.5%). In addition, 7 serum samples were positive for antibodies to both parasites (3%). The horses sampled in Al-Janadriah were found to have the highest prevalence of infection with T. equi at 16.5% and B. caballi with 8.8%, while the lowest prevalence of infection with T. equi (4.7%) and B. caballi (3.1%) was observed among horses examined from Dyrab district. Statistically, no significant differences (P < 0.05) in seroprevalence were observed between these districts. This study represents the first report on the status of T. equi and B. caballi infection in the central province of Saudi Arabia.
J Parasitol. 2012 Jun ;98 (3):690-1 22263703
Erika F T Samico Fernandes, Marcela F T Samico Fernandes, Pomy C P Kim, Pedro P F de Albuquerque, Orestes L de Souza Neto, André de S Santos, Erica P B X de Moraes, Eduardo G F de Morais, Rinaldo A Mota
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n-Dois Irmãos, 52171-900, Recife-PE, Brazil. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract : The object of this study was to investigate Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in pigs in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 305 slaughtered pigs in 11 municipalities, and their sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, cutoff 1∶64); 38 (12.5%) samples were positive. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in the heart tissue of seropositive pigs using the B 1 gene and PCR; 21 (55.2%) of the 38 hearts were positive. This is the first detection of T. gondii DNA in tissues of serologically positive swine in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Dasyprocta aguti from Brazil: comparison of diagnostic techniques.
Herbert S Soares, Antonio H H Minervino, Raimundo A Barrêto-Júnior, Kedson A L Neves, Moacir F Oliveira, Jackelyne R Santos, Astrid R van Sauers, Jitender P Dubey, Solange M Gennari
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, 05508-270, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.
In this study, the occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Brazilian agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) was compared by modified agglutination test (MAT) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using anti-capybara conjugate. Sera from 109 animals were tested using MAT (1:25 cut-off) and IFAT (1:16 cut-off); 19% were positive by MAT, and 18% were positive by IFAT. Overall, the 17 IFAT-positive samples were also positive for MAT. The four positive MAT samples with a titer < or = 200 were IFAT negative. All negative samples obtained by MAT matched with the results of the IFAT. Comparing both tests, and considering MAT as the gold standard, the sensitivity of IFAT was 81%, the specificity was 100%, the accuracy was 97%, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, and the negative predictive value 96%. The kappa value agreement was 87.3%(75.1-99.6%). The anti-capybara conjugate can be successfully used to perform IFAT in Brazilian agouti with maximum specificity and PPV.
Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. email@example.com
The objectives of this study were to investigate the risk factors of Neospora caninum infection in dogs and cats found in dairy herds in western Thailand. A case-control study was conducted in dairy herds in three western provinces including Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi and Kanchanaburi. Blood samples of pets from 14 positive dairy herds and 26 herds from negative neighbouring farms which were randomly selected, in total blood samples from dogs and cats from 40 herds were collected and examined for antibodies against N. caninum infections using competitive ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). No seropositive cats were found. Of the 38 positive dogs, four (10.5%) were seropositive to N. caninum, which was higher than the proportion of seropositive in the negative herd population (one of 76, 1.3%). The higher proportion of seropositive farm dogs as compared with neighbouring dogs tended to be significant (P = 0.055).
Occurrence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and/or Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs.
Nicolle Fridlund Plugge, Fabiano Montiani Ferreira, Rosária Regina Tesoni de Barros Richartz, Adriana de Siqueira, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal do Paraná--UFPR, Rua dos Funcionários, 1540,CEP 80035-050, Curitiba--PR, Brazil.
This study aimed to evaluate occurrences of antibodies against Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs with neurological signs. Blood samples from 147 dogs were collected: 127 from owned dogs (attended at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (HV-UFPR) and at private veterinary clinics in the city of Curitiba), and 20 from stray dogs found in Curitiba's metropolitan region. The dogs presented one or more of the following neurological signs: seizures, paresis or paralysis, ataxia, behavioral abnormalities, sensory and somatic disorders and chorioretinitis. The samples were analyzed by means of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), at a cutoff dilution of 1:50. Out of the 147 samples obtained, 17 (11.56%) were seropositive for N. caninum, 31 (21.08%) for T. gondii and four (2.72%) for both protozoa. Serum titration on the positive animals showed that 54.83%(17/31) and 41.18%(7/17) had titers ≥ 1:200 against T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. A significant difference in seropositivity for T. gondii (P = 0.021; OR = 2.87; CI = 1.1 > 2.8 > 7.4) was observed between owned dogs (18.11%) and stray dogs (40%). Inclusion of serological tests for neosporosis and toxoplasmosis is recommended in diagnosing neurological diseases in dogs.
J Parasitol. 2012 Feb ;98 (1):209-10 21864132
Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
There is a lack of information concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs from southwestern China. In the present study, serum samples from 314 household dogs were collected from Wenchuan, Heishui, and Jiuzhaigou in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, in May and June 201; sera were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using an indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 11 of 314 (3.5%), with IHA titers of 1:64 in 4 dogs, 1:128 in 3, 1:256 in 2, 1:512 in 1, and 1:1024 in 1. No regional difference was observed among the 3 counties (P > 0.05). The results of the present study indicated that infection with T. gondii in dogs is common in China, including household dogs in Sichuan Province, and should be of public health concern.
Vet Parasitol. 2011 May 27;: 21676546
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are biologically and morphologically similar coccidians with canids as definitive hosts for N. caninum and felids for T. gondii. Feral chickens have been used as indicators of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts because they feed from ground. In the present study we studied seroprevalence of N. caninum in free range chickens from different countries in America as an indicator of soil contamination due to N. caninum oocysts. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in sera of 524 (39.5%) of 1324 chickens using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, titer 1:25 or higher). Seropositive chickens from different countries were: 18.5% of 97 from Mexico, 7.2% of 97 from USA, 39.5% of 144 from Costa Rica, 71.5% of 102 from Grenada, 44% of 50 from Guatemala, 83.6% of 98 from Nicaragua, 58.1% of 55 from Argentina, 34.3% of 358 from Brazil, 62.3% of 85 from Chile, 11.2% of 62 from Colombia, 38.7% of 80 from Guyana, 18% of 50 from Peru and 21.7% of 46 from Venezuela. The results indicate widespread exposure of chickens to N. caninum.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons in Niğde region, Turkey.
Niğde University, Bor Vocational School, Niğde, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons between October 2003-June 2004. Blood samples were collected from 216 pigeons, consisting of 105 (55 female, 50 male) domestic pigeons and 111 (53 female, 58 male) wild pigeons. The sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test (SFDT). One of the 105 (0.95%) domestic pigeon and one of the 111 (0.90%) wild pigeon were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies at the titer of 1:16. This is the first serological study on toxoplasmosis in the domestic and wild pigeon in the Niğde region of Turkey.
J Parasitol. 2011 Mar 11;: 21506811
a Department of Quality Inspection Ministry of commerce.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses for sporting purposes in the Province of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In total, 266 serum samples from clinically healthy horses were analyzed for anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 84 (31.6%) horses, with specific titers of 1:16 (78 with a prevalence of 29.3%), 1:64 (4 with a prevalence of 1.5%), and 1:256 (2 with a prevalence of 0.8%). The number of seropositive horses in Shaqra (43.7%) was considerably higher than in other regions, with the lowest in Al-Majmaah (11.0%). However, the differences in seroprevalence between the 6 locations were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In contrast, the overall seroprevalence in Riyadh province was higher than that reported in other countries. Horses are not a direct source of infection for human toxoplasmosis in this region. Usually human infection is facilitated via cats, which are the reservoir hosts for this parasite.